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XyZspineZyX
09-03-2003, 04:03 PM
Next time we find ourselves genuflecting to the altar of stacked up pilot's manuals, we ought to keep the following story in mind ...


Quoted from - http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/6940/training.html


<<Some procedures that were promoted in manuals and on training film were just blatantly wrong. Look at the recommended wing Flap procedures as they are presented on the Internet, that alone would not only be tough to operate but killed some pilots and tore up more P-38s. This wrong headed thing was promoted in all single pilot A/C through out WWII and years afterwards in most training planes. Seemed to be a secret of transport and airline pilots.

Unbelievable and embarrassing, Aircraft flap systems were not built to take advantage of a simple aerodynamic fact nor were single pilots advised of it. Any aircraft built today would take advantage of this simple fact, the first 15-degrees of flap travel is mostly added lift - any more travel is mostly all drag. On any go around it is logical to get rid of any flaps over 15-degrees, as fast as possible. There should be a position built into the flap selector to trap the lever at this position. FULL POWER - GET RID OF All Drag! (Flaps to 15degrees-Gear-UP) At a predetermined Air Speed the aircraft will easily go around without any loss of altitude - single engine or otherwise. No hand will be occupied milking up flaps. This is the way Transport Category A/C are certified so they can make Single-Engine go-arounds at instrument minimums.

To emphasize the opposing extreme, look at procedures for the P-40 and even the little Cessna-150. On go-around in a P-40, since there was no flap retraction modulation, the manual directed the pilot to have 500' before attempting flap retraction. The P-40's flaps just went up with a bang.

In the P-38's time and that of most Twin-Engined aircraft, the pilots had much to deal with when losing an engine on T/O or on landing. The Manual stated that the minimum speed to continue flight was 120mph, but that the A/C had to be cleaned up and power reduced from T/O power (54"HG) to around 44"HG (METO) power on the good engine to maintain control. In other words, all the power you could apply and keep the A/C from rolling while holding full rudder into the good engine. Confusing the issue, the manual goes on to state that the A/C must be accelerated to 140mph to be controllable at T/O power which has a 5-minute limit. Well, most pilots in the P-38 program has watched some one, on T/O, roll over inverted and go in Next, ask that pilot if he knows of anyone who has bobbled a single-engine landing - watch both hands go up and finger counting start.


Single Engine Approach and Landing - CAUTION:

(From the Manual) "...once you have fully extended the flaps and landing gear or descended below 500 ft. you cannot again circle the field and must make a landing..............Apply as much power as can be held at the same time milk up (flaps) retracting landing gear accelerate to at least 160mph..." "Geez! Got to go around - What did that Manual say?" No one put any thought into this. The airplane's systems weren't up to it. The procedure was all wrong. Those now flying Light-Twins, even today, will know about this. Beginning with an attitude adjustment for the Air Corps, then a way to clean the airplane up rapidly, a Flap Actuator redesign, an improved hydraulic system, an aerodynamics review, and a consultation with a transport pilot would have prevented the bending up a lot of nice airplanes.>>


Blutarski

XyZspineZyX
09-03-2003, 04:03 PM
Next time we find ourselves genuflecting to the altar of stacked up pilot's manuals, we ought to keep the following story in mind ...


Quoted from - http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/6940/training.html


<<Some procedures that were promoted in manuals and on training film were just blatantly wrong. Look at the recommended wing Flap procedures as they are presented on the Internet, that alone would not only be tough to operate but killed some pilots and tore up more P-38s. This wrong headed thing was promoted in all single pilot A/C through out WWII and years afterwards in most training planes. Seemed to be a secret of transport and airline pilots.

Unbelievable and embarrassing, Aircraft flap systems were not built to take advantage of a simple aerodynamic fact nor were single pilots advised of it. Any aircraft built today would take advantage of this simple fact, the first 15-degrees of flap travel is mostly added lift - any more travel is mostly all drag. On any go around it is logical to get rid of any flaps over 15-degrees, as fast as possible. There should be a position built into the flap selector to trap the lever at this position. FULL POWER - GET RID OF All Drag! (Flaps to 15degrees-Gear-UP) At a predetermined Air Speed the aircraft will easily go around without any loss of altitude - single engine or otherwise. No hand will be occupied milking up flaps. This is the way Transport Category A/C are certified so they can make Single-Engine go-arounds at instrument minimums.

To emphasize the opposing extreme, look at procedures for the P-40 and even the little Cessna-150. On go-around in a P-40, since there was no flap retraction modulation, the manual directed the pilot to have 500' before attempting flap retraction. The P-40's flaps just went up with a bang.

In the P-38's time and that of most Twin-Engined aircraft, the pilots had much to deal with when losing an engine on T/O or on landing. The Manual stated that the minimum speed to continue flight was 120mph, but that the A/C had to be cleaned up and power reduced from T/O power (54"HG) to around 44"HG (METO) power on the good engine to maintain control. In other words, all the power you could apply and keep the A/C from rolling while holding full rudder into the good engine. Confusing the issue, the manual goes on to state that the A/C must be accelerated to 140mph to be controllable at T/O power which has a 5-minute limit. Well, most pilots in the P-38 program has watched some one, on T/O, roll over inverted and go in Next, ask that pilot if he knows of anyone who has bobbled a single-engine landing - watch both hands go up and finger counting start.


Single Engine Approach and Landing - CAUTION:

(From the Manual) "...once you have fully extended the flaps and landing gear or descended below 500 ft. you cannot again circle the field and must make a landing..............Apply as much power as can be held at the same time milk up (flaps) retracting landing gear accelerate to at least 160mph..." "Geez! Got to go around - What did that Manual say?" No one put any thought into this. The airplane's systems weren't up to it. The procedure was all wrong. Those now flying Light-Twins, even today, will know about this. Beginning with an attitude adjustment for the Air Corps, then a way to clean the airplane up rapidly, a Flap Actuator redesign, an improved hydraulic system, an aerodynamics review, and a consultation with a transport pilot would have prevented the bending up a lot of nice airplanes.>>


Blutarski

XyZspineZyX
09-04-2003, 01:46 AM
Thanks for visiting the 20th. Fighter Group Home Page, Blutarski, that quote is from an interview I did with Capt. Arthur W. Heiden, a Flight Leader with the 79th. Fighter Sqdn. He is a valubale resource for aviation history buffs like us and a great pilot who retired with over 25,000 hours in the air.