View Full Version : Early Jets....

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05-11-2006, 11:37 PM
Found this site with some Great color shots of early Jets.

Just don't know what it says, not too sure about the language. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif

Link: http://www.aviaistorija.puslapiai.lt/kari2.htm

Also found this Link: http://www.airforce.ru/history/me262_to_mig15/

The Yakovlev Yak-15 (originally given the designation Type-2 by US intelligence, and later the NATO reporting name Feather) was an early Soviet jet fighter, and the lightest operational jet fighter ever built. It retained the wings, tail-wheel undercarriage, rear fuselage, and tail unit of the all-metal piston-engined Yak-3U. It was powered by a copy of the German axial-flow Junkers Jumo 004B turbojet engine, designated RD-10. The powerplant was installed in the nose with the exhaust under the wing. In this way, pilots were given an easy introduction to jet engines.

About 280 were built.
Specifications (Yak-15)
General characteristics
Crew: one, pilot
Length: 8.70 m (28 ft 6 in)
Wingspan: 9.20 m (30 ft 2 in)
Height: 2.27 m (7 ft 6 in)
Wing area: 14.9 m² (160 ft²)
Empty weight: 1,852 kg (4,074 lb)
Loaded weight: 2,742 kg (6,032 lb)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: kg (lb)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Tumansky RD-10 turbojet, 8.9 kN (2,000 lbf)
Maximum speed: 700 km/h (438 mph)
Range: 510 km (319 miles)
Service ceiling: 13,350 m (43,788 ft)
Rate of climb: m/s (ft/min)
Wing loading: 184 kg/m² (38 lb/ft²)
Thrust/weight: 0.36
Guns: 2Ӕ 23 mm Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 machine guns with 60 rounds each



Mig-9... plus a few color schemes: http://br.geocities.com/alvmaia/Mig/9/


Thank's for the correction Kocur_! http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

05-11-2006, 11:54 PM
P-80 looks good,even better with swept wings!!!

can anyone edit a photo of the P-80 with swept wings! please!

05-12-2006, 12:45 AM

Lockheed XF-90
The XF-90, like the McDonnell XF-88, was developed to meet a USAF requirement for a long-range "Penetration Fighter." Two prototype aircraft were built (S/N 48-687 and 48-688), the first was powered by two Westinghouse J34 turbojets without afterburners, but these proved inadequate. The second aircraft was adapted for afterburning J34s and had better, but not great performance. The outbreak of the Korean Conflict prompted to USAF to seek increased production of currently available aircraft and XF-90 never entered production.
The XF-90 had two unusual features. The first was the location of the cannon ports located below the engine air intakes in a horizontal row, three on each side. The second was the variable incidence empennage. The vertical stabilizer could be tilted back and forth along the longitudinal axis for horizontal stabilizer adjustment.

XF-90 Number built/Converted 2

Span: 40 ft. 0 in.
Length: 56 ft. 2 in.
Height: 15 ft. 9 in.
Weight: 27,200 lbs. loaded
Engines: Two Westinghouse J34-WE-15 turbojets of 4,100 lbs. thrust each with afterburner.
Armament: Designed for six 20 mm cannons, eight 5-inch HVAR rockets and up to 2,000 lbs. of bombs
Crew: One
Maximum speed: 665 mph
Cruising speed: 473 mph
Range: 2,300 miles
Service Ceiling: 39,000 ft

05-12-2006, 12:54 AM
Lockheed XF-90

What a beautiful plane! http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/clap.gif

05-12-2006, 12:56 AM
de Havilland Vampire


While much energy was expended on the first British jet fighter, the Meteor, a second and smaller type was being built by de Havilland as the DH.100 to specification E.6/41. Originally and unofficially named Spidercrab, the new fighter was eventually produced as the Vampire.
The first prototype, LZ548/G, flew on 20 September 1943, some six months later than the Meteor. It was designed around a single H1 engine, later to become the Goblin; power was limited and a lightweight twin-boom configuration was employed. Armament was to be four 20mm cannon.

First jet landing - Sea Vampire F Mk 10 LZ551 alighting on HMS Ocean 3 December 1945 flown by Lt Cmdr E M Brown

General characteristics
Crew: 1
Length: 30 ft 9 in (9.37 m)
Wingspan: 38 ft 0 in (11.58 m)
Height: 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)
Wing area: 262 ft² (24.34 m²)
Empty weight: 7,270 lb (3,297 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 12,385 lb (5,618 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ de Havilland Goblin 2 turbojet, 1,420 lbf (6.3 kN)
Maximum speed: 530 mph at sea level (855 km/h)
Range: 1,090 mi (1,755 km)
Service ceiling: 40,000 ft (12,200 m)
4x 20 mm Hispano cannons
2x 1,000 lb (455 kg) bombs or 8x 3 in (76 mm) rockets


Although eagerly taken into service by the RAF, it was still being developed as a fighter when the war ended, the reason it never saw WWII combat.

The Vampire was an exceptionally versatile aircraft, and it set many aviation firsts and records, being the first RAF fighter with a top speed of over 500mph. Piloted by Captain Eric "Winkle" Brown, a Sea Vampire was the first jet to take off from and land on an aircraft carrier, and in 1948 John Cunningham set a new world altitude record of 59,446 ft (18,119 m). On July 14 1948, Vampire F3s of No. 54 Squadron RAF became the first jet aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. They went via Stornoway, Iceland and Labrador to Montreal on the first leg of a goodwill tour of Canada and the U.S. where they gave several formation aerobatic displays.

The first engine was a Halford H1 producing 2,100 lbf (9.3 kN) of thrust, designed by Frank B Halford and built by de Havilland and later renamed the Goblin. The engine was a centrifugal-flow type, a design soon superseded post-war by the slimmer axial-flow units, and initially gave the aircraft a disappointingly limited range, a common problem with all the early jets. Later marks were distinguished by greatly increased fuel capacities. As designs improved the engine was often upgraded. Later Mk.Is used the Goblin II, the Mk.3 onwards used the Goblin III and the final models used the Goblin III. Certain marks were test-beds for the Rolls-Royce Nene but did not enter production. It is said that, because of the low positioning of the engine, a Vampire could not stand on idle for longer than a certain time because it would melt the tarmac on which it stood.

The Mk.5 was navalised as the Sea Vampire, the first Royal Navy jet aircraft. The navy had been very impressed with the aircraft since December 3, 1945, when a Vampire carried out the flying trials on the carrier HMS Ocean. The RAF Mk.5 was altered to extend the aircraft's role from a fighter to a ground attack aircraft, the wings being clipped, strengthened and fitted with hard-points for bombs or rockets. The fighter-bomber Mk.5 (FB.5) became the most numerous combat variant with 473 aircraft produced.

The final Vampire was the Mk.11, a trainer. First flown in 1950, over 600 were produced in both air force and naval models. The trainer remained in service with the RAF until 1966.

Several Vampires are still airworthy, and many have been preserved, some examples are on display at the Mosquito Aircraft Museum, the Museum of Transport and Technology, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum and the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum. One specimen, a two seater, is presently hangared at Tatui, So Paulo, Brazil, after establishing the longest travel ever for a Vampire.

05-12-2006, 01:00 AM
Originally posted by woofiedog:


Actually this is Yak-23 (cannon ports below fuselage, not above, larger air intake).

05-12-2006, 01:04 AM
Beauty of a Jet [XF-90]... but a bit on the Heavy side, which degraded it's performance.

05-12-2006, 02:37 AM
I-300 Mig



The I-300 was the first jet fighter of the design bureau, and one of two first Soviet series jets to fly (another was Yak-15)
It was an unorthodox design with a nose intake and two engines in the fuselage. All jet powered multi-engine aircraft (except German flying wings) built before carried engines on the wing (or on the nose and other inappropriate locations - see this), degrading aerodynamic of the flying machine.
Designers successfully overcame problems of access to and safety of two closely placed engines. Of course use of one powerful engine could be more reasonable, but nothing was available at the time for Soviet designers. First prototype I-300's were powered with German built BMW-003 engines, on production machines soviet-built copy of this engine was used.
The first prototype (F-1) carried single N-57 cannon, later versions were armed with one NS-37 (40 rounds) and two NS-23 (80 rpg).
First I-300 (F-1) was flown on April 24, 1946 - same day with Yak-15, but 3 hours ahead. Refinement continued until 20th flight, when (July 11, 1946) pilot A.N.Grinchik was killed in crash... during demonstration flights in front of M.V.Khrunichev and other high military officers and officials.
Second prototype (F-3) was flown on August 9, 1946 and third (F-2) on August 11 by pilots M.L.Gallay and G.M.Shijanov. Those two aircraft performed on Air Parade in Tushino one week later. In December 1946 experimental F-2 and F-3 were transferred to NII VVS.
MiG-9 designation appeared after production of the I-300 started (I-301).



Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9

MiG-9The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 (œ¸"-9 in Cyrillic script) was a first-generation Soviet turbojet fighter and attack aircraft developed in the years immediately after World War II.

The MiG-9 was developed from the I-300 prototype which first flew on April 24, 1946. Its powerplant comprised two RD-20 turbojets, which were derived from the war-time German BMW 003, these being mounted side-by-side to the rear of the cockpit. Initial armament consisted of a 37-mm Nudelmann NL-37 cannon. The production versions of the MiG-9 were commonly armed with a single 37-mm cannon and two NS-23 23-mm cannon.

The I-300 reached a speed of 565 mph (910 km/h) during initial tests, and after further refinement, it entered service with the VVS as the MiG-9 during the winter of 1946-47. The jet had many performance and steering related problems, however it was put into service mainly because of political considerations.

The MiG-9 was deployed largely in the ground-attack role and 550 aircraft were built in different versions by the time production ended in 1948.

The MiG-9 was allocated the NATO reporting name of "Fargo" and Soviet designation I-301. An earlier MiG fighter, a development of the MiG-3 was also called "MiG-9", but did not enter production.

http://www.suchoj.com/galerie/index.htm?http://www.such.../MiG-9/galerie.shtml (http://www.suchoj.com/galerie/index.htm?http://www.suchoj.com/andere/MiG-9/galerie.shtml)
http://www.ais.org/~schnars/aero/type-cod.htm (http://www.ais.org/%7Eschnars/aero/type-cod.htm)

05-12-2006, 02:53 AM


The first jet fighter of the S.A.Lavochkin bureau. The La-150 had a straight shoulder wing. The engine intake was in the nose, the engine outlet ended after the wing, below thin tail, to reduce trust losses. Pilot was almost mounted on the engine.
Flight tests of the experimental La-150 and pre-production La-150M took place almost simultaneously in September 1946. First flight was performed by A.A.Popov. Tests continued until April 1947 by I.E.Fedorov, M.L.Gallai, N.I.Zvonarev and A.G.Kochetkov.
Small batch of La-150's was built, five of them were prepared for military parades November 7 1946 (cancelled due to bad weather) and May 1, 1947. It also was demonstrated later on Red Square parades and Tushino airshow (August 3, 1947).
General performance was satisfactory. High speed vibrations, too rear center of gravity, Pilot's cabin was too tight and fuel capacity was very small - only 553kg. TTKh (see bold numbers in the table) were not achieved, aircraft was not suitable for mass production yet.
More than five built.

Engine: Tumanskii RD-10 turbojet.
Wing Span: 8.20 m
Length : 9.42 m
Weight: Empty 2,059 kg / Loaded 2,961 kg
Maximum Speed: 850 km/h
Ceiling: 12,500 m
Range: 700km
Crew: 1
Armament: 2x 23mm cannons

http://www.suchoj.com/galerie/index.htm?http://www.such...La-150/galerie.shtml (http://www.suchoj.com/galerie/index.htm?http://www.suchoj.com/andere/La-150/galerie.shtml)

05-12-2006, 03:09 AM


In March 1947, the Soviets had the technology of the British turbojets Nene and Derwent and prepared the series production of their local copies RD-45 and RD-500. The Russian authorities thus launched a contest for a jet fighter equipped with the one of these engines. To benefit from the existence of two different engines, Lavotchkine launched the design of two different prototypes. The first was a heavy hunter equipped with the more powerful RD-45 while the second was a light hunter propelled by the RD-500. The second apparatus is La-174D described further.

The heavy hunter La-168 was an apparatus of a design different from the standard appliances La-150/160. The turbojet was installed with the back of the fuselage with the conduit emerging under the drift while the air intake was in front of the fuselage followed by the cockpit.

This formula was to become a standard for the years to come with famous apparatuses like American F-86 or Mig-15 Soviet. It was inspired by Focke-Wulf TA-183 Huckebein, an unfinished project of the second world war. Moreover, Mig-15 Mikoyan was one of the candidates of this contest with La-168, La-174D and Yakovlev Yak-30 and it was equipped with same engine RD-45. Yakovlev Yak-30 was equipped with the RD-500 and was thus more comparable with La-174D.

The fuselage contained reserves of capacity much higher than that of the preceding planes with 1230 liters in-house plus 630 liters in additional tanks what gave more than two hours of flight. The apparatus had a sweptback wing of 37? which was derived from that of La-160.

It was fixed in high position on the fuselage. The turbojet was thus a RD-45, a Russian copy of Rolls-Royce Nene of 2270 kg push. The armament was composed of two guns of 23 mm and one of 37 mm, a combination which became standard on the jet fighters of the Fifties.

The flight tests began on April 22, 1948 with the test pilot I.E.Fedorov to the orders and continued until February 1949. Maximum speed reached was Mach 0.982. The flight tests of the armament were the cause of an incident which could have been fatal with the V.I.Khomiakov pilot.

During a flight to more than 15.000 meters, the simultaneous firing of the three guns caused the rupture of glass and the depressurisation of the cockpit. The apparatus plunged then in free fall with the unconscious pilot who found his spirits only with 400 meters of altitude. The pilot could take again control and land healthy and except.

The Migone gained the contest primarily because it flew in first in December 1947. It seems that La-168 and the Migone had very close performances but the Russian authorities were so in a hurry to have a new hunter which it ordered the first to steal.

While dispersing in the design of two apparatuses, Lavotchkine had undoubtedly made a strategic error which cost him the production of a thousand of apparatuses. The Migone, will be produced to him in very great number (with 18.000 specimens it is even the jet fighter more produced history) and under licence by many countries of the communist bloc.

Yakovlev Yak-30 was not built either in series. Lavotchkine nevertheless had a consolation prize with the manufacture of a small series of its second apparatus, La-174D. First public appearance of La-168 take place in August 1948 in Tushino.

La-168 (1948)

Length: 9.5 m
Wing span: 10.56 m
Wing area: 18.08 m²
Weight: (empty) 2973 kg (maximum) 4412 kg
Engine: Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal flow turbojet with 2270 kgf (22.3 kN) of thrust
Thrust/weight ratio: 0.515
Speed: (maximum, sea level) 1,000 km/h
Rate of climb to 5000 m: 2.0 m
Range: 1275 km
Ceiling: 14,570 m
Armament: Two Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 23 mm cannon and one NL-37 37 mm cannon


05-12-2006, 03:24 AM
MD 450 "Ouragan


Although the French, as citizens of an occupied country, were not able to contribute significantly to the great strides made in aircraft design made during World War II, after the war Marcel Dassault saw no reason why the French could not jump back into the race. In 1947, he outlined ideas for a jet fighter. French government response for his fighter was positive, but did not result in a development contract, and so Dassault decided to proceed on his own.

Detailed design work on the new aircraft, which was given the designation "MD (Marcel Dassault) 450", began in December, 1947, with construction beginning in April 1948. A French government contract for three prototypes followed in June, and the initial MD 450 "Ouragan (Hurricane)" fighter flew at the end of February 1949. The prototype lacked pressurization and armament.

The Ouragan was inspired by American designs, and had a general configuration like that of the Republic F-84 Thunderjet: essentially a "stovepipe" with intake in the nose, low-set straight wing, bubble canopy, and tricycle landing gear. It was smaller than the Thunderjet, however, weighing about a tonne less, and used a thin wing much like that of the Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star, as well as a swept-back tailplane. The prototype Ouragan was powered by a Rolls-Royce Nene 102 centrifugal-flow turbojet, license-built by Hispano-Suiza, with about 22.27 kN (2,270 kgp / 5,000 lbf) thrust.

General characteristics
Crew: One
Length: 10.73 m (35 ft 2 in)
Wingspan: 13.16 m (43 ft 2 in) with tip tanks
Height: 4.14 m (13 ft 7 in)
Wing area: 23.4 m² (252 ft²)
Empty weight: 4,140 kg (9,130 lb)
Loaded weight:
Maximum gross takeoff weight: 6,800 kg (15,000 lb)
Powerplant: 1x Rolls-Royce Nene 104B centrifugal compressor turbojet, 22.2 kN (4,990 lbf) of thrust/
Maximum speed: 940 km/h (585 mph, 510 kt)
Range: 965 km (660 mi, 575 nm)
Service ceiling: 14,900 m (49,000 ft)
Climb rate: 38 m/s (7,500 ft/min)
4x 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannons with 125 rounds/gun
Up to 2,200 lb (1,000 kg) of stores on two underwing hardpoints. Typical stores included 2x 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs; or 16x 105 mm (4 in) Matra T-10 rockets; or 8 rockets and 2x 458 L (120 US gal) napalm bombs.


05-12-2006, 03:36 AM


The F-84 was the USAF's first post-war fighter. It made its initial flight on February 26, 1946, and began rolling off the production lines in June 1947, and by the time production ceased in 1953, approximately 4,450 "straight-wing" F-84s (in contrast to the swept-wing F-84F) had been built. In addition to being used by the USAF, many were supplied to allied nations participating in the Mutual Security Program. During its service life, the F-84 became the first USAF jet fighter able to carry a tactical atomic weapon. The airplane gained its greatest renown during the Korean Conflict where it was used primarily for low-level interdiction missions. Almost daily the F-84 attacked enemy railroads, bridges, supply depots and troop concentrations with bombs, rockets and napalm.


Span: 36 ft. 5 in.
Length: 38 ft. 6 in.
Height: 12 ft. 7 in.
Weight: 15,227 lbs. loaded
Armament: Six .50-cal. machine guns and eight 5 in. rockets or 2,000 lbs. of bombs or napalm tanks
Engines: Allison J35 of 4,900 lbs. thrust
Crew: One
Cost: $212,000
Maximum speed: 620 mph
Cruising speed: 485 mph
Range: 1,485 miles
Service Ceiling: 43,240 ft


05-12-2006, 03:51 AM
FH-1 Phantom


Specification for the XFD-1
Engine: 2x Westinghouse WE-19XB-2B axial-flow turbojet making 1,650 lb of thrust each.
Wing Span: 40' 9''
Length: 37' 3''
Weight: Empty 6,156 lb / Loaded 8,625 lb
Maximum Speed: 487 mph
Ceiling: 43,700'
Range: 750 miles
Crew: 1 Pilot
Armament: 4x 0.5 in machine guns
History: In 1942 when the US Navy started looking for a manufacturer to design there first all jet powered fighter, they found all of the major companies were at full stretch with war work. So the Navy's jet powered fighter, ended up being designed and built by the young McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. On the 7/1/1943 a letter of Intent was issued for the design and construction of two prototypes (48235/48236) and one static airframe.

The design of the XFD-1 was by a team led by Kendall Perkins, a number of engine arrangements and sizes were looked at as the engine supplier Westinghouse, had yet to build it!, in the end a two engine lay out was found to be superior (on paper) with a mockup being ready by June 1943, however the design was not fully defined until January 1944 with work on the first aircraft starting on the 25/1/1944.

In the mean time Westinghouse were not able to deliver a working engine until October 1944, so the prototype first flew (a short hop) on 2/1/1945 with just one engine fitted, the second engine not arriving until the 4/1/1945. Finally on the 26/1/1945 with test pilot Woodward Burke at the controls the first XFD-1 flew for 49 minutes. However testing of the prototypes revealed a number of stability and aileron problems, with the second XFD-1 (48236) crashing on 24/8/1945 and the first (48235) on the 1/11/1945 killing it's pilot Woodward Burke. This resulted in the production aircraft being redesigned slightly bigger with a new vertical tail and a greater fuel capacity

On the 7/3/1945 a contract for 100 production aircraft was issued, but after 8/8/1945 this was cut back to just 60 aircraft, all of which were delivered by May 1948 as FH-1s, the redesignstion being changed from D to H in 1947.


On the 19/7/46 during sea trials the second XFD-1 (48236) made the first take off and landing by a US jet powered aircraft on a Navy carrier the USS Roosevelt CVC-42. The FH-1 entered service with VF-17A squadron on the 29/4/1947, with the aircraft remaining in service with the US Navy as a front line fighter until 1949 being also flown by VF-11 and VF-172 squadrons. The "Phantom" begain to be replaced from 1948 onwards by the F2H-1"Banshee".

The last of the FH-1s were used by the Navy Reserve until 1953. The "Phantom" also was flown by the US Marine Corps from 1947 until 1950 by VMF-122 squadron, making it the first jet fighter to serve with the Marines..


05-12-2006, 04:46 AM
Just don't know what it says, not too sure about the language.

Woofiedog it´s Lithuanian. By scrolling down to bottom you find a link to another site.

05-12-2006, 05:04 AM
Dr. Willy Messerschmitt in Spain:

Hispano Aviaci³n HA-200 Saeta

Hispano Aviaci³n/Helwan HA.P-300 (a supersonic project later sold to Egypt)

05-12-2006, 06:17 AM
Heliopause... Thank's http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-happy.gif

DuxCorvan... Mint addition to the list... Thank's

Hispano Aviaci³n HA-200 Saeta

History: The twin-jet, straight wing Saeta ("Arrow") was built by Hispano under the direct guidance of famed designer Willy Messerschmitt. First flown on 12 August 1955, it was built as both a basic trainer (HA-200A with two pilots in tandem) and as a light attack aircraft (HA-220, pilot only, equipped with two underwing weapons pylons and two 7.62mm machine-guns). Thirty "A"-models were delivered to the Spanish air force, which was anxious to end reliance on foreign imports (principally the T-6 Texan) in the early 1960€s. The Spanish Air Force designated the trainer the E.14 and the attack version the C.10.

In 1965, Hispano installed the more powerful Marbore VI engine and designated this variant the HA-200D. It was so successful that they added armor, doubled the number of underbody hard points and fitted Browning M3 machine guns, resulting in a specialized version called the HA-200E Super Saeta. This plane saw active service in the Sahara in 1974-75. An export version (HA-200B) was sold to Egypt on license.

Nicknames: "Casa" (Common informal name in the warbird community); Al Kahira ("The Cairo," Egyptian name for the license-built HA-200B.)

Specifications (HA-200E Super Saeta):
Engines: Two 1,058-pound thrust Turbomeca Marbore VI turbojets.
Weight: Empty 4,453 lbs., Max Takeoff 7,937 lbs.
Wing Span: 34ft., 1.75 in.
Length: 29ft. 5in.
Height: 9ft. 4.25in.
Maximum Speed: 430 mph at 23,000 ft.
Ceiling: 42,650 ft.
Range: 930 miles
Armament: Underwing hard-points for a variety of weapons; 20-mm cannon in nose.

Number Built: ~210.

Number Still Airworthy: Approximately 15.

Hispano HA.P-300

05/22/2005. Remarks by Nico Braas: "The same German-Spanish team that also designed the HA-100, designed later a light-weight supersonic interceptor with delta shaped wings designated as HA-300. For aerodynamic testing, a manned glider version was built by Hispano as the HA.P-300. However, the first flight was aborted soon after lift off behind a CASA HE-111 towing plane because the plane showed to be highly unstable. No further attempts were made to fly it further. The HA-300 was eventually developed and built by the Egyptian Helwan works."

05-12-2006, 06:45 AM
I really hope that the final add on hinted at with the red star in the us roundel is indeed a Korea sim.. and I hope it is mergeable with FB although they said it wouldnt be... it would be great to have a planeset from 38 to 50 with all the maps we have plus whatever Korea maps come.. if that is indeed the last frontier of RRG.

05-12-2006, 06:49 AM

05-12-2006, 06:57 AM
Thanks woofiedog, nice reading!

My fav, the "Flygande Tunnan":


Second european operationaly used swept wing jet fighter (second only to Me262). Thanks also to this aircraft sweedish airforce ranked as 4th strongest in the world somewhere in 50s.

05-12-2006, 07:01 AM
Originally posted by Bearcat99:
it would be great to have a planeset from 38 to 50 with all the maps we have plus whatever Korea maps come..

OMG you got me thinking here Bearcat! In 38 I-15, Cr32, gladiator and fury ruled the skies, in 50s it was MiG-15 and Sabres!! What a leap forward if we compare it to 1994 - present ...

05-12-2006, 07:06 AM
A list of early jets from Fighters of the Fifties Bill Gunston, ISBN 0-85059-463-4


05-12-2006, 08:04 AM

05-12-2006, 09:19 AM


Increadible interceptor, BA-349 "Natter"(rocket)


HE-162 http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif

05-12-2006, 09:43 AM
On the link at the bottom of the Lithuanian site a lot of interesting pics can be found..(galerija)







05-12-2006, 09:48 AM
what are the soviets doing here?

05-12-2006, 09:59 AM
Testing a captured Me 163S with a (Russian) device placed on top. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif

05-12-2006, 12:32 PM
Beaufort-RAF... You have posted some Excellent photo's, quite the color shot of the Vampire... also the third photo down of the Meteor's is Very interesting.
Is that a Radar Station or ? that the Meteor is flying over?
Look's like something we could use for FMB.

Again Thank's for the photo's

tigertalon... Thank's
Excellent color photo's of the J 29B... you might want to check the link below.

Link: http://forums.ubi.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/23110283/m...051081882#5051081882 (http://forums.ubi.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/23110283/m/2821068782/r/5051081882#5051081882)

A Sad Ending

Top_Gun_1_0_1... That XF-85 would be one Hec of a ride... hanging from the belly of a Bomber [ It was even planned that some B-36s would be modified so that they could carry THREE fighters and no bomb load]or Fighter [Republic RF-84F Thunderflash reconnaissance aircraft]! http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

The first prototype XF-85 (46-523) was damaged at Moffett Field, California during wind tunnel testing, so it was the second aircraft (46-524) that was used for the initial flight trials. These began on August 23, 1948. Initially, the XF-85 made captive flights suspended beneath the EB-29B at 20,000 feet above Muroc Dry Lake (later Edwards AFB). The first free flight came on August 28. The test pilot detached his XF-85 from the EB-29B and flew free for 15 minutes while he evaluated the handling properties of the new fighter. However, when it came time to re-hook, he ran into trouble. The XF-85 was caught in violent air turbulence underneath the parent aircraft. After ten minutes of futile attempts to hook onto the trapeze, the XF-85 was slammed up against the trapeze and the canopy was shattered. Fortunately, the pilot was uninjured and he managed to make an emergency landing on the dry lake bed below.


Following repairs, 46-524 made three flights on October 14 and 15 of 1948. Three successful recoveries were made, although each one of them was a rather harrowing experience for all concerned. However, on the fifth flight, more trouble was encountered. The removal of the temporary fairing around the base of the hook resulted in severe turbulence and loss of directional stability, forcing the pilot to make another emergency landing. Vertical surfaces were added to the wingtips in an attempt to improve directional stability while flying in the turbulent air underneath the EB-29B. However, this did not help very much, and the sixth XF-85 flight ended in yet another emergency landing on the lakebed. The same fate awaited 46-523 on April 8, 1949, when it made its first and only flight.

In spite of the problems encountered with recovery, the XF-85 handled quite well in ordinary flight. Its test pilot commented favorably on the stability, control, and spin recovery characteristics. Estimated maximum speed was 648 mph at sea level and 581 mph at 35,000 feet. Initial climb was estimated to be 12,500 feet/min, and service ceiling was estimated at 48,000 feet.


luftluuver... Thank's for posting the List.

Heliopause... They stated on the Lithuanian site, that they planed to have an Enlish site added or finish soon.

05-12-2006, 12:35 PM
Thanks for that info about the Goblin, http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

looks like a plane from a bond movie http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-wink.gif

05-12-2006, 12:51 PM
From an older posting of mine... a Post War all out Slugging match between...

French aircraft designer Ӱmile Dewoitine and Kurt Tank!


For a brief moment in the early 1950s, Argentina stood at the forefront of aviation development. The Pulqui series of jet fighters was a result of a bold undertaking envisioned to push the Argentinean industry into a completely new era. Alas, it was not to materialize.
The name Pulqui (meaning Arrow in the local Mapuche language) was actually used for two different aircraft, which had absolutely nothing in common except for the jet propulsion. Here's a brief history of these two projects.

IAe.27 Pulqui I
Immediately after the end of World War II, the Argentinean government opted for a rapid expansion programme of its Air Force. Under the government initiative, the Fábrica Militar de Aviones in C³rdoba (then called Instituto Aerotécnico) was encouraged to seek foreign contacts for the planned development of domestic jet aircraft.

In 1946, the factory commissioned the famous French aircraft designer Ӱmile Dewoitine (the same who gave his name to the French Dewoitine factory, and escaped from France to South America due to the German invasion). Dewoitine designed the first ever Latin American jet fighter, the IAe27 Pulqui I. The development progressed quickly and the prototype aircraft took off for the first time on August 9th, 1947 in the hands of Captain Osvaldo Weiss.

Pulqui I preserved in the Argentinean Air Force museum in Buenos Aires.


It soon turned that Dewoitine's unquestionably wide experience with aircraft construction was not quite enough for the revolutionary new propulsion and the new aerodynamic challenges. His fighter was an all-metal tricycle-gear construction, but of conventional straight-wing design adorned by the unmistakably Dewoitine-shape fin that seemed a bit out of place on the high-speed airframe. Power was provided by a single rear-mounted Rolls-Royce Derwent engine.

During test flights the aircraft proved severely underpowered and had low overall performance. Coupled with complexity of maintenance and operation, the programme was abandoned and Dewoitine returned to Europe.

The Argentina's Air Force was not put off by this misfortune but continued to seek for another aircraft.

Nothing can better emphasize the technological difference between the Dewoitine and Kurt Tank designs than these two cockpit photos. Pulqui I left, Pulqui II right.

The Argentina's Air Force was not put off by this misfortune but continued to seek for another aircraft.

Ta 183 goes to Argentina
In the post-war world, many qualified German personnel found their way to Argentina. The Argentinean government was quick to approach the arguably most talented of all German aircraft constructors, Dipl. Ing. Kurt Tank. Famous for the immortal Focke-Wulf Fw 190 / Ta 152 series of fighters, Tank was not slow to pick the chance of starting his professional life again. He managed to collect a large team originating from the Focke Wulf design bureau and established himself in C³rdoba in 1947.

Kurt Tank's assignment was to design a far better airplane than the Pulqui I. It had been decided from the beginning that the new fighter would be named the Pulqui II. For that Tank was very well prepared for the job. From the late 1944, his team had been working on a 2nd generation jet fighter for the Luftwaffe under the designation Ta 183 Huckebein. It was an advanced jet, extraordinarily compact in size and aerodynamically clean, sporting a 32º swept wing, and accomodating a Heinkel He S011A jet engine which would bring it to calculated maximum speed of 967 km/h at an altitude of 7000 meters.

Equipped with the invaluable aerodynamic research data from this project, all Tank had to do was to finalize his ideas and produce a prototype aircraft. What Tank didn't know was that the very same data were simultaneously worked upon in the Soviet Union for development of an aircraft that would eventually become MiG-15.

Like the MiG-15, the chosen powerplant for the Pulqui II was Rolls Royce Nene II. The Nene was more powerful than the He S011A but required a redesigned new fuselage with a larger cross-section due to it having a centrifugal rather than axial compressor. The resulting product was the IAe.33 Pulqui II.

The new fighter was a real beauty. The high-mounted negative-incidence wings were swept back 40º, even more than the Ta 183. The long fuselage was perfectly circular in section with the engine buried inside right at the center of gravity. The airframe was finished off with a graceful swept-back T-shaped tail. The pilot sat in a pressurized cockpit under a teardrop canopy. Armament would include four fuselage-mounted 20mm cannon. Contrary to the previous Dewoitine design, many elements incorporated into the Pulqui II were totally new in the fields of aeronautical construction, placing the Argentinean aero industry amongst the most advanced during those years.

IAe.33 Pulqui II
The first prototype - IAe.33 Pulqui II nº 1 - was actually an engineless glider, with the purpose of studying the aerodynamic behaviour of the airframe. Like all of his previous designs, it was Kurt Tank himself who test-flew the glider. After a series of tests, Tank arrived to the conclusion that the airframe showed no design flaws, and the construction of the powered prototype was ordered.

The first flight of the IAe.33 Pulqui II nº 2 took place on 16 June, 1950 with Osvaldo Weiss at the controls. The second flight which took place three days later was entrusted to ex-Focke Wulf test pilot Behrens. Kurt Tank also completed a good number of the test flights undertaken during the following weeks. The new aircraft proved successful in most respects, but like its "cousin" the MiG-15 it displayed some handling difficulties at the extremes of the flight envelope. Lack of operational range was another problem which wasn't solved until the fifth prototype.

IAe.33 Pulqui II nº 5

Unlike the earlier prototypes which are believed to be painted silver with red trim, the nº 5 was white overall white with red arrow along the fuselage. The red colour also extended to wingtips, top of the fin and the entire horizontal plane. This aircraft had a modified wing as described in text.

While the testing program with nº 2 was taking place, two other prototypes were built, the Pulqui II nº 3 and nº 4, which were incorporated into the flight testing program in 1952. Disaster struck during a visit to the Cordoba factory by president Juan Domingo Peron, when Behrens crashed in the nº 3 during a demonstration flight and was instantly killed.

Pulqui IIe
The last prototype, nº 5, was a modified version to increase the operational range and wore a designation Pulqui IIe. It featured a reinforced "wet" wing containing two integral fuel tanks.

Meanwhile, the economic crisis that hit Argentina beginning in 1953 forced the slowing down of armament development programs. The high-cost high-profile Pulqui II project was halted, first temporarily, but the fall of Peron administration in 1955 meant it was never to recover. Kurt Tank moved on to another projects, first trying to return to Germany but then moving on to India. Most of his team ended up leaving Argentina to find work in the United States and other countries. Kurt Tank himself was not to return to his life and work in Germany until 1970s, where he died in 1983.

Today, the sole Pulqui I and the Pulqui II nº 5 are preserved at the Argentinean Air Force€s Museum in Buenos Aires.

05-12-2006, 12:56 PM
The <span class="ev_code_YELLOW">F-90</span> was featured the Blackhawk comic books. Other a/c such as the Polish PZL P-50a Jastrzab, one that looks like a Me163 and the Grumman F5F-1 Skyrocket.


05-12-2006, 01:01 PM
Looks like a Wicked Cool comic! http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

Just found this info... Overstreet
Guide Values
Near Mint - $ 235.00
Very Fine $ 114.00
Fine $ 48.00
Very Good $ 32.00
Good $ 16.00

Have any laying around? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-very-happy.gif


05-12-2006, 08:34 PM
Originally posted by woofiedog:
Beaufort-RAF... You have posted some Excellent photo's, quite the color shot of the Vampire... also the third photo down of the Meteor's is Very interesting.
Is that a Radar Station or ? that the Meteor is flying over?
Look's like something we could use for FMB.

I suspect it's some kind of speed test or record attempt, with the balloons marking the start line or finish.


05-12-2006, 09:19 PM

Mig-15 cannon

6 seconds of firing time for the 37 mm

9 seconds of firing time for the 23mm

05-12-2006, 09:23 PM
PA.49 Katy Delta

does anyone have any info on this plane - i havent been able to find anything factual

http://img9.picsplace.to/img9/13/PA.49_Katy_Delta.jpg (http://picsplace.to/)

http://img9.picsplace.to/img9/13/pa49_Katy_Delta_circa_1953.jpg (http://picsplace.to/)

05-12-2006, 10:49 PM
Here is a bit of info on the PA.49 Katy Delta...

Nicolas-Roland Payen

Sight of the experimental plane with delta wing Payen Pa 49 (first French plane equipped with this type of wing, 1954).

Payen Pa49B "katy" Delta Wing Jet Aircraft

Length : 5.10m
Wing Span: 5.16m
Hight : 2.30m
Wing Area : 11.50 Square Meter
All-Up Weight : 647Kg
Empty Weight : 457Kg
Engine : Turboméca Palas Turbojet (120kgf) X 1
Cluse Speed : 370Km/h
Service Ceiling : 8,000m

Pa 49 €œKaty€ designed by Nicolas-Roland Payen was a reduction of Pa 48 €œMars€ built out of wood. The wings had an arrow of 50?, the great triangular drift was prolonged to the cockpit, the air intake of the engine was placed at the wing root and the three-wheeled train was not retractable.

The construction of this apparatus went back to 1951. After preliminary tests in Melun-Villaroche, the apparatus was sent to the Flight test centre of Brétigny or the tests continued until August 1954. It was then equipped with a new system of Fléchair air-brake based on a double shutter of direction. Other developments of the plane were undertaken including single-seater Pa 492 and two-seater Pa 495.

Pa 49 is preserved at the Museum of the Air and the Space of Le Bourget.


http://home.att.net/~dannysoar2/Payen.htm (http://home.att.net/%7Edannysoar2/Payen.htm)

05-12-2006, 11:05 PM
Beaufort-RAF... Right on the Money! http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

7 Nov 1945 - The first officially confirmed speed record for a jet aircraft, 606.25 mph (975.67 km/h), is achieved by Group Captain H J Wilson in a Meteor IV at Herne Bay. The aircraft was powered by two 3,500 lb thrust Rolls Royce Derwent V turbojets.

From Time magazine, Nov 19 1945

Nov. 19, 1945 Vignette StoryServer 5.0 Tue May 09 11:54:10 2006

Two daredevil, not-so-young Britons flew faster last week than men had ever flown before in level flight.
At Herne Bay, England, a Gloster Meteor jet plane, piloted by Group Captain H. J. ("Willie") Wilson, 37, of the R.A.F. made four 70-mile runs at an average speed of 606 miles per hour.
In the same type of plane, Eric Greenwood, 38, of the Gloster Aircraft Co. flew nearly as fast.
For a while Greenwood thought he had the record. When photographic timing showed him beaten, he was ready with the British sportsman's typical comment: "Really? Good old Willie."Both pilots were taking...

05-13-2006, 12:03 AM
Pa49 looks kinda Lippischish a bit http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif

05-13-2006, 12:21 AM
Yes... a bit like a home builded Rig. Although fairly fast with the Jet engine onboard for such a small craft.

05-13-2006, 12:38 AM
The name of French engineer René Leduc is strongly associated with the world's first development of the "ramjet" engine. In France in the 50's, he built the first and only aircraft in the world using the "Athodyd" principle (aero thermodynamic duct, later known as "ramjet") as the sole propulsion system.


René Leduc, the first aeronautical designer to successfully make a ramjet aircraft fly. He was self educated, meticulous, and talented.

Collection Jean Sarrail

René Leduc received a French government order for a plane using this type of engine. Accordingly, the Leduc 010 project was established under market number 407/7 (the last figure indicates that the command was signed in 1937). René Leduc was then a lowly engineer, employed by Louis Breguet in his Villacoublay factory. He accepted the challenge with the assistance of Mr. Breguet, and could thus begin the construction of the first French jet. Unfortunately, the war delayed considerably the manufacturing of this plane. The Breguet workshops had to flee the Paris area, and the Leduc airplane was transferred to Toulouse. It was almost completed there, but the bombardment of the factory of Montaudran destroyed part of it, luckily perhaps, because it prevented the Germans from studying this aircraft. Work began again after the liberation, but because of difficulties in obtaining supplies, work progressed slowly.


the flight of the Leduc 010 on April 21st 1949 with its ramjet operating represents the first flight of an aircraft solely propelled by a ramjet engine.

After this success, the tests were conducted with full force, and in just a few flights, the Leduc 010 proved the extraordinary capabilities of the "athodyd" engine, in particular its incredible rate of climb.
Even before the cabin was pressurized, Gonord found itself propelled to 11, 000 meters in just a few minutes. During another flight, it was the high-attained airspeed, which took him by surprise: upon reaching Mach 0.85, he encountered the violent effects of compressibility, which resulted in bounces of more than 600 meters of altitude. It was undoubtedly the first French airplane to experience this phenomenon.

Rene Leduc was unable to go further as a private engineer, while he was still working part-time for the Breguet Company. Therefore, he created a company and returned to the Paris area, settling down in Argenteuil. Obtaining several state contracts for the construction and the testing of other prototypes, a second 010 was built. The flight testing performed in the Paris area being strongly handicapped by the unfavorable meteorological conditions, Rene Leduc in 1951 continued the testing in the South of France, at Istres in the Provence region.

Two 010 were tested there by Jean Gonord, helped by a second pilot: Yvan Littolff, under the direction of engineer Jean Corriol. A third prototype was built, equipped with two additional engines mounted on the wingtips. It was designated Leduc 016. Unfortunately, the development of the 016 model proved very delicate, and after various attempts, the wingtip engines were removed.

A trial run was carried out by the CEV (French flight test center), with Jean Sarrail as the principal pilot, and under the direction of Jean Sarrail the test engineer. Unfortunately, following a technical failure, this trial run was ended with the destruction of the one of the 010, and with its pilot seriously wounded. The following year, it was Yvan Littolff who was also seriously wounded, in an other accident, which resulted in the destruction of the second 010. Jean Gonord having ended his test pilot career, it was Jean Sarrail who continued the tests.

The flights continued on the 016, which was then joined by two new much larger planes: the Leduc 021s. Sarrail and Littolff shared the test flights on these two airplanes, which relegated the 016 to the Museum in 1953. The two Leduc 021s totaled 385 flights, including 248 releases in free flights. Once again, other test flights took place at the CEV in 1955, shortly before the presentation at Le Bourget airshow. The CEV test pilot was Bernard Witt, with test engineers André Bourra for the airframe, and especially Charles Bourgarel for the propulsion portion of this "flying engine".

It is interesting to note that, in addition to the originality of their propulsion system, the Leduc airplanes were the basis of numerous innovations. Among them, the use of one of the first turbines produced in France, used to drive the instruments, the supply of energy, the jettisoning of the cabin, the hydraulic servos, and the wings milled in the mass acting as integral structural tank.

The two 021s completed their career when the Leduc 022 accomplished its first flights, in December of 1956. It was equipped with a centrally mounted turbojet, which enabled it to take off and fly on its own power, without the assistance of a transporter airplane. It totaled 141 flights during the following year, until a taxiing incident caused damages to the fuselage.

Brétigny 1953: front view of the Leduc 021. This photo shows the contrast of this aircraft with the others of the era.

Aline Leduc document.

Meanwhile, the progress made by the turbojet engines equipped with afterburners, and France budgetary difficulties during the period of crisis in the Algerian war, it signaled the end for the prototypes in process of development during this period (Trident, Gerfaut, Durandal, Baroudeur, Griffon, Leduc...).

Test pilot Yvan Littolff in the "glass ring" cockpit of Leduc 021. René Leduc took great care with all the details of his aircraft.

The tests were definitively cancelled in 1958, and Rene Leduc was constrained to give up his work as an aircraft manufacturer. Despite a massive personnel layoff, and very reduced activities, René Leduc's company still exists, and it is now located in Azerailles, in the Meurthe-et-Moselle region (east of France), where it manufactures hydraulic components.


Full story: http://aerostories.free.fr/constructeurs/leduc/page7.html

05-13-2006, 01:10 AM
That glass cockpit on the Leduc 021 is very similar to the one of the Miles M.52!

05-13-2006, 01:41 AM
Very much on the same lines...

Miles M.52


Engine: 1x Power Jets W.2/700 turbojet engine (fitted with augmentor and afterburner)
Wing Span: 27'
Length: 28'
Weight: Gross 7,710 lb
Maximum Speed: 1,000 mph 36,000 ft
Armament: None

The functional model of the M.52 included a fully moveable tail surface. Though not officially documented by British or American agencies, many believe that the X-1's moveable tail surface was "borrowed" from the M.52 design, which were initially tested on the Miles Falcon-Six racer.

History: In 1942 the Air Ministry and the Ministry of Aviation approached Miles Aircraft with a top-secret contract for a turbojet research plane designed to reach supersonic speeds. Designed to meet specification E.24/43, which called for an aeroplane capable of flying over 1,000 mph (more than twice as fast as any that had flown previously in level flight). The Miles M.52 had many advanced features such as the ultra-thin BI-convex wings , an annular air intake, an all-moving tailplane (which was built and tested on the Miles "Gillette Falcon" in 1943) and a complete escape capsule for the pilot. The engine was to be a Power Jet W2/700 with afterburner and a specially ducted fan to increase the airflow.

In a reciprocal agreement with the Americans, the British Government let them have all the information regarding the M.52 in 1944, in exchange for open excess to the US high speed program. The USA renegued on this agreement much to the dismay of the Miles Co.

However three prototypes were ordered in 1944, with the first of these being started in 1945. But with a Treasury savings measure by the Labor Government, the then Director of Scientific Research, Sir Ben Lockspeiser, canceled the project in February 1946 "in view of the unknown hazards near the speed of sound" with over 50% of the construction finished.

Link: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/history/q0198a.shtml


Bell X-1

First Flight: December 9, 1946
Mission: Determine feasibility of supersonic flight.
Major Accomplishments: First human controlled aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in controlled level flight.
Power Source: One (1) Reaction Motors E6000-C4 (Thiokol XLR-11) rocket. 6,000 lbs thrust (2,722 kg) Fuel by ethyl alcohol/water mix and liquid oxygen.
Wing Span: 28 ft (8.53m)
Length: 31 ft (9.45 m)
Weight (Loaded): 13,400 lb (6,078 kg)
Maximum Achieved Speed: 957 mph (1,540 km/h)

Additional Information: Initially designated the XS-1, (the S, which stood for Supersonic was dropped early in the program), the X-1 was the first aircraft given the `X' designation. 3 X-1's were built, and carried USAF serial numbers 46-062, 46-063 and 46-064.

The X-1 became the first human controlled aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in controlled level flight. This historic event occurred on October 14, 1947, while the X-1 #1 (nicknamed "Glamorous Glennis") was piloted by Captain Charles (Chuck) Yeager. Top speed achieved on this flight was 670 mph (1,078 km/h, or Mach 1.015). Altitude at the time the sound barrier was broken was approximately 45,000 ft.

The X-1 was carried under a Boeing B-29 Superfortress to an altitude of 20,000 ft, where it was drop-launched. The Reaction Motors E6000-C4 rocket engine was not throttleable, but had 4 combustion chambers which could be operated individually or simultaneously.


Though the X-1 was built with straight wings, it was able to achieve controlled flight through the "sonic barrier" due to its variable pitch horizontal stabilizer. Initially, this surface was designed to be adjusted before flight and would remain in a fixed position.

This design was changed before power flights commenced. The design change permitted the pilot to adjust the pitch of the horizontal stabilizer during flight, via an electric motor. General Chuck Yeager has often credited the success of the X-1 with the pilot adjustable variable pitch horizontal stabilizer. It was years before other nations' design teams were able to duplicate this concept.

The second X-1 differed from the first and third in that it had a thicker wing (10% thickness/cord ratio vs. 8%).

The third X-1 was over 3 years late in delivery and successfully completed only 1 drop-glide flight. Following its second flight, in which it remained attached to the B-29 for fuel system testing, the fully loaded fuel tanks were about to be emptied when an explosion destroyed the X-1. Fortunately, no one was killed as a result of this accident.

Though several significant modification were considered for the X-1 (replacing the straight wings with swept wings, and a V-tail configuration), the most significant modification was the improved windscreen on the third X-1. This windscreen was stronger than provided on the first 2 X-1's and did not require straps to hold it in place. This greatly improved visibility for the pilot.


The X-1E
After the loss of the 3rd X-1 and the X-1D. The need remained for a higher performance performance X-1 for the NACA to conduct testing in. The 2nd X-1 (46-063) was almost completely rebuilt and redesignated as the X-1E. Significant modifications include and updated canopy, ultra-thin wings (4% thickness/cord ratio) and a rocket assisted ejection seat.

The maximum altitude achieved by the X-1E was 75,000 ft, and the top speed was Mach 2.24 (1,450 mph). The plane was retired from service in November of 1956 after 26 flights.

The first X-1 is on permanent display at the Smithsonian Air & Space museum. The second X-1, which was reconfigured as the X-1E, is on permanent display at the NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility.

05-13-2006, 01:55 AM
LoL...variable stab-pitch was the "elevator-tim" of both, 109 and 190. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_rolleyes.gif

So they'd also be capable of superssonic speeds ? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/35.gif

05-13-2006, 02:53 AM
Two pictures I took at an airshow at Ljungbyhed in Sweden a few years ago. Click on the links for much larger pictures!!!!






05-13-2006, 03:31 AM
Must have been a Great show... I found another photo of the Vampire that was at that show.
Beauty of a Bird... Thank's for posting http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif


05-13-2006, 04:14 AM
Originally posted by Bremspropeller:
LoL...variable stab-pitch was the "elevator-tim" of both, 109 and 190. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_rolleyes.gif

So they'd also be capable of superssonic speeds ? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/35.gif Variable pitch stabs were not something unique to the 109 and 190, they had been around for a long time. The SE5a and other a/c of WW1 had them, as did the Wright Flyer.

Would be something to see the Wright Flyer supersonic. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_eek.gif http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif

05-13-2006, 05:33 AM
Some extra pics of machines discussed...




05-13-2006, 06:11 AM
Man, a supersonic Flyer... http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-very-happy.gif

05-13-2006, 02:12 PM
Originally posted by woofiedog:


In March 1947, the Soviets had the technology of the British turbojets Nene and Derwent and prepared the series production of their local copies RD-45 and RD-500. The Russian authorities thus launched a contest for a jet fighter equipped with the one of these engines. To benefit from the existence of two different engines, Lavotchkine launched the design of two different prototypes. The first was a heavy hunter equipped with the more powerful RD-45 while the second was a light hunter propelled by the RD-500. The second apparatus is La-174D described further.

The heavy hunter La-168 was an apparatus of a design different from the standard appliances La-150/160. The turbojet was installed with the back of the fuselage with the conduit emerging under the drift while the air intake was in front of the fuselage followed by the cockpit.

This formula was to become a standard for the years to come with famous apparatuses like American F-86 or Mig-15 Soviet. It was inspired by Focke-Wulf TA-183 Huckebein, an unfinished project of the second world war. Moreover, Mig-15 Mikoyan was one of the candidates of this contest with La-168, La-174D and Yakovlev Yak-30 and it was equipped with same engine RD-45. Yakovlev Yak-30 was equipped with the RD-500 and was thus more comparable with La-174D.

The fuselage contained reserves of capacity much higher than that of the preceding planes with 1230 liters in-house plus 630 liters in additional tanks what gave more than two hours of flight. The apparatus had a sweptback wing of 37? which was derived from that of La-160.

It was fixed in high position on the fuselage. The turbojet was thus a RD-45, a Russian copy of Rolls-Royce Nene of 2270 kg push. The armament was composed of two guns of 23 mm and one of 37 mm, a combination which became standard on the jet fighters of the Fifties.

The flight tests began on April 22, 1948 with the test pilot I.E.Fedorov to the orders and continued until February 1949. Maximum speed reached was Mach 0.982. The flight tests of the armament were the cause of an incident which could have been fatal with the V.I.Khomiakov pilot.

During a flight to more than 15.000 meters, the simultaneous firing of the three guns caused the rupture of glass and the depressurisation of the cockpit. The apparatus plunged then in free fall with the unconscious pilot who found his spirits only with 400 meters of altitude. The pilot could take again control and land healthy and except.

The Migone gained the contest primarily because it flew in first in December 1947. It seems that La-168 and the Migone had very close performances but the Russian authorities were so in a hurry to have a new hunter which it ordered the first to steal.

While dispersing in the design of two apparatuses, Lavotchkine had undoubtedly made a strategic error which cost him the production of a thousand of apparatuses. The Migone, will be produced to him in very great number (with 18.000 specimens it is even the jet fighter more produced history) and under licence by many countries of the communist bloc.

Yakovlev Yak-30 was not built either in series. Lavotchkine nevertheless had a consolation prize with the manufacture of a small series of its second apparatus, La-174D. First public appearance of La-168 take place in August 1948 in Tushino.

La-168 (1948)

Length: 9.5 m
Wing span: 10.56 m
Wing area: 18.08 m²
Weight: (empty) 2973 kg (maximum) 4412 kg
Engine: Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal flow turbojet with 2270 kgf (22.3 kN) of thrust
Thrust/weight ratio: 0.515
Speed: (maximum, sea level) 1,000 km/h
Rate of climb to 5000 m: 2.0 m
Range: 1275 km
Ceiling: 14,570 m
Armament: Two Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 23 mm cannon and one NL-37 37 mm cannon


So...the Russians had the benefit of the British Nene and Derwent engines http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/blink.gif

Did the British Government supply them with these items despite the 'Cold War'?

(Thanks for the information woofiedog) http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

Best Regards,

05-13-2006, 02:33 PM
Originally posted by MB_Avro_UK:
So...the Russians had the benefit of the British Nene and Derwent engines http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/blink.gif

Did the British Government supply them with these items despite the 'Cold War'?

(Thanks for the information woofiedog) http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

Best Regards,
MB_Avro. The British Goverment was filled with communists in high places and the Cold War was not that cold then (1946-47). The RAF and the Defense Dept strongly objected, to no avail.

There was a name given to these 'traitors', for that is what they were. Three of the group were Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, and Guy Burgess. They were well-connected, and educated in the best schools, and were able to take privilege for granted.

05-13-2006, 05:22 PM
I ask from my Fellow Forum Member's... Please don't turn this into a Political Flame.
Thank You to All who have Posted and Written and taken the time to Read and to add to this thread.


Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engine.

In 1948, the Soviet MiG design bureau developed a high-performance jet fighter design called the I-310. It incorporated some advanced features, such as a 35-degree wing sweep, and it promised to be a sprightly performer. However, the design lacked one essential component: A suitable engine. This problem was resolved when the British government authorized the Rolls-Royce company to export their Nene turbojet engine to Russia. As soon as the Russian Klimov design bureau received the engines, they immediately developed their own copy of the Nene, called the Klimov RD-45. Within months, the first prototype of the I-310 had flown with the new engine. The aircraft was redesignated MiG-15 and entered service early in 1949.Later in the year, the improved MiG-15bis version appeared, and a two-seat trainer version, the MiG-15UTI, was also introduced. In 1950, Western air forces were surprised at the combat capability of the new design in the skies over Korea. The MiG-15 could out-climb, out-turn, and fly higher than the US-built F-86 Sabre. Fortunately, Allied pilots were better-trained and had better equipment installed in their aircraft, and they prevailed against the MiG.

Rolls-Royce and Its Aircraft Engines
There were two men in England, one rich and one poor. The rich man, Charles Stuart Rolls, was the son of the wealthy Lord Llangattock. He sold imported cars to well-heeled friends in London early in the 20th century.

The poor man, Frederick Henry Royce, had started his career by selling newspapers at age 10. He pieced together the elements of a technical education and set up a factory in Manchester that built dynamos and heavy electrical equipment. In 1904 he built a 10-horsepower (7.5-kilowatt) automobile, which ran well.

A mutual acquaintance brought the two men together, and Rolls agreed to sell cars manufactured by Royce. This launched the firm of Rolls-Royce. A Rolls-Royce company director, Claude Johnson, urged them to build a top-of-the-line car that would set a standard for quality. The automobile that resulted, the Silver Ghost, entered production in 1906. Long and elegant in appearance, it made Rolls-Royce famous.

When World War I broke out in 1914, officials of the Admiralty and the War Office asked Rolls-Royce to build aircraft engines. The company had experience only with motorcars but responded with a 12-cylinder aero engine, the Eagle. Tested initially at 225 horsepower (168 kilowatts) in March 1915, its later versions produced as much as 360 horsepower (268 kilowatts). It powered important twin-engine bombers including the Handley Page 0/400 that later became a successful airliner and the Vickers Vimy that, in 1919, became the first airplane to fly across the Atlantic Ocean.

Rolls-Royce also built smaller engines. These included the 240-horsepower (179-kilowatt) Falcon for fighter aircraft, one of which was the successful Bristol Fighter. A six-cylinder motor, the Hawk, powered blimps and could run continually for days. At the war's end the company was reaching for particularly high power. The Condor engine, which became available early in 1919, delivered up to 675 horsepower (503 kilowatts).

Rolls-Royce supplied more than 60 percent of all the British-built aircraft engines used in the First World War. However, peace brought a marked falloff in demand for such motors, and company leaders turned again to their motorcars. This did not last long. During the mid-1920s, the planebuilder Sir Richard Fairey spurred Rolls-Royce to make a renewed commitment to aero engines.

Fairey crafted a fine light bomber called the Fox. He powered it with the Curtiss D-12€"an American engine. This did not suit the Air Ministry, so it sent a D-12 over to Rolls-Royce and invited the company to learn from its design. This led to a new line of engines: the Kestrel series, with versions that gave from 550 to 745 horsepower (410 to 556 kilowatts). The Kestrels reestablished Rolls-Royce in aviation.

The Schneider Cup seaplane races soon gave engine manufacturers an opportunity to build aero motors of particularly high horsepower although they only had to hold together long enough to win. Britain won the 1927 race with an aircraft that traveled at 281 miles per hour (452 kilometers per hour). Rolls-Royce then developed versions of a new motor€"the R engine€"that won the Schneider Trophy in both 1929 and 1931. These engines used high-performance fuels along with superchargers, which pumped additional air into the cylinders to burn more fuel. The 1931 version introduced cooled engine valves that kept fuel in the cylinders from igniting prematurely. The Rolls-Royce R engine and the Supermarine S6B plane, designed by R.J. Mitchell who would go on to design the famous Spitfire of World War II, set a 1931 world speed record of 407 miles per hour (655 miles per hour). The engine also produced 2,783 horsepower (2,075 kilowatts) on a test stand. (Engineers mount engines on a test stand in a laboratory to measure its power when it is not installed in a vehicle. A dynamometer is used to measure the amount of horsepower the engine produces.)

The R engine pointed a clear path to the future. But it had a very short operating life and relied on costly and highly specialized fuels. Rolls-Royce now faced the challenge of building engines of similar power that could achieve long life while burning conventional aviation gasoline. The company met this challenge with its great wartime series: the Merlin, which entered development in 1933.

An early version, the Merlin 46, produced 720 horsepower (537 kilowatts) in a plane flying at an altitude of 30,000 feet (9,144 meters). An advanced supercharger boosted this power to 1,020 horsepower (761 kilowatts) by more strongly compressing the incoming air. Compressed air is hot and it prematurely ignited the fuel in the cylinders of these Merlins that were built for higher performance. Hence, an air cooler was installed. This cooler, together with the use of fuel injection, yielded 1,420 horsepower (1,059 kilowatts). High-octane gasolines, imported from the United States, raised the output even more to 2,050 horsepower (1,529 kilowatts). In this manner, the basic Merlin nearly tripled its rated power.

Merlins helped the Allies win World War II. They powered Spitfire and Hurricane fighters that won the Battle of Britain, saving that country from Nazi invasion. Fitted with Merlins, the four-engine Lancaster bomber carried an 11-ton bomb. Fleets of Lancasters, carrying high explosive and incendiary bombs, burned the city of Hamburg to the ground in July 1943. America's P-51 fighters, powered by Merlins that were built in the United States by Packard, won air superiority above German cities. When the senior Nazi leader Hermann Goering saw that the bombers attacking Berlin were escorted by these fighters, he told his staff, "The war is over."

Rolls-Royce built some 160,000 of these engines, in 52 versions. Yet, as its engineers sought continuing improvements, the firm's management turned to the next step€"the jet. Frank Whittle, a British inventor, had built some of the first jet engines before the war. A jet engine required a compressor to feed it with a flow of compressed air, and Rolls-Royce's experience with superchargers was highly pertinent. Beginning early in 1942, the company drew on Whittle's work and began to develop a succession of engines named for English rivers: the Welland and the Derwent. In March 1944, the firm began work on the Nene, which went on to develop 5,000 pounds (22,241 newtons) of thrust.

Germany was also building jets and led in this field. The best Nazi jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262, topped 520 miles per hour (837 kilometers per hour). Its British rival, the Gloster Meteor, initially lacked thrust and achieved only 460 miles per hour (740 kilometers per hour). But in November 1945, fitted with two Derwent 5 engines, a Meteor set a world speed record flying at 606 miles per hour (975 kilometers per hour).

Rolls-Royce jet engines proved to be good enough to win sales in the demanding market of the United States. Late in 1946, officials of the U.S. Navy selected the new Nene for a carrier-based jet fighter, the Grumman Panther. In Connecticut, the firm of Pratt & Whitney proceeded to build it under license. Later versions of the Panther flew with the Rolls-Royce Tay, a Nene follow-on.

Germany's wartime jet engines had used a simple internal layout that made them slender, reducing the drag. Rolls-Royce adopted this design for its Avon and Conway series, in 1953. The Avon powered the Hawker Hunter, an important fighter of the 1950s. Twin Avons gave thrust to the English Electric Canberra bomber, built in the United States as the Martin B-57. Avons also found use in an early jet airliner, France's Caravelle.

The Conway introduced the "bypass" principle. It featured a large fan toward the front of the engine that resembled a propeller. This produced greater thrust and improved fuel economy. Conways powered the four-engine Vickers VC-10 jetliner, along with some Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s built in the United States. A smaller bypass engine, the Rolls Royce Spey, also was built under license in the United States. It powered an attack plane, the A-7, which flew for both the U. S. Navy and Air Force.

However, Rolls-Royce fell into severe difficulties when it set out to build a new engine, the RB-211, for use with Lockheed's L-1011 airliner. The RB-211 was one of the first "high bypass" designs, with an enormous front fan and a rated thrust of some 40,000 pounds (177,929 newtons). This design certainly broke new ground, but its development proved to be very costly, which brought Rolls-Royce to the brink of financial ruin. Early in 1971, company directors learned that they had no prospect of raising the funds they needed. They placed Rolls-Royce into bankruptcy, expecting that the firm would be broken up and sold.

Lockheed's chairman, Dan Haughton, rescued Rolls-Royce by arranging for the U.S. Congress to guarantee a new loan of $250 million. This gave Rolls-Royce the money it needed. The firm emerged from bankruptcy and turned the RB-211 into a successful engine. Rolls-Royce remains active in its field as its new Trent series of engines vie for sales in the ongoing competitions of commercial aviation.

€"T.A. Heppenheimer

05-13-2006, 06:14 PM
Cool read Woofie!

05-13-2006, 06:23 PM
LStarosta... I must say... Thank's to all who have added and continued this thread.

Glad you have enjoyed the Articles!

Thank's http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-happy.gif

05-13-2006, 06:35 PM
Originally posted by luftluuver:
The British Goverment was filled with communists

What do you mean "was"? The tax burden is currently about 42% of GDP...

05-13-2006, 06:47 PM
Excellent thread woofie some truely beutiful photo's amongst these (lightning and Vulcun in particular)

Two thumbs up and I will stand you a pint next visit http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-wink.gif

05-13-2006, 06:49 PM
Grumman XF9F-2 Panther


The Grumman F9F Panther was the first jet-powered aircraft to be built by Grumman, a long-time manufacturer of carrier-based fighter aircraft for the US Navy. The Panther bore the brunt of carrier-based jet fighter operations in the Korean War, and had the distinction of downing the first MiG-15 to be destroyed by a US Navy plane. However, it was to be in the ground attack role that the Panther was to gain its primary claim to fame.

As compared to some of its competitors, the Grumman Aircraft Corporation of Bethpage, Long Island was rather late in getting into the design of jet combat aircraft. However, between July of 1943 and November of 1944, Grumman undertook some preliminary work on several different jet-powered designs, some of them powered by a mixture of jet and piston engines. The first of these was the G-57, which was to have been powered by an R-2800 piston engine plus a small turbojet. Next was the G-61, which was a development of the F6F Hellcat with a turbojet engine in the tail. However, both of these projects had to be shelved in favor of higher-priority work on the G-58 (XF8F-1 Bearcat), a conventional piston-engined fighter. Later, Grumman began work on projects G-63 and G-71, which were both small single-jet designs. This was soon followed by the G-68, which was a single seat fighter to be powered by a TG-100 turboprop. However, none of these wartime projects attracted very much enthusiasm, and all of them were abandoned almost as soon as they were begun.

Serious Grumman work on jet-powered fighter aircraft did not really get underway until after the war was over. The G-75 was a postwar project begun by Grumman in September of 1945 in response to a Navy Request For Proposals for a two-seat radar-equipped jet-powered carrier-based night fighter. The G-75 was to be capable of flying at speeds of 500 mph and at altitudes of 40,000 feet and was supposed to be able to detect the presence of enemy aircraft at ranges as great as 125 miles. The G-75 looked very much like a jet-powered F7F Tigercat, and was to be powered by four 3000 lb.s.t. Westinghouse 24C-4B turbojets mounted two each side-by-side in midwing-mounted nacelles. A radome was to be mounted in the nose, and the armament was to have been four 20-mm cannon.

Competing proposals from Curtiss, Douglas, and Fleetwings were also submitted to the Navy in response to the RFP. On April 3, 1946, the Navy deemed the Douglas proposal as being the best of the lot, and ordered three prototypes under the designation XF3D-1. However, on April 11, a Navy contract was issued for the construction of two G-75 prototypes under the designation XF9F-1 as a backup just in case the Douglas design did not live up to expectations.


The XF9F-1 was appreciably larger and heavier than the XF3D-1. In the summer of 1946, further design studies indicated that the Grumman design was considerably less promising than the Douglas design, and the Navy considered cancelling the XF9F-1 contract altogether. ,p. This would ordinarily have been the end of the line, but Grumman had fortuitously been working on another totally-unrelated project under the company designation of G-79 that had been initiated only a month before the two XF9F-1 night fighter prototypes had been ordered. As originally conceived, the G-79 was a much smaller single-seat fighter powered either by a single centrifugal-flow turbojet fed by wing root intakes and exhausting underneath the rear fuselage, by two wing-mounted Westinghouse J34 axial-flow turbojets, or by two Rolls-Royce Derwent centrifugal-flow turbojets mounted in the wing roots. Alternatively, during the early summer of 1946, Grumman proposed the use of a single 5000 lb.s.t. Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal-flow turbojet which would be built under license in the USA as the J42. In case the J42 ran into unexpected difficulties, the 4600 lb.s.t. Allison J33 was considered as a possible alternative, since it was about the same size as the Nene but was somewhat less powerful.

Enough interest was generated in this list of projects that the Navy was persuaded to amend the XF9F-1 contract rather than cancel it outright. On October 9, 1946, the XF9F-1 contract was amended to provide for the construction of three single-seat prototypes (BuNos 122475/122477), a static test airframe, plus design data for a swept-wing version. By November, the Navy had narrowed its choice of powerplant options and specified that two of the G-79 prototypes should be completed as XF9F-2 powered by Rolls Royce Nene turbojets and that the third should be powered by an Allison J33 turbojet and be designated XF9F-3.


The Rolls-Royce Nene jet engine, was to be built under license in the USA by the Taylor Turbine Corporation as the J42-TT-2. Just in case the adaptation of the Nene to production in the USA turned out to be more difficult than expected, Grumman developed a parallel version of the Panther to be powered by the Allison J33 turbojet. The J33 engine was somewhat less powerful than the J42, but it was considered to be a safer risk. The J33-powered version was to be designated F9F-3 and was to be manufactured in parallel with the J42-powered F9F-2.

Since the the J42 was not going to be ready in time to be installed in the XF9F-2, Taylor Turbine Corporation supplied six imported Rolls-Royce Nene turbojets to Grumman.

By the time that the mockup was ready for inspection in January and February of 1947, the G-79 design had been further revised. The cockpit had been moved further aft, the exhaust had been extended further to the rear, and the tail surfaces had been redesigned. The first XF9F-2 prototype (BuNo 122475) began engine ground running tests in October of 1947. The maiden flight took place from Bethpage on November 21, 1947, test pilot Corwin H. "Corky" Meyer being at the controls. The landing took place at Idlewild Airport (now the John F. Kennedy International Airport), since the runway at Bethpage was thought to be too short to risk a first landing of a jet-powered aircraft. The second XF9F-2 prototype (BuNo 122477) flew five days later.


Neither XF9F-2 prototype was fitted with armament nor was it fitted with an ejector seat. The wings folded upward hydraulically. A single tailhook retracted into the rear fuselage underneath the jet exhaust. Internal fuel capacity was 597 US gallons.

During company and Navy trials, the two XF9F-2 prototypes were found to snake markedly at all speeds and were longitudinally unstable at all speeds. The snaking problem was addressed by increasing the area of the fin and rudder, and the longitudinal instability problem was attacked by adding baffles to the fuel tanks. One of the prototypes shed its tail section during an arrested landing at Patuxent River, Maryland, which required some strengthening of the rear fuselage.

In February of 1948, non-jettisonable fuel tanks were added to the wingtips of the first prototype. This feature became standard with the 13th production aircraft, and non-jettisonable wingtip fuel tanks were to be a feature of the Panther through its entire production run.

Since the Navy was fearful that the Taylor Turbine Corporation might not be able to deliver sufficient numbers of engines in a timely fashion, the Navy encouraged Taylor to negotiate an agreement whereby the Nene manufacturing license would be transferred to a more-established engine manufacturing company. This was done as requested, and the Nene license was purchased from Taylor by Pratt & Whitney.


Grumman F9F-5 "Panther" jet fighter,

In flight over mountainous Korean terrain.
Photo is dated 14 June 1953.
This plane is from Fighter Squadron 111 (VF-111), based aboard USS Boxer (CVA-21).

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Specifications... F9F-2 Panther

General characteristics
Crew: 1
Length: 37 ft 5 in (11.3 m)
Wingspan: 38 ft 0 in (11.6 m)
Height: 11 ft 4 in (3.8 m)
Wing area: 250 ft² (23.2 m²)
Empty weight: 9,303 lb (4,220 kg)
Loaded weight: 14,235 lb (6,456 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 16,450 lb (7,462 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Pratt & Whitney J42-P-6/P-8 turbojet, 5,000 lbf dry; 5,950 lbf with water injection (22.2 kN / 26.5 kN)
Maximum speed: 575 mph (925 km/h)
Range: mi (km)
Service ceiling: 44,600 ft (13,594 m)
Rate of climb: 5,140 ft/min (26.1 m/s)
Wing loading: lb/ft² (kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.42
4x 20 mm cannons
2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs and rocketson 8 underwing hardpoints

05-13-2006, 08:11 PM
i think i have to state for the entire community here...

thats an odd looking dog. especially in leopard skin

05-14-2006, 02:02 AM
Quote... thats an odd looking dog.

My wife and I haven't told her just yet... that she might be a Dog after all. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif


05-14-2006, 02:14 AM
Rolls-Royce built some 160,000 of these engines, in 52 versions. Yet, as its engineers sought continuing improvements, the firm's management turned to the next step€"the jet. Frank Whittle, a British inventor, had built some of the first jet engines before the war. A jet engine required a compressor to feed it with a flow of compressed air, and Rolls-Royce's experience with superchargers was highly pertinent. Beginning early in 1942, the company drew on Whittle's work and began to develop a succession of engines named for English rivers: the Welland and the Derwent. In March 1944, the firm began work on the Nene, which went on to develop 5,000 pounds (22,241 newtons) of thrust.

I remember Frank Wittle calling the RR Boss an "honest crook". (video taped it but can't remember wich tape it is at the moment http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_confused.gif). This because the RR boss had told Wittle in his face that he was going to take his jet engine design and take it into production and there was nothing he could do about it. (Wittle being an airforce man couldn't claim a whole lot since it probably all belonged to the government.)

05-14-2006, 02:29 AM
English Electric Canberra Bomber


Manufacturer English Electric
Designed by Teddy Petter
Maiden flight 1949-05-13
Introduced May 1951
Retired 2006 RAF

Primary users Royal Air Force and Royal Navy
Argentina, Australia, India, US Airforce
Built 1,352
Variants B-57 Canberra
The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s, and as of 2006 some still remain in service.



The Canberra had its origins in 1944 as a replacement was considered for the unarmed high speed, high altitude de Havilland Mosquito bomber.
Several British aircraft manufacturers submitted proposals. Among the companies shortlisted to proceed with development studies was English Electric, a well-established industrial manufacturer with very little aircraft experience.
A desperate need for bombers arose during the early years of World War II, when English Electric began to build the Halifax under licence.


The new English Electric design team was headed by former Westland chief designer W. E. W. Petter. The aircraft was named Canberra after the capital of Australia by Robert Menzies, Australia's longest-serving Prime Minister.
In May 1945 a contract was signed, but with the post-war military reductions the prototype did not fly until May 1949.
It was a simple design, looking like a scaled-up Gloster Meteor with a shoulder wing. The fuselage was circular in cross section, tapered at both ends and, cockpit aside, entirely without protrusions; the line of the large, low aspect ratio wings was broken only by the tubular engine nacelles.


Although jet powered and of all-metal construction, the Canberra design philosophy was very much in the Mosquito mould: provide room for a substantial bomb load, fit two of the most powerful engines available, and wrap it in the smallest, most aerodynamic package possible.
Rather than devote space and weight to defensive armament €" which historically could not overcome purpose-designed fighter aircraft €" the Canberra was designed to fly fast and high enough to avoid air-to-air combat entirely.

The Canberra was designed for a crew of two under a fighter-style canopy, but delays in the development of the intended automatic radar bombsight resulted in the addition of a bomb aimer's position in the nose.
Wingspan and length were almost identical at just under 20 metres, maximum takeoff weight a little under 25 tonnes. Thrust was provided by a pair of 30 kN axial flow Rolls-Royce Avon turbojets.


Air Ministry specification B.3/45 requested production of 4 prototypes.
Although construction began in early 1946, the first aircraft flew only on 13 May 1949.
In the interim, Air Ministry had already ordered 132 production aircraft in bomber, reconnaissance, and training variants.
The prototype proved vice-free and required only a few modifications. A new glazed nose had to be fitted to accommodate a bombardier because the advanced bombing avionics were not ready for production, the engines were upgraded to more powerful Avon R.A.3s, and the distinctive teardrop-shaped fuel tanks were fitted under the wingtips.

The resultant Canberra B2 first flew on 21 April 1950, and entered squadron service with RAF 101 Sqn in May 1951. In a testament to the aircraft's benign handling characteristics, the transition program consisted of only 20 hours in the Gloster Meteor and 3 hours in the dual-control Canberra trainer.


With a maximum speed of 470 kt (871 km/h), a standard service ceiling of 48,000 ft (14,600 m), and the ability to carry a 3.6 tonne payload, the Canberra was an instant success.
It was built in 27 versions which equipped 35 RAF squadrons, and were exported to Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Ethiopia, France, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, Peru, Rhodesia, South Africa, Sweden, Venezuela and West Germany.


In the United States where the USAF needed to replace the B-26 Marauder, 406 Canberras were manufactured under licence as the Martin B-57 in several versions, initially almost exactly the same as the English Electric pattern aircraft, later with a series of substantial modifications. In Australia, the Government Aircraft Factory (GAF) built 48 for the RAAF, broadly similar to the British B.2 but with a modified leading edge and increased fuel capacity.
In the United Kingdom, the demand for Canberras exceeded English Electric's ability to supply, and Handley Page also manufactured them under licence.
Total worldwide Canberra production was 1,352.


05-14-2006, 02:33 AM
Ah, the Canberra - designed by the same chap as did the Westland Whirlwind, you know http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-wink.gif

Great write-ups as ever Woofie http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

05-14-2006, 02:38 AM
Quote... I remember Frank Wittle calling the RR Boss an "honest crook". (video taped it but can't remember wich tape it is at the moment ). This because the RR boss had told Wittle in his face that he was going to take his jet engine design and take it into production and there was nothing he could do about it. (Wittle being an airforce man couldn't claim a whole lot since it probably all belonged to the government.)

Interesting... but sounds right. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif

05-14-2006, 03:05 AM


The first jet bomber to enter service with the Soviet air force, the Il-28 tactical day bomber was Russia's equivalent to the British Canberra.
First flown on the 08 August 1948, the Il-28 entered service with bomber squadrons in 1950 and remained in production for many years.
This jet-powered medium bomber was built in enormous numbers [over 6000 were built by the Soviet Union and China, according to some estimates] and adapted to fulfil a variety of roles.


Designed in the late 1940s with an orthodox configuration, the Il-28 was powered by Rolls-Royce turbojets supplied by Britian just before the Cold War started.
Two Klimov VK-1 centrifugal-flow turbojets (developed from the Rolls-Royce Nene) were mounted beneath the wings in pods, which extend beyond wings€ leading and trailing edges. The high-mounted wings featured a straight leading edge and forward-tapered trailing edge with blunt tips.
The unswept wing contrasts with the swept tailplane but ensures pitch control in high Mach dives. The tubular fuselage was cigar-shaped, and tapering to the rear, with a rounded, glassed-in nose and bubble canopy.
The WWII-style greenhouse contains the bombardier/ navigator's electronics and visual bombsight. The tail fin is swept-back and tapered with a blunt tip.
The tail of the Beagle contains the rear gunner/radio operator and two more 23mm NR-23 cannon. Flats are low-mounted on the fin, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips.
A glassed-in tail gunner compartment is to the rear of the tail.

It is armed with two 23 mm NR-23 cannon in a fixed nose installation and two 23 mm NR-23 cannon in the tail turret.
Up to 3000 kg of disposable stores can be carried in a lowerfuselage weapons bay.
The Il-28R variant is a three-seat tactical reconnaissance version with four or five cameras. This model was also used for electronic intelligence gathering with a revised electronic fit. The Il-28U variant is an operational conversion trainer lacking radar and armament but fitted with a second cockpit in the nose.


The Il-28 was retired from the Soviet Air Force and Navy in the 1980s, serving as target tugs and ECM platforms.
It also served with a large number of export customers, and was exported to over 20 countries]. Beagles served with most of the major Arab air forces.
The arrival of 50 Il-28s in Egypt in 1956 was alarming to the Israelis, and a significant factor in the origins of the 1956 Suez War, in which all the Il-28s sent to Nasser were destroyed on the ground.
Again in 1967 and yet again in 1973, the Il-28 featured as a significant ground target for the Israeli Air Force.
During the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, Soviet Premier Khrushchev agreed to remove the offensive missiles as well as the medium range twin-jet Il-28 "Beagle" bombers being assembled in Cuba.
Il-28s also saw service with the Nigerians during the Biafra War. East Germany and Finland flew only the target-towing version, without armament.
By the early 1990s more than 300 Beagles remained in service with a number of ex-Soviet allies and clients.


Il-28 Beagle - Bomber version.
Il-28R - Reconnaissance version.
Il-28T - Torpedo bomber version.
Il-28P - Civil conversion for Aeroflot mail service.
Il-28U Mascot - Training version.
H-5 - Chinese bomber version.
HJ-5 - Chinese training version.
H-5R or (HZ-5): Chinese reconnaissance version.
B-5 - Export designation of the H-5.
B-228 - Czechoslovakian Air Force designation.


Primary Function: Light bomber

Contractor: ILYUSHIN
Power Plant: two Klimov VK-1A
Thrust: 26.48 kN (5,952 lb st) each
Length: 57 ft, 11 in (17.6 m)
Height: 6.70 m
Wingspan: 70 ft, 5 in (21.5 m)
Speed: 902 km/h at 4500 m [maximum]
800 km/h at sea level
876 km/h cruising speed at optimum altitude
Ceiling: 12300 m
Weight: empty 11890 kg
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 21200 kg
Range: 2400 km at 10000 m
1135 km at 1000 m
Armament: Bombs, two 23-mm cannons in tail
Crew: Three
Unit Cost:
Date Deployed:
Current Users: Romania and People€s Republic of China (H-5)
Former Users: Afghanistan, Egypt, Hungary, Iraq, North Korea, Poland and Yemen


Link: http://www.airliners.net/search/photo.search?aircraft_g...&distinct_entry=true (http://www.airliners.net/search/photo.search?aircraft_genericsearch=Ilyushin%20Il-28&distinct_entry=true)

05-14-2006, 05:08 AM
A pic taken by me in 2000 at the Praha-kbely museum...


05-14-2006, 05:44 AM
2 different Sturmoviks

i cant remember when i saved these pics - but i have the same "IL-40" name for both of them

both ugly as sin



so - anyone with better resources than i know if they are varients of the same plane or different models alltogether ?

05-14-2006, 05:47 AM


05-14-2006, 07:21 AM
Originally posted by Badsight.:
2 different Sturmoviks

i cant remember when i saved these pics - but i have the same "IL-40" name for both of them

both ugly as sin



so - anyone with better resources than i know if they are varients of the same plane or different models alltogether ?

Yeah, both planes are Il-40. There were two prototypes built differing in air intakes design, the earlier one had them in the nose.
Il-40 first flew on 7 March 1953, powered by two AM-5F engines. The plane was (to be?) armed with four 37mm cannons in wings plus rockets and bombs in wing bomb bays. Project was cancelled on the grounds of supposed uselessness in supersonic jets/tactical nulear weapons era.

But its history didnt end then! After a while VVS discovered, that direct support plane is needed (US AX program was the inspiration probably). In march 1969 VVS competition was started, where following projects were proposed: Yak-28 modification, modified MiG-21 and Sukhoj's T-8. Ilyushyn proposal was Il-102 - a plane too similar to second Il-40 to be more than the latter design dusted off. T-8 won the competition and we know it as Su-25. Now funny part begins: despite not only rejection of the project, but also beginning of Su-25 production, OKB Ilyushin decided to build Il-102! It first flew in... september 1982! Nothing but immediate deep classification (caused by shame I guess http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/59.gif) happended. The plane's existance wasnt revealed until 1992 MosAeoroshow.


05-14-2006, 08:21 AM
The sole prototype Il-102 at Mosaero 1992.


Il-102 has made the first flight in 1982. The new plane has passed state tests, however solution about batch production was not accepted. In a series was started attack jet by Sukhoi OKB Su-25. In 1992 Il-102 was on display on the Russian airspace exhibition "Mosaeroshow-92" and was offered on sale of the representatives of foreign countries. Il-102 is further development first Soviet attack plane with TRD IL-40, created in 1953. Il-102 is executed under the normal aerodynamic scheme with low-set wing. The features of arrangement of a airplane Il-40 are saved: crew consisting of the 2-nd person, fuel tanks and two drives are placed in a central part near to centre of masses of a airplane, that has allowed to reduce square of booking and to improve manoeuvrable qualities of attack jet. The wing of a plane has a rather thick structure permitting to place in its rooted part 6 bomb compartments. Wings directed downwards, in their face parts the place for installation of the block of an ejection "automaton - F" with IR by traps and dipole reflectors is stipulated. Kiel with a developed dorsal fin is supplied with a control surface of a direction.
The fuselage has characteristic "hump", in which the cabins of the pilot, arrow, part BREO and fuel tanks are located. In a tail part on each side of fuselage two aerodynamic brakes are installed. A forward and back cabin have flat armourglass. Three based chassis ensures a possibility of operation of a airplane with ground landing, capable to sustain pressure 5 kg/sm2. The fuel is placed in 6 protected tanks located in a central part of a fuselage and the protected reservations. On two underfuselage knots of the external suspension two can be suspended PTB till 800 litres. The power plant consists of two unafterburning DTRD (variant of drives installed on the fighter Mig-29). The application of a reversion and system of a rejection of thrust vector is supposed. In a cabin of the pilot the collimating sight S-17BTs is installed, the possibility of application of a radiosight of aim systems is stipulated. Arrows is equipped with an aim system KPS-53-A, including a sight PAU-475-2M with an optical range finder and calculator. The airplane is equipped with ejected seats K-3iA. As a whole Il-102 on main performances is similar American A-10A.


Another view of the prototype showing the rear gun turret and gunners position.


Link: http://www.ctrl-c.liu.se/misc/ram/il-102.html

05-14-2006, 08:23 AM
Heliopause... Thank's for the Il-28 photo.

05-14-2006, 08:41 AM
North American B-45A Tornado


The first production model of the Tornado was the B-45A (NA-147). It differed from the XB-45 in featuring improved ejection seats for the pilot and co-pilot and had safer emergency exits for the bombardier/navigator and the tail gunner. An E-4 automatic pilot was fitted. A bombing navigation radar and an A-1 fire control system were provided. Communication equipment, emergency flight controls, and co-pilot instrumentation were improved. Since the radar gun direction system originally planned for the Tornado was not yet perfected, a tail gunner's cockpit was provided for the aiming of the two 0.50-inch machine guns in the tail. A total of 1200 rounds of ammunition was provided for the tail guns.

Some of the B-45As were fitted with the AN/APQ-24 bombing/navigation radar system and were fitted with electronic countermeasures equipment such as the AN/APT-5.

The first production B-45A flew in February 1948. The Air Force started taking delivery of the initial batch of 22 B-45A-1-NA aircraft in April of 1948. These were initially powered by four J35-A-11 engines, since the J47 engines were not yet ready.

The B-45A-1-NA was not considered as being combat-capable and most of them were assigned to training duties or to various test programs. Some of them became known as TB-45A-1-NA in recognition of their training role, but a few TB-45s were later brought up to combat configuration.

The next batch of Tornados, B-45A-5-NA, were equipped with more powerful J47 engines (either two J47-GE-7s or two J47-GE-13s, and two J47-GE-9s or two J47-GE-15s).

The first B-45As went into service in November 1948 with the 47th Bombardment Group based at Barksdale AFB in Louisiana. Despite slippages, 96 B-45As were completed by March of 1950.


However, in the fiscal year 1949, there was a severe budgetary crunch which caused numerous defense appropriations to be severely cut back or canceled outright. The B-45 was not to escape some of the cuts. According to original plans, five light bomb groups and 3 light tactical reconnaissance squadrons were to be equipped with Tornados. However, under the proposed fiscal 1950 budget, only one light bomb group and one light tactical reconnaissance squadron were to be equipped with Tornados. This meant that either the procurement of B-45s would have to be cut back or else substantial numbers of B-45s would have to placed in storage upon completion. Neither option was attractive, but the Aircraft and Weapons Board decided to cancel 51 of the 190 B-45 aircraft on order.

The early B-45As delivered to the USAF were not truly operational. They had no fire control bombing equipment, and they did not have suitable bombsights. Structural weaknesses such as cracked forgings had been noted in some aircraft, especially in those that had attempted violent low-altitude maneuvers. The new J47 engines had serious maintenance problems and had to be inspected after only 7 hours in the air and could be flown only 7 hours more before requiring a complete overhaul. There was insufficient money to purchase enough spare engines to ensure that the B-45s could be kept flying, and the F-86 Sabre had first priority for the J47.


The B-45 encountered severe operational difficulties. High speeds affected the gyrocompass adversely, and the E-4 automatic pilot frequently failed when the bomb doors were open. The emergency brake was unreliable. Bomb shackles would often become unhooked during certain maneuvers. Engines would often catch fire when first started because of an improper aspirator system. The airspeed indicator was often inaccurate, and the fuel pressure gauges were erratic. Those B-45s with the AN/APQ-24 bombing/navigation radar system had their own special problems. The AN/APQ-24 was a maintenance nightmare, and spare parts were in short supply. Malfunctions of the pressurization pump limited the altitude at which the system could operate. The radar antenna was not properly positioned, which limited the coverage of targets.

The last of 96 B-45As was delivered to the Air Force in March of 1950.

At one time, the Air Force planned to transfer the 47th Group's B-45 Tornados to the Far East Air Force, based in Japan. However, the B-45 had insufficient range to reach Hawaii (the B-45A-1-NA had a ferry range of 2120 miles) and the aircraft was too large to be loaded aboard Liberty or Victory ships without removing ten feet from each of the wings. Consequently, the deployment of the B-45A to the Far East was deemed impractical.

The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 led to a decision to adapt the B-45 to the tactical nuclear role as a deterrent against a Soviet attack against western Europe. However, the B-45 had not originally been designed with the delivery of atomic bombs in mind. Because of the high degree of secrecy surrounding the nuclear bomb program, the North American engineers did not know the dimensions of the early nuclear weapons, and the B-45 bomb bay could not accommodate the first atomic bombs because of a large spar that extended across the width of the bomb bay. Expensive and time-consuming modifications would be needed to make the B-45 capable of carrying these bombs. The development of smaller and lighter atomic bombs in the later 1940s helped somewhat, but their development was also accompanied by excessive secrecy, and the B-45 could not carry these bombs either without extensive modifications.


In December 1950, the Air Staff decided to go ahead and direct AMC to modify 9 B-45s for atomic duty. Five of them would be equipped with the AN/APQ-24 system, and four with the AN/APN-3 Shoran navigation and bombing system plus the M9C Norden bombsight. The program was known as Backbreaker, and the planes were to go to the 47th Bombardment Wing based in the United Kingdom. The bomb bay had to be structurally modified to handle three different types of atomic bombs, and a large amount of electronics support equipment had to be added. The aircraft had to be fitted with a new defensive system and extra fuel tanks.

The first nuclear-capable B-45As began to reach the United Kingdom in May of 1952, and by mid-June 40 aircraft were deployed. 15 more B-45As were added to the Backbreaker program in July of 1952. The tail defense system was upgraded, and the fuel flow totalizer (which had not been installed in the first 40 Backbreaker B-45s because of production delays) needed to be added. A specific type of atomic bomb required that the supports be moved into the forward bay to allow the installation of a 1200-gallon fuel tank in the rear bay. This program was not completed until March of 1954.


Four B-45A squadrons ended up serving in Europe during the early 1950s as the Strategic Air Command's first-line deterrent.

The B-45As rapidly became obsolescent as the B-47 Stratojet began to enter service. The B-45A began to be phased out of service beginning in the mid-1950s, and by January 1958, less than 50 were still operational. The B-45As with the 47th Bomb Wing (Tactical) rapidly converted to the Douglas B-66 Destroyer, and by July of 1958, the B-45s in the United Kingdom had all been transferred to other bases in Europe and North Africa. Most were junked there and sold for scrap.

Some of the early B-45As powered by Allison engines were used for training purposes under the designation TB-45A. Some of them were used as target tugs with a hydraulically-controlled reel and cable system in the bomb bay for a 20-foot Chance Vought target glider. A few of them were later brought up to the Backbreaker configuration.

The DB-45A was a conversion that was used as a director in guided weapons development.


Serials of B-45A:
47-001/022 North American B-45A-1-NA Tornado
- 008 on display at Castle AFB Museum
47-023/096 North American B-45A-5-NA Tornado
47-097 static test airframe for B-45A Tornado

Specification of North American B-45A Tornado:

Four General Electric J47-GE-13/15 each rated at 5200 lb.s.t. Alternatively, four J47-GE-7/9 engines were provided.
Maximum speed 571 mph at 3500 feet, 503 mph at 37,000 feet. Cruising speed 470 mph at 35,000 feet. Stalling speed 125 mph. Initial climb rate 5950 feet per minute. Combat ceiling 42,800 feet. Service ceiling 46,400 feet. Combat radius 533 miles with 10,000 pound bombload. Takeoff ground run 3400 feet. Takeoff over 50 foot obstacle 4930 feet.
Wingspan 89 feet 0 inches, length 75 feet 4 inches, height 25 feet 2 inches, wing area 1175 square feet.
45,694 pounds empty, 81,418 pounds gross.
Two 0.50-inch M-3 machine guns in tail turret. Maximum bomb load 22,000 pounds. Could carry 27 500-lb bombs in two bays for a distance of 800 miles or a single 22,000-lb Grand Slam bomb, or two 4000-lb nuclear bombs.


05-14-2006, 08:51 AM
interesting "jet Blast Deflector"

05-14-2006, 08:53 AM


n January 1944, the design bureau of O.P. Sukhoi, acting on its own initiative, started preliminary studies for a single-seat fighter with a combined powerplant comprising the main piston engine M-107A with a propeller and an auxiliary compressor jet engine (CJE) to act as a booster. The CJE compressor was rotated by the M-107A engine using a shaft.

The completed design was sent to the USSR PCAI for review and was subsequently incorporated in the draft of the 1944 AFRA aircraft prototype development plan. On 22nd May 1944, SDC adopted a resolution, which, among other things, obligated P.O. Sukhoi "€¦ to design and build a single-seat experimental aeroplane with the VK-107A engine, outfitting it with an additional CJE designed and built by TsIAM€¦"

At the beginning of June, the design bureau started to design the aeroplane subsequently referred to as I-107 and later renamed the Su-5. The conceptual design mentioned above was used as the design basis to be subsequently resubmitted, following some alterations, to the leadership of PCAI and AFRA for review. In the autumn of 1944, approval was given to the opinions delivered on the conceptual design and the report of the mock-up committee.


Due to a late delivery of the powerplant, the flying prototype took a very long time to build. The first flight on the Su-5 aircraft was performed by test pilot G.I. Komarov on 6th April 1945. The manufacturer's flight tests continued till 15th June, and that day saw the VK-107A engine break up in flight.

During the down time, there being no replacement engine available, the aircraft was fitted with a new laminated-profile wing developed by CAHI.

The new VK-107A engine with a limited service life was received at the beginning of July, with the flight testing resuming in early August and continuing till 18th October. The flights were discontinued, the engine having reached the end of its life. All attempts to arrange for a delivery of a new engine met with failure. There being a limited number of powerplants available, PCAI instructed TsIAM to supply them on a priority basis for the I-250 aeroplanes designed by A.I. Mikoyan as the latter were more advanced and had entered small-batch production. Note that the manufacturer's tests of the Su-5 aeroplane failed to reach the design performance targets.

A November 1946 resolution of USSR CM terminated work on a number of aircraft that "had lost the edge," the Su-5 having been named among them. By that time, testing had already begun on aeroplanes with turbojets.


Year: 1945 Crew: 1 Engines: 1 * 1650hp Klimov M-107A
Wing Span: 10.56m Length: 8.51m Height: Wing Area: 17.00m2
Empty Weight: 2954kg Max.Weight: 3804kg
Speed: 810km/h Ceiling: 12000m Range: 600km
Armament: 1*g23mm 2*mg12.7mm

05-14-2006, 09:16 AM
Heliopause... Thank's for the Il-28 photo.

My pleasure..

Now a few birds that didn't fly but interesting nevertheless. (I don't want to start a "what if" thread but I can't resist sharing some info here http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif).

Lockheed L-133 interceptor.

The plane was developed by no other than Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. The engine however was developed by Nathan C. Price. Nathan worked for the Lockheed company and had experience in the development of turbo superchargers. He worked out his idea of a jet engine, designating it: L-1000. It featured an integrated auxiliary power unit, a boundary layer control system, an annular combustion chamber and afterburner. In theorie the engine was to have 5,500lbst of thrust. Hall L. Hibbard, then chief engineer of Lockheed was convinced that no engine manufacturer would agree to get involved in such an ambitious project. Consequently he decided to patent Price's design and to go on with this project as a private venture.

Nathan Price (r) and Hall Hibbard examining an XJ-37 (L-1000) turbojet engine.

The airplane had three designs, the first of these was an attempt to adapt a conventional design to jet propulsion. It didn't have a protruding canopy. Second design had the engine intakes repositioned but no solution was found to make the gun installation "compact and aerodynamically clean".


The third design was much more radical but it was retained because it presented "the greatest number of advantages for the ultimate in simplicity". Well aware of the considerable stresses with wich the new aircraft would be confronted, Lockheed's engineers decided to make use of stainless steel throughout the structure.
An interesting innovation was that main wheels were put into motion thanks to a jet engine actuated hydraulic coupling device, a feature that was intended to produce high accelerations on the ground and considerably reduce take-off run. Grouped in the air intake were four 20mm canon, a disastrous layout wich would have caused engine stalling in combat should they have been fired. In 1942 Lockheed showed the project but in the end a lack of Air Corps interest killed the project and it never materialized.


Meanwhile the XJ-37 engine had been moved to the Menasco Manufacturing Corporation, at Los Angeles (oct '45) wich was due to undertake licence manufacture. Several engine protoypes were build and groundtested. Lockheed then sold its patents to Curtiss-Wright, wich cancelled the programme in 1952.

05-14-2006, 09:17 AM
Top_Gun_1_0_1... Carrier Launching Operations

Landing and launching takes place only after the ship is turned into the wind. Each of the four catapults on the Enterprise can launch an F-14 every one minute and 45 seconds, for a total rate of about one plane every 30 seconds. A heavily-trained flight deck crew orchestrates the operation of the catapult, a giant steam-driven slingshot that hurls the jet off the short runway.

The shuttle of catapult number four on USS John Stennis

The launching process really begins in the navigation tower. The carrier must be steered into the wind, so that air passing over the wings of the planes creates enough lift at take off.
The catapult officer, or shooter, (far left, in yellow) stands in the center hatch of the runway and orchestrates communication between the pilot and deck crew. The roar of the engines is so loud, the crew members must use hand signals to communicate. Even pilots agree that at peace-time, it's more dangerous to be on the flight deck than in the air. Deck members must actively avoid accidents such as: getting an arm sucked into a jet engine intake, being run over by a safety truck backing up, running into propellers, or being blown overboard from walking behind a jet exhaust.

<span class="ev_code_YELLOW">Then, an operator raises the jet blast deflector (JBD) which is a section of the deck. The JBD shields the deck crew from jet exhaust and reinforces thrust. </span>

A F-14 Tomcat, positioned in front of the jet blast deflector on USS Nimitz's catapult #1

The the plane is hooked to the catapult. The fully powered aircraft is held on the deck by a hold back-bar which releases when the catapult launches the plane.

A member of the USS George Washington flight-deck crew checks an F-14 catapult attachments. Tomcat.

Next, a weight board operator holds up a board showing the estimated weight of the aircraft to the pilot. Pilot gives the thumbs up, or can lower or raise the weight in 1000 lb. increments.

Steam rises from the catapult as an F/A-18C Hornet prepares to launch from the USS George Washington. You can see the catapult officer in the catapult control pod.

The weight board operator then shows the weight to shooter, the center deck operator and to the deck edge operators (DEOs). The DEOs call in the weight via telephone to the catapult crew below deck. The shooter takes the weight information and looks it up on a table of wind speeds to find a 3 digit code number, which he dials in to the console deck operator, who relays it below deck.

First Ready
The shooter verifies the status of the plane, its type, weight, and the current wind speeds for a second time. When all numbers match up, he sends the information below deck again. He waits for a signal to appear on a small bank of lights at the deck edge. A white light means "first ready;" the catapult operators below deck are ready to go.

A deck crew checker who sits right under the plane, gives a thumbs up after a visual inspection. After the checker runs away from the plane, the shooter gives the pilot a shaking hand signal that tells him to stay at full power, the crew is almost ready to shoot him.

Final Ready
A red light appears on the light bank, indicating "final ready" status. The deck edge operator signals that he's ready to fire. Shooter looks at pilot. Pilot salutes; shooter salutes back.

The shooter checks the winds one more time to make sure they haven't fallen off. When the shooter is ready to shoot, he'll touch the deck then lift his hand and point. A lifted hand tells the deck edge operator (DEO) that the shooter is ready to fire. The DEO will look for a green light in the light bank, and will check that the JBD is up and the plane looks good. Then, he looks back at the shooter. If the shooter's hand is still up, the DEO hits the fire button, releasing steam at about 500 pounds per square inch into the catapult. The plane is launched and there is no turning back.

If the shooter needs to abort in the middle of this procedure--for example if the winds drop--he need only put his finger back down on the deck. When the DEO takes his final look at the shooter and sees his hand down, he will not fire. The DEO will not start his sweep again until the shooter lifts his hand. This stage of the launch holds the greatest risk of miscommunication.

Link: http://science.howstuffworks.com/aircraft-carrier4.htm

05-14-2006, 09:31 AM
Russian designer Gudkov came up with a jet fighter during WWII.


As Gudkov developed the plane the engine was developed by A.M. Lyulka.
"In the war years the work on development of A.M.Lyulka's RTD-1 engine continued.... In 1943 under the leadership of M.I.Gudkov (one of the designers of the known LaGG-3 piston- engined fighter), a variant of the LaGG-3 powered by the RTD-1 engine was being designed. The engine was to be installed in the "step" layout at the bottom of the fuselage with jet exhaust under the tail [Yak-15 look-alike]. The maximum speed of the modified LaGG-3 was estimated at 900km/h".

Lyulka RD-1 jet engine design.

The invasion of Russia and the resulting exodus to the east of production plants did no good to the development programm of the jet engine causing great delays. As Lyulka ended up in different places to produce ever better and more powerfull jet engines the Gudkov fighter came to nothing.

05-14-2006, 12:04 PM
For those of you who haven't seen it yet, there is a great article in this months AVIATION HISTORY magazine on Sweden's air force in WW2. It states in effect that, other than aircraft bought or licensed from other countries, that Saab was Sweden's first producer of military aircraft and was the first to produce military jets for Sweden, which were also sold to other countries later on due to their amazing performance and payloads. Also stated that in the mid 1950's Sweden had the 4th largest air force in the world for several years and modern Swedish fighter aircraft can be refueled and rearmed in 10 minutes, whereas attack airacraft take 20 minutes. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_eek.gif
Prototype of the J-35 Draken produced by Saab.

05-14-2006, 01:00 PM
Does "early" include the whole 50s ? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/winky.gif

F-4 - M2
F-5 > M1
F-8 < M2
F-100 > M1
F-101 < M2
F-102 < M2
F-104 - M2
F-105 - M2
F-106 - M2

Mirage III - M2

Lightning > M2

MiG-19 > M1
MiG-21 - M2

Only the "sound barrier"-breakers of the fifties-jets....

05-14-2006, 01:24 PM
Don't forget the Lightning, which was specified in 1949 and entered service in 1959; it was capable of speeds slightly in excess of Mach 2, and altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet.

05-14-2006, 02:04 PM
I added the Lightning http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/10.gif

05-15-2006, 05:13 AM
Saab J 21/A 21/A 21R


The propeller version
After a specification from the air force, Saab presented a projected fighter (L-12) in 1939, powered by a 1215 hp Bristol Taurus radial engine giving it a maximum speed of 605 km/h. Armament would be four 13.2 guns and the layout conventional. Planned air force designation was J 19. The engine was later changed to be a Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp.
After the proposal had been handed in, Frid W¤nstr¶m pointed out that using a pusher propeller, better vision across the nose and more concentrated armament could be achieved. There would be one 20 mm cannon and two 13.2 mm guns in the nose and one 13.2 mm gun in each boom. Internal project number for this fighter was L-13. Layout was a pusher prop right behind the cockpit, twin booms and a tall landing gear with nose wheel. Crew was a single pilot.

As Saab at this time was busy developing and manufacturing the bombers B 17 and B 18, both L-12 and L-13 were put on the back burner.

In 1941 the air force arranged for purchase and licence production of Daimler Benz DB 601 engines, and Saab was told to expect to use DB 601 and DB 603 engines for future projects.

The air force liked the project L-13, but realized there could be problems with its development. The conventional fighter J 22 (by Bo Lundberg) was put into production by the air force itself and Saab started projecting a conventional fallback fighter (J 23). Both it and the J 21 (and L-21 as L-13 was now known) were to be armed with one 20 cannon and four 13.2 mm guns.

In October 1941 the J 23 was chosen by the air force and work on J 21 was stopped, but in December J 23 was cancelled and J 21 definitely chosen.

In 1943 71 DB 605B engines of 1475 hp were purchased at the same time a licence production contract was signed. The first engine made in Sweden wasn't delivered until after the war and production continued until 1948.

The wing profile for J 21 which was significantly faster than previous Swedish aircraft was similar to the one on Hawker Tempest, in order to get laminar flow as far as possible.

Since the propeller was placed behind the pilot, an escape system was needed, the form chosen was an ejection seat. (The J 23 would have had an ejection seat too.) It was tried before the first flight of the prototype on 1943 July 30. First real use, which was succesful, was 1946 July 29 after a mid-air collision between a J 21 and a J 22. In all 25 emergency ejections were performed from aircraft type 21, of which 23 were successful.

Originally 484 were ordered, but with the purchase of Mustang the number was reduced to 422, but in the end only 298 were made. There were five production batches and three prototypes, one which didn't fly:


Number Delivery In service
J 21A-1 54 1945-46 -1949
J 21A-2 62 1946-47 -1953 Improved avionics. Swedish made 20 mm gun.
J 21A-2 62 1947-47 -1954
A 21A-3 60 1947-48 -1954 Primarily intended for ground attack.
A 21A-3 60 1948-49 -1954
The J 21A-1s were all retired at the beginning of 1949. It was never a success as a fighter, but those designated A 21 (A = Attack, ground attack) or even B 21 (B = Bomb) made good service. They had the same armament as the fighter version, but also provision for carrying rockets and bombs with a bomb aiming sight, as well as two RATO bottles.
An improved version, J 21B was envisioned in 1945. It was to have three 20 mm cannons in the nose, a radar in the starboard boom and better aerodynamics. It was to use the same engine or possibly a DB605E. There has also been references to a envisioned variant with a RR Griffon engine. But of course it was really time for jet engines by then.
Saab wanted to gain experience with jet engines, and decided in 1945 to convert a few J 21A-1s to jet power powered with de Havilland Goblin 2 engines which were ordered from Enland.
The aircraft to be converted were taken from the assembly line before they were finished. Optimistically it was thought only 20% needed to be redesigned, but closer to 50% had to be changed. First prototype flew in 1947 March 10.

The main aerodynamic differences were the the tailplane were moved up to get away from the exhaust and the wing leading edge moved forward and made sharper. A totally new wing was cancelled on cost grounds.

The air force planned to order 120 but only 60 were ordered in 1947.
The J 21R (R = rea, reaction or jet) wasn't successful as a fighter either. It was used as a ground attack aircraft but had very limited range, with a maximum endurance of 46 min. With wing tip tanks it was increased to 100 min, but loaded with rockets flying at low altitude the radius of action was only 190 km.


Technical data
J 21A-2 A 21A-3 A 21RB
Engine DB605B DB605B DH Goblin 3
1475 hp 1475 hp 1500 kp

Span 11.60 m 11.60 m 11.37 m
Lenght 10.45 m 10.45 m 10.55 m
Wing area 22.2 m2 22.2 m2 22.1 m2

internal 510 l 510 l 890 l (of which 300 l in the wings)
external 2 x 160 l 2 x 400 l 2 x 400 l

empty 3330 kg 3346 kg 3090 kg
max TO 5200 kg 5200 kg 5615 kg

max 650 km/h 560 km/h 800 km/h
cruise 490 km/h 425 km/h 610 km/h

Altitude 10200 m 7500 m 12000 m
Range 1190 km 1650 km 900 km
Endurance 2.4 h 4.2 h 1.1 h (with external tanks)

20 mm cannon 1 1 1
13.2 mm gun 4 4 4 later changed to 12.7 mm
7.9 mm gun in pod 8
Bombs 1 x 600 kg
1 x 500 kg
1 x 250 kg
4 x 50 kg
Rockets 2 x 18 cm 5 x 18 cm
8 x 8/14.5 cm 10 x 8/10 cm
Max external load was 700 kg, which could mean one heavy bomb
plus four light (50 kg) bombs or rockets.


05-15-2006, 05:50 AM
Hawker Hunter


Hawker Hunter F. Mk1 to Mk 6

The first prototype of the hawker Hunter F.1 (WT555) first flown by Frank Murphy was on the 16th may 1953. production of the first 133 were built at the hawker Factory in Kingston. A second production line at the Blackpool factory first flew on 22 May 1954 a total of 26 F1 being built. After a few delays the first aircraft entered service in July 1954 with 43 Squadron based at Leuchers. Only three other squadrons were given F1 Hunters, the were Nos. 54, 222 and 247 squadrons. Only 45 Hunter F2 were built with the first flown ion 14th October 1953, Only 257 and 263 Squadrons were given the F2. Both of these versions were designed as short range aircraft. The F4 (WT701) first flew on 20th October 1954. This versions range had improved due the addition of fuel tanks in the wings. and two drop tanks. A total of 188 were built at the Kingston factory and another 177 built at the Blackpool site. The F4 engines (Avon 113's) shown to be troublesome were replaced with he new Avon 115's. 111 Squadron was the first squadron to be equipped with F4's at North weald in June 1955. Followed by Squadrons 98, 118 based in Germany and replacing the aging Venoms. By 1956 a total of 22 squadrons were equipped with the Mk 4, with 13 squadrons based in Germany, the Hunter F4 became the main ground attack and fighter aircraft of the Royal Air Force.


The Hunter F5 produced by Armstrong Whitworth first flew ion 19th October 1954 and entered service with 263 squadron in April 1955. A total of 105 aircraft most operated from Cyprus during the Suez Campaign of 1956. with 1 and 34 squadrons. the Hunter F6 entering service with the Royal Air Force in October 1957, This version was the largest production of all the marks, with a total of 379 built for the \RAF. and another 36 exported to Switzerland and Indian air forces. The F6 was used for the aerobatic teams with 111 squadrons Black Arrows and 92 squadrons Blue Diamonds. The F6 was modified for use mainly in Middle east and tropical climates. This new version was designated the Mk 9 These replaced the aging Venoms as ground attack aircraft. The Final MK10 was also base don the Mk 6.


The Total Production on all variants of the Hawker Hunter totaled 1,028 aircraft HUNTER MK 6 Specifications. Hawker Designation number P1099. Built at hawker Aircraft Ltd, Kingston Upon Thames and Blackpool factories and also sub contracted to Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft factory at Baginton, Coventry. Engine: Avon 203 Rolls Royce Engine. Max Speed: 715 mph at sea Level and Mach.95 at 36,000 feet. Range: 1840 miles at 515 mph (with drop tanks). ceiling 51,500 feet. Armament: four 30mm Aden Guns in a detachable nose pack. Two 1,000 bombs under wings (or drop fuel tanks) or 16 under wing rockets under outer wings.

http://website.lineone.net/~hunterxf382/ (http://website.lineone.net/%7Ehunterxf382/)

05-15-2006, 10:17 AM
Great stuff guys! (esp. woofiedog.. i do miss the old today in WWII thread) keep this up and you'll actually get me to like jets! Though who couldn't like the hunter eh? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/heart.gif

05-15-2006, 10:59 AM
Hi. I saw that Woofidog and Heliopause posted some Swedish AF early jet stuff. Some might remember that I posted some words on the subject here earlier.
For those who did not see it I take the liberty to post it again.

For those who discussed the Ta 183 and its possible influence on the Mig 15 etc, can cast an eye on the Swedish J 29!


J29 Performance

The first Swedish jet aircraft designed from the origin to be powered by a jet engine was the J 29 "Tunnan" ("Barrel"), built in 661 examples, delivered between 1951 €" 56.
J 29 was contemporary with MiG-15 and F-86 Sabre and had comparable, in some aspects perhaps better performance. These three fighters were anyway the "Big Three" in the early fifties Cold War scenario, Sweden at that time having the fourth largest air force in the world after USA, USSR and Great Britain, keeping up the credibility of the declared Swedish neutrality and alliance-free foreign policy.

When discussing the performance of the J 29 it is important to put it in the right time perspective as it was a design project starting in October 1945 around the British "Goblin" engine and interestingly combining this with German wind tunnel data on swept wing profiles. Sweden got access to these data via a person in Switzerland who had copies of the German research material, and the Swedish engineers utilized this design quicker than the Americans. The resemblance to the late war Messerschmitt P 1101, later to become (or rather say influence) the Bell X-5 in the US, was probably not only coincidental.
When taking to the air in 1948 on its 25 degree swept wings it was level with the F-86 and MiG-15 in performance. Coming to units in 1951 it gained much publicity and at a time when speed records still gave status and national pride, the J 29 delivered. In 1954 a speed record was set on a circuit of 500 km with 997 km/hour (607mph)average speed.(previous record set by an F-86 wıth 950km/h or 590mph) This record stood for more than a year, to be taken by an F-86H which crashed on the finishing line, killing the pilot but granted the record!
In 1955 it was time for the S 29C reconnaissance version to beat the 1000km circuit record then kept by a British Meteor with 822 Km/h . The RSAF (Royal Swedish Air Force) decided to take the record, but with a formation of two a/c this time! This was achieved at an average speed of 900.6 km/hour (615 mph).

A unique feature of "Tunnan", but also subsequent SAAB aircraft like "Lansen", "Draken", "Viggen" and "Gripen", was the outstanding serviceability and fast turnaround on the ground. Swedish a/c are typically also today refueled, reloaded and given a pre-flight check from parking to taxing out again in 15 -20 minutes depending on the load alternatives. This gives a short exposure on the ground and high mission ratio relative to some contemporary NATO aircraft of which some took even hours to turn around between missions and this also done by specially trained technicians. The RSAF relied on conscripts with relative short training. The built-in ease of field-maintenance is one of the basic design criteria for Swedish military aircraft.
The J 29, as all subsequent Swedish a/c, was suitable for the dispersed network of road bases and satellite war emergency fields all over Sweden. This was an adaptation to the strategic threat of nuclear weapons destroying the built up infrastructure at the home base air fields.

The reliability was very high, enabling start and take off in formation, which was frequently done wıth several aircraft at a time, enabling quick formation building in the air and formation for attack or defence.

The J 29 had a high roll rate as it was very sensitive on the servo-assisted ailerons, making it very maneuverable in air combat as well as having great precision in aiming in at a target.

Rudder sensitivity was also high.

Pilots routinely pulled more than 6G (The official permitted level)with the aircraft in combat training and they sustained well, pilots not needing to go to the gym after work in those days as they developed quite well trained bodies fighting the G forces.

The J 29 never had to fight the Cold War in the air why we will never know how they would have faired against their contemporaries. An indication can be taken from the experience when a RSAF air show group visiting the UK in 1953, flying comparative tests against groups of Meteor Mk 7 and F-86 Sabre.
The Meteor curved better at the lower speed range but the J 29 easily dispatched them with their "push" tactics, utilizing speed and height advantage, they had developed against J 28 Vampires at home.
The F-86 was another matter and also flown by Korea veterans. The J 29 pilots assumed their own a/c curved better, this also under climb, because of its design. This made them press the F-86 group by successfully curving in the horizontal plane under climb, gaining in the turn. However the battle experienced F-86 drivers recognized this and switched to the vertical plane with looping, where the F-86 accelerated faster and had better maneuverability on the top of the loop due to the adjustable leading-edge slots.
This was a new experience to the J 29 pilots and they came out short.
However this experience had influence on the development on coming improved tactical use of the J 29.

How the J 29 would have faired against the MiG-15 is hard to tell as they never met to my knowledge, even if I have heard RSAF pilots telling stories about turning with Migs over the Baltic Sea and international water.

One incident was actually described by pilot Roy Fr¶jd in his book "Guldvingen". When flying "target" for several days over the Baltic Sea for a new Swedish radar station being calibrated at the island of Gotland, the J 29s were shadowed by MiG-15s. After a few days four MiGs attacked the group from a height advantage. The RSAF pilots had before hand decided what tactic to use if they were attacked. The choice fell on a "scissors" movement which was actually restricted due to the collision risk. When the MiGs came within firing distance Fr¶jd ordered "Scissors!" with the result that two MiG-15 collided when following!
The calibration flights went on without further disturbance after this incident.

The loss rate between the Sabre and MiG-15 in the Korean War might lead to assume that the J 29 stood a good chance. In the end also the pilot material and correct tactics employed for the aircraft type has a very high influence on the outcome.

We shall also remember that the RSAF tactics was to focus on shooting down as many bombers at high altitude as possible as they presented the real threat to the country and were also potential nuclear bomb carriers.
Costly turning battles with fighters were to be avoided as much as possible. Assuming that the aggressor having a substantial advantage in number of a/c it was of course important to shoot down as many as possible but also to survive and come back up again after rearming and refueling. Again the short turn around time on the ground was important.

The tactics employed against high and fast flying bomb formations was executed in similar way as the Luftwaffe "Sturmgruppen" developed in 1944. Many heavy bombers in the 1950s where still propeller aircraft giving the J 29 a speed advantage with its 1050 km/hour Vmax.

The first alternative was to attack in formation from behind. This "pursuit curve" tactic was trained over and over again in "Rote" (a two a/c group) and in much larger formations kept closely together in curving in on the target. The leader informing the group on which target he intended to fire upon, where after the others calculated which enemy a/c was "his" depending on place in the own formation. Some deflection was preferred to increase damage in the target a/c. Weapons were rockets and 20mm guns. Rocket pods reduced the top speed and were not that popular with the pilots. The formation was guide on to the target formation by a "rrjal" on the ground who was crucial for a successful interception.("rrjal" is a ground radar fighter control officer).Sometimes a complete wing could be involved in a pursuit mission why the limited radio equipment with 8 channels only became a bottleneck, enforcing short messages and discipline.

The second attack alternative was the frontal attack which had to be used if the target flew faster than M 0.8. This was much more complicated as it was difficult to get in the right position if the target was not visually confirmed early on and time given to come in position. Even small changes in directions by the target formation could lead to a failed attack. Because of the closing speed fire had to be opened from a longer distance compared to when attacking from the rear, high visibility was important for success.

In the Swedish Cold War defense plan the main risk of attack came from the east. Contemporary Soviet bomber aircraft to build tactics for in the 1950s was:
Tu-4 'Bull' a B-29 copy built in large numbers. Max 575Km/h.
Tu-20/Tu-95 'Bear' a four-engine turbo prop, 870 Km/h long range nuclear bomb carrier introduced 1956.
One can imagine that against these two an attack from behind would be tried.

Tu-16 'Badger' a twin jet with nuclear capacity and 945 Km/h max speed, from 1954.
M-4 'Bison' a four-engine jet bomber introduced 1955-56 with 900+ Km/h max speed.

These two jets had a top speed not far from the J 29 (1050Km/h) and would depending on the situation be attacked from the front, or the rear if situation and target speed permitting.

In the west still B-29/B-50 (575/640km/h) and B-36 (707km/h) was in use. The faster (933km/h) B-47 six-engine jet came into service in 1950. B-52 (925 Km/h) in 1955

RSAF pilots were highly motivated, and flew aggressively wing against wing in big combat training air battles. Big formations curving and fighting in numbers the SwAF could not put up today even if it tried to. The German and Finnish WWII system of two a/c was the basic fighting formation. The tactics employed gave more freedom to the wingman to lead an attack if sighting the target first or having a better position in the RSAF, more like the Finnish tactics than the USAF, where the wing man's only task was to protect the leader.
As faster and more modern aircraft came in use the J 29 units developed new tactics to compensate the shortcomings and to utilize the strengths of "Tunnan". The J-29 remained in front line service until 1967 when the F4 Wing retired their a/c. During this time they had time to meet the A 32 "Lansen" as from 1956, with the "sport" version J 32 all weather fighter with after burner appearing later, J 34 Hawker Hunter in 1956 and J 35 "Draken" from 1959. "Tunnan" never got all weather capacity even if a J 29R was studied in 1950, in the same spirit as the MiG-15 and F-86 radar versions.
A development stretching from subsonic to super sonic Mach 2.0 performance of course made the "Tunnan" outdated over time even if it received an afterburner to the jet engine with the J 29F version, greatly enhancing acceleration and climb, "high speed wing" and RB 24 Sidewinder IR missiles which enabled combating a/c of higher performance. It however also made good service as a ground pounding attack A 29B and reconnaissance S 29C.

Utilizing the good roll rate and turning ability they still made difficult targets for the faster and more modern jets, utilizing high angle speed. By adjusting to optimal speed, power setting, flaps and airbrake it turned well. Getting a hit on a J-34 Hunter or "Draken" was another matter and more difficult because of the big differences in power and speed.
You can perhaps compare with the experience from Vietnam where the faster and more modern US jets didn't find the smaller and slower MiG 15, 17 and 19 that easy a target!

Special escape maneuvers such as the "Maximum half roll" and the "Drill" was developed at the F16 wing which flew the J 29 1952 €" 62. The first maneuver enabled keeping the a/c at the critical Mach speed in a half roll which the following modern a/c would not dare to follow, building up too high speed themselves. The "drill" was a diving vertical roll movement making aiming virtually impossible by an attacker.
The tactics against bombers developed resembled some the Luftwaffe practiced against USAAF bomber streams in WWII. Utilizing the "push" tactic with height and speed advantage, avoiding loosing speed advantage by curving with enemy fighters, attack the bombers and firing the four 20mm cannons and/or rockets, making a "Maximum half roll" and pull away. To this could be added the "Drill" if pursued by enemy fighters.

The durability was high and many a J 29 driver told stories about how many G they pulled. The record, by a surviving pilot, was perhaps the 11.3 G Jan Nordin and a/c survived in 1964 flying from F3! He came into an "unplanned" diving roll but managed miraculously to save the situation but the J 29 was deemed a write-off after landing with wings bent, the fuselage had a broken back and the tail unit bent 13 degrees. She still flew!

The quality and finish of the J 29 was very high. The engine was reliable and not very sensitive to foreign objects in the air inlet. One F16 Wing pilot, Nisse Benker, flew a whole training flight with a big screwdriver rattling around in the engine air inlet without problems, no damage to compressor or engine! It could also absorb structural damage in collisions, and also bullets, still continue flying. The latter about bullets became a reality in Africa.

The J 29 and S 29 also flew in UN service in Congo 1961-62. The first five J 29B flew from F8 south of Stockholm the 12,000 km to Leopoldville (With stops), reporting operational already when landing!

The "Tunnan" proved it's versatility in Congo flying in a completely different climate but maintained above 96% serviceability during the conflict, much higher than any other UN unit involved (F-86 Sabre and Canberra).

A 29B €" The attack version weapons and tactics.

Weapons and targets.
RSAF fighters kept their cannons all they way trough to JAS 39 "Griffon" contrary to the doctrine in the UK and USAAF who for a time believed cannons and dog fights was history. One benefit was the flexibility in modifying the a/c for a new role €" attack. Later RSAF a/c, even the pursuit designed J 35 "Draken", had a decent ability to attack ground targets as a secondary role.

The A 29 fixed armament was the four 20mm m/47 cannon with 180 grenades each. Additionally a choice of rockets could be carried. Mainly:
8 or 14 x 14.5 cm armor piercing m/49 rockets
8 or 14 x 15 cm m/51 armor/explosive rockets
2 or 4 x 18 cm m/49 explosive rockets. Mainly to be used against ship targets.
Wing tanks were used as napalm bombs.

The RSAF was integrated in the invasion defense force strategy at the time, which influenced the tactics.
The primary task was to combat an invasion coming from over the sea or land, or alternatively to knock out any established bridge head. The attack units trained for attacks on invasion fleet vessels, mainly transport and landing craft vessels. In a bridgehead the troop concentrations and groupings of materiel were primary targets to be destroyed
Given the geographical differences in the northern part of Sweden tactics against a land invasion developed. Primary targets being vehicles, rail road communications, bridges and troop concentrations using cannons, 15 cm rockets and napalm. Also storages and support facilities were intended targets for slowing down an invasion attempt.
On air fields the primary targets were enemy a/c to be destroyed by cannon and 15 cm explosive rockets. Secondary targets were base equipment and personnel.

1. Flying at extreme low level
2. Attack together in battle groups
3. Coordinated concentric attacks from different directions

To avoid AA fire it came natural to keep as low as possible why much time was spent training below 50 m altitude. The time "over the horizon" was minimized to reduce exposure to AA and attack angle was only 5 to 20 degrees.

Attacking in larger groups intended to "saturate" the AA defenses. The most complicated part was to gather the battle group in shortest possible time not burning up to much fuel why take offs in groups and formation on the leader was trained a lot. Penetration of cloud layers in a group up to 1000m thickness was no major problem after training.

Attacking in larger groups had the benefit of saturating the AA defenses but increased the vulnerability to fighter attack. To reduce the risk of the attack being broken up by enemy fighters the concentric attack from different directions, preferably separated by 90 degree angles for maximum effect was trained.
This could be achieved by smaller groups closing in on the target area from different directions, timed to attack in sequences separated from each other in time and direction of attack. This demanded very tight time and flight route planning.
Another tactic to avoid fighter interception was to fly at lowest possible level in separate groups to a meeting point where the battle formation gathered for a joint concentric strike pattern €" or to attack as a group at very low level.

The tactics further contained attacks under morning and evening hours why pre-attack and return flights after attacks sometimes were done under darkness. Change of base location was to be done at anytime during the 24 hours why a lot of training was spent during the dark hours.
The interested reader can compare the above with the ground attack tactics developed during WWII.

The above was along posting but will hopefully make some of you interested in the unique Swedish developed built and flown "Tunnan" aircraft of the early jet era. The J 29 played an important role in modernizing the RSAF under the "Cold War", of which you also got a small piece of history above.

For reading further there is an excellent book in the "Flygande Tunnan" by Lennart Berns, 1996, Forlag Allt Om Hobby. It is in Swedish but with a short summary in English.

I have used this book and several other publications as reference literature on the RSAF (Later the "Royal" has been dropped and is now only the SwAF) for the above.
I also had the opportunity to meet several of the "old" J 29 pilots who were still around at F16 Uppsala when I was there in the early 1970's, and they really loved "their" J 29 and spoke lyrically about it as a real pilot's aircraft. By that time the J 35 Draken or "Dragon" ruled the skies over Sweden. But that is another story, which I might return with later if you appreciate the above.

05-15-2006, 07:39 PM
Can't forget one of the most successful attack jets of all time and one that my father flew after Vietnam.
History: Initially dubbed 'Heinemann's Hot Rod' after chief design engineer Ed Heinemann, the A-4 Skyhawk is one of the best jet aircraft to have served with the US Navy and Marine Corps. Chosen to replace the A-1 Skyraider, the A-4's small design and light weight gave it the speed and power to exceed the Navy's specifications and fight on until today in air forces around the world.

The delta wing aircraft houses its avionics in the nose, along with a pair of cannons for dealing with aerial adversaries. The wings hold the fuel tanks, and the Pratt & Whitney turbojet fits snugly in the fuselage. Ordered during the Korean War, the A-4 was delivered to the US Navy VA-72 attack squadron on October 26, 1956. Other squadrons were soon re-equipped as soon as aircraft became available. The Marines began receiving their A-4s in January 1957. By the time of the Vietnam War, all carrier wings had at least two Skyhawk squadrons. The A-4s were soon performing most of the Navy's and Marine Corps' light air attack missions over the jungles and mountains of Vietnam. It was not long before McDonnell Douglas also produced a two-seat trainer, the TA-4. The A-4 has been sold to countries around the world and has seen combat with the air forces of Kuwait, Israel and Argentina. Production finally ceased in 1979.

Until recently, both the US Navy and Marine Corps used A-4s for training purposes. Skyhawks are still found serving as frontline units in several smaller countries. As of 2001, there were nine single-seat Skyhawks and three TA-4s on the US civil register, although not all were airworthy. [History by David MacGillivray]

Nicknames: The Scooter; Bantam Bomber; Heinemann's Hot Rod; Tinker Toy; Mighty Mite; Camel (A-4E and subsequent models with avionics hump); Skyhog; Super Fox (US Navy Fighter Weapons School A-4Fs with bigger engines); Squawk/Kahu (New Zealand); Ahit "Vulture" (Israel); Chickenhawk (Australian Navy).

Specifications (A-4M):
Engine: One 11,200-pound thrust Pratt & Whitney J52-P-408A turbojet
Weight: Empty 10,465 lbs., Max Takeoff 24,500 lbs.
Wing Span: 27ft. 6in.
Length: 40ft. 3.75in.
Height: 15ft. 0in.
Maximum Speed at Sea Level: 670 mph
Range: 340 miles with 4,000-pound bomb load
Two 20-mm cannon
Up to 9,155 pounds of weapons on five external hardpoints

Number Built: 2,960

Number Still Airworthy: Unknown number in active military service; at least three have been flown as privately-operated warbirds.

05-16-2006, 11:22 PM
F19Gladiator & Bigpilot4u... Excellent articles.

05-16-2006, 11:33 PM
Douglas F4D Skyray

The Douglas F4D Skyray was a carrier-based fighter built by the Douglas Aircraft Company. Although it was in service for a very short time and never fired a shot in aggression, it was notable for being the first carrier-launched plane to hold the world's absolute speed record and was the first Navy fighter capable of exceeding Mach 1 in level flight. It was also distinguished in being used by the only Navy Squadron (VFAW-3) assigned to the North American Air Defense Command. VFAW-3 was permanently based at NAS North Island, San Diego. Its unique and notable looks also played a part in making the Skyray one of the best-remembered early jet fighters. Affectionately known as the "Ford", this aircraft had a spectacular rate and angle of climb and set new time to altitude records.


Later designated F-6 in the unified designation scheme, the Skyray's almost delta-winged planform was inspired by Alexander Lippisch's work in Germany during World War II. The Skyray was a tailless design with long, sharply swept, rounded wings. The thick wing roots contained the air intakes feeding a single turbojet. Fuel was contained both in the wings and the deep fuselage. Leading-edge slats were fitted for increased lift during takeoff and landing, while the trailing edges were mostly elevon control surfaces. Additional pitch trimmers were fitted inboard near the jet exhaust, and were locked upward on takeoff and landing.

The Westinghouse J40 turbojet was the intended power plant, but Douglas fortunately took a conservative view and gave options for other powerplants. The J40 proved troublesome and was eventually cancelled, and the Skyray was fitted instead with the Pratt & Whitney J57, a more powerful but larger engine.

Production aircraft were not delivered until early 1956, while the U.S. Marine Corps received their first in 1957. In total, 419 F4D-1 aircraft were produced.

The Skyray was designed exclusively for the high-altitude interception role and was unsuited to the multi-mission capabilities soon in demand, so it had a short life in Navy and Marine Corps service, the last planes being withdrawn from service in 1964. A single aircraft was used by NACA (soon to be NASA) until 1969.

A derived successor, the F5D Skylancer, was designed and prototypes were built, but it was cancelled as too similar in mission parameters to the Vought F8U Crusader and also to reduce dependence upon Douglas Aircraft, which was also producing several other aircraft for the U. S. Navy.


With the new joint services designations (replacing the Air Force "century series" and the Navy/Marine designations (which included a manufacture letter code), the F4D was redesignated as the F-6A.

Possible confusion: The F4D (old designation) should not be confused with the F-4D (new designation) - the latter being the "D" variant of the McDonnell F-4 Phantom II.



General characteristics
Crew: 1
Length: 45 ft 3 in (13.8 m)
Wingspan: 33 ft 6 in (m)
Height: 13 ft 0 in (10.2 m)
Wing area: 557 ft² (52 m²)
Empty weight: 16,024 lb (7,268 kg)
Loaded weight: 22,648 lb (10,273 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 27,116 lb (12,300 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Pratt & Whitney J57-P-8, -8A or -8B turbojet, 10,200 lbf dry; 16,000 lbf afterburner (45 kN / 71 kN)
Maximum speed: 722 mph (1,200 km/h)
Range: 700 mi combat, 1,200 mi ferry (1,100 km / 1,900 km)
Service ceiling: 55,000 ft (17,000 m)
Rate of climb: 18,300 ft/min (93.3 m/s)
Wing loading: lb/ft² (kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.71
4x 20 mm cannons in the wing roots
2x 2,000 lb (907 kg) bombs
2x AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles
6 pods of 7x 2.75 in (70 mm) unguided rockets, or 4 pods of 19x 2.75 (70 mm) rockets


05-17-2006, 12:02 AM
low quality Mig-15 cut-aways . . . . would LOVE to get a hold of hi-res versions : )



who knows what the plane below is :


hint : its russian

05-17-2006, 04:17 AM
OKB-1 EF 140 http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif


The OKB-1 EF 140 was a prototype aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by captured German engineers from the Junkers factory, originally conceived as a bomber, but later considered as a reconnaissance machine. The aircraft was a follow-on from the Junkers Ju 287 bomber prototype, but while it used the same basic layout and engineering concepts, it was an entirely new design by Brunolf Baade.

Only one EF 140 was actually built, and began flight tests on March 15, 1949, using Rolls-Royce Nene engines as the intended Mikulin units were not yet ready. The project was cancelled before the second prototype was complete.


Role Bomber/reconnaissance prototype
Crew three

Length 19.70 m 63 ft
Wingspan 19.40 m 62 ft 1 in
Height 5.70 m 18 ft 3 in
Wing area 58.4 m² 627 ft²

Empty 12,500 kg 27,500 lb
Loaded 24,500 kg 53,900 lb
Maximum take-off 27,000 kg 59,400 lb

Engines 2x Mikulin AM-01 turbojets
Thrust 68.7 kN 15,400 lbf

Maximum speed 1,230 km/h 767 mph
Range 2,500 km 1,558 miles
Service ceiling 12,300 m 40,000ft
Rate of Climb

Guns 4 x 23 mm machine guns
in 2 remotely-controlled turrets
Bombs None
production version was to carry
4,500 kg (9,900 lb)

05-17-2006, 12:56 PM
Thanks 'Woofiedog', glad you liked it.

Running the obvious risk of repeating myself too much, I also paste a slightly revised story I wrote on the successor to the J 29 and A 29 - The A 32 and J 32 Lansen.

Once again I try to put the aircraft into the operational tactics used at the time, putting the aircraft into its contemporary context and the threat scenario perceived in the cold war period.

A 32 A "Lansen" attack
J 32 B "Lansen" all-weather interceptor

Aircraft:A 32A Lansen

In 1946 the work on replacing the B 18B powered by two DB605 engines, by that time becoming operational, started by evaluating a new design. The RSAF early on decided to go for jet aircraft why the new attack a/c was proposed as such, originally around two engines and many different designs including a flying wing was considered. Eventually a two-seater one engine design developed, using a new Swedish jet engine design €" the Dovern. The a/c finally given project No. 1150 in 1948 was to be able to meet an enemy along the 2000 km long Swedish coast within one hour, carrying guns, rockets, bombs or robots during day and night. Supervising the project at SAAB was Lars Brising who was also behind the J 29 "Tunnan".
Some of the design proposals have similarities with some late WWII German proposals for jet attack aircraft; if this is pure coincidental or not I can not tell.
Rolls Royce providing jet engines for the J 21 and J 29 got information on the ongoing Swedish Dovern engine project and decided to release their latest development the Avon for RSAF, thus cutting out potential competition from Sweden on jet engines. Avon became the RM5 to be built by Volvo-Flygmotor under license.
The new A 32 Lansen (Lance) flew on 3 November 1952 and became operational in 1956 at the F17 wing.

The new attack aircraft enabled for the first time all weather and 24 hour capability. Now the tactics developed by the A 21R, A 28B Vampire and A 29B Tunnan could be further developed for around the clock action. This demanded a radar set operated by the second crew member sitting behind the "Driver". Lansen had advanced electronics equipment for its time. However not all A 32 had radar as they attacked in groups.

It was the first RSAF a/c to break the sound barrier, even if it was in a dive from 14.000 meter. A total of 456 were built of all versions: A 32, J 32 B, D, E, F and S 32C until the last a/c left the SAAB factory in 1960.

Fixed weapons were the Bofors built four 20mm cannons. License built Swiss Hispano-Zuiza weapons.
Many alternatives could be hanged on. A few examples;
Up to 24 attack rockets
Bombs 3 x 600kg
Two Rb 04C, a 616 kg radar guided homing anti-ship robot launched from maximum 32 km distance to the ship target. The missile had its own active terminal target homing.

See the A 29B text for general tactics and targets explanation.
One of the primary tasks was to eliminate ships in case of an invasion, why I will describe an attack with rockets against ship targets and another with Rb04C.

Rocket attack:
Take off is done under maintained radio silence not to reveal the mission already here. A group of 8 a/c often taking off in pairs with 10 sec intervals. On the approach, economical height is used to conserve fuel and maintaining radio silence. Coming into an area covered by enemy radar (100km), height is dropped to lowest level, still navigating by dead reckoning and not using the radar to avoid being detected. Low is around 10 meters in this case even if parts of trees and other objects stuck in wings proved that lower levels were also visited. Also pieces of external load such as fuel tanks have been consumed by Poseidon when coming too low over the water.
Salt spray sometimes covered the windscreen and even tracks in the water by the jet stream could be visible as the A 32 formation stormed ahead above the wave tops.

If attacked by fighters, the rearmost A 32s in the group dumped the cargo and turned to tie them up in a fight while the others continued towards the target. It was calculated that enemy fighters starting from the other side of the Baltic Sea could not spend that much time at lowest level at highest power setting for long until they would have to break off and return home. One defense tactics against fighters was the 'Scissors" when two a/c turned against each other at 6 €" 6.5 G at lowest level watching each others backs.
(This proved effective against the attacking Mig-15 group in 1955 when they attacked the J 29s. See J 29 text above)

Fighters attacking head on are not much of a threat though, as the attack speed is high and the level lowest possible. After burner pushes raises the speed to 900 €" 1000km/h

With the radar technologies at that time it was also difficult to separate echoes from low flying a/c from the radar "ground clutter" on the screen. The green camouflaged A 32 was also difficult to spot against the Swedish fir tree forests beneath, even more so as the grey morning or evening hours were preferred for attack - or even night jobs.

During the approach ground control gave target position corrections based on shore radars or information from the navy, the A 32s still maintaining radio silence.
Enemy ship target location and changes were given with reference to an agreed reference fix point with a code name, why the enemy was kept unaware of what was brewing.

5.5 km from the target the group lift the feet out of the water and climb up at 900km/hour under a half roll onto the back, lowering the nose in a 15 to 20 degree dive towards the target and rolling back level again, aiming and releasing the rockets exploding in a fiery series of blasts into the ship sides. The attacking a/c when in formation attack keeps around 50m distance to each other and are in a wedge formation to hit the target with maximum effect and causing confusion for the defending AAA.

The group turns and drops to lowest level again, spreading out on line abreast with 500 -2.000 m distance, depending on visibility, to each other in order to be able to defend each other if attacked by fighters. Racing for home to refuel and reload.

During night attacks flare bombs can be used. One a/c flying 30 sec ahead of the attack group drops flare bombs while climbing, arching them over and behind the ships thus illuminating them from behind making them stand out like silhouettes for the attacking colleagues following. The A 32 could carry 8 light bombs.

To fool enemy radar, chaff dispensers were used in the attack phase intended to blind the screens long enough to confuse the AAA.

Typical load out was eight 18cm explosive rockets, equaling a broad side by a Navy cruiser!

Rb04C attack:
Normally each A 32 carried two Rb04C, a robot which enabled attacks around the clock and regardless of visibility. Live tests showed that few ships could survive a Rb04C hit and this was the most potent weapon the RSAF had against an aggressor coming over the sea.
To confuse the enemy fleet, diversionary attacks and missions were carried out to enable the robot carrying a/c to close in undetected at lowest level over the sea.

60 to 40 km from target the radar sets were switched on by all aircraft and targets selected by each attacking A 32. At slightly less than 30kms from target, a climb to 50m followed by the release of the robots, where after the A 32s made a dive to the deck and turned for home.

It is important to minimize time flying above "lowest possible level" as well as the time flying straight when close to the ships. To increase the confusion and mayhem attacks were often done in groups of A 32s.

F7 wing of the RSAF also developed a novel "Flank Attack" tactic minimizing the opportunity of enemy AA efficiency, which has also been studied by foreign air forces visiting exercises. This tactic was later also used by the potent AJ 37 Viggen system.

The above is some basics as there are different developments, technology and tricks not mentioned here.

Dog-fighting ability

Roy Fr¶jd in his book "Guldvingen", which I can recommend for those reading Swedish, claim that without exterior weapons load the A32 had no problem keeping the J 29F under control. The J 29F was a good dogfighter even if the J 29A was the most agile due to its lower weight but at the expense of less internal fuel capacity and hence action radius.
Having a second crew member in the A 32, the extra pair of eyes was also helpful in a fight.

The A 32 served for 22 years and proved very robust and service friendly. With all the load alternatives it was considered a bit under powered, but on the other hand it was claimed it could deliver the same Rb 04 as the Navy vessels against an invasion force, at ten times the speed and at the same level over the sea as the Navy!
It was a very competent weapons system with well developed tactics and powerful weapons in the hands of very well trained pilots and navigators, making any invasion attempt over the sea a highly risky adventure.
A the height of the cold war the RSAF could mobilize 1000 A32, J 32 and J35 integrated into a modern ground control system second to none.
The base system with dispersal of the aircraft on many camouflaged war bases, some merely a stretch of wide road, made it difficult and costly to attempt to eliminate the base structure. Further the fast turnaround on the ground increased the efficiency with multiples over contemporary NATO forces in Europe.

J 32B Night fighter €" Lansen "Sport"

The Swedish night fighter force came into being after WWII with the purchase in 1948 of 60 Mosquito NF Mk XIX named J 30. These were replaced in 1953 by J 33 Venom, D.H 112 Venom N.F.51. Despite that the Venom had a performance enabling catching the bombers; a need for a more potent aircraft with more powerful radar was desired.
A total of 120 fighter "Lansen", J 32B with radar PS-42/A, delivered 1958-60
A stronger AVON Mk 47A based RM 6A with Swedish designed afterburner 4880kp/6500kp thrust. Max speed M 0.92 / 0.95 respectively.
Time to 14.000 m was 6.5 minutes in clean configuration. 12.000 m in 4.5 min.
With two RB24 and two rocket pods 5.8 min to 12.000 m

Designed to knock down large bombers under nocturnal and bad weather attacks, a more powerful cannon armament was installed in the J 32B version, with four fast firing 30mm m/55 ADEN cannon, with twenty rounds/second firing rate and 90 rounds per cannon. The cannon were actually a development from the famous MK 108 done by Enfield in the UK. Four of these cannons were powerful enough to fragmentize anything flying and being built from aluminum.
The cannon later saw service also in the J 35 Draken.

2 rocket pods m/57 with 19 of the 75mm air-to-air unguided rockets each.
12 to 24 attack air-to-ground rockets. Normally 16 were carried.
2 or 4 RB 24 Sidewinder IR robots

The J 32B could with the help of the afterburner intercept bombers flying at subsonic speed at 14.000m. The a/c was not considered suitable for dog-fights with other fighters because of the turn circle and 10 min maximum afterburner limit. Some pilots however had another opinion about the dog-fighting ability as per below.

Attacks to be guided by STRIL (The Swedish ground control interception guidance system) on to the target for the interception, where after the fighter disengaged avoiding enemy fighters.

Primary weapon was the robots, secondary the air-to-air rockets m/57 and then the cannons. Robots could only be used when weather conditions allowed IR tracking of target and before the RB 24 was introduced the rocket pods was the primary weapon.
The M/57 rockets could also be used against land and sea targets.

Interception of a bomber target:

The night fighter often acted individually when intercepting. If a larger group of targets were attacked, the other a/c formed up with 300m space on to the leader and followed by locking the radar on to him.

The night interceptor was guided by the rrjal, radar fighter ground control officer, towards the incoming target, the ambition being to guide the fighter to a position 90 degrees angle to the bomber for an attack.
At around 30 km distance the radar operator made contact by using the a/c radar and guided the pilot to contact. Against the higher flying target the afterburner is ignited and the J 32 accelerated to M 0.92, then lifting the nose and surging up higher to make contact. Approaching from under the target at 1 -1.2 times the bomber's speed and releasing the rockets at 1200 to 800m. If necessary the cannons are fired from 700 down to 200 m distance.

Later when the RB24 was introduced they could be fired at 5.0 to 0.9 km distance depending on the weather and angle of interception.

Fighting other fighters:

Again the former J 32 pilot Roy Fr¶jd gives at hand that a J 32B without external loads and 2000 l fuel easily could win over the J 34 Hunter, which was proven by ample gun camera shots.

Fighting the F-86K from the Norwegian AF in a "friendly" duel did not pose any problems either according to Roy.

High performing a/c like the fast J 35 Draken was of course more dangerous but still manageable in a J 32B with an experienced pilot, if only the first high speed dashing attack could be avoided. The J 35 used high speed hit tactics. Curving with a J 35 was no problem. In a climbing turn the J 35 with its large double delta wing form lost speed quickly in a nose up attitude, and the J 32 could then drop down on the J 35 and shoot it down.
The navigator was also a help in informing the J 32 pilot about what was happening around them in the fight.
Fighting the J 29 it was important not to engage in low level dog-fights as this was the strength of the J 29.
J 34 Hawker Hunter was preferably lured to fight higher up in the air as their lack of afterburner made it inferior higher up. (A Swedish after burner was designed and successfully fitted to a J 34 but the project discontinued as the J 35 was just around the corner).
A formula for success was of course a well rehearsed "rote" (Two a/c) tactic with good communication and mutual protection.

How the J 32 B would have fared against contemporary fighters is not known. What is known is that some MiGs attacking RSAF a/c over the Baltic succeeded to drive themselves into the waves. Trying to follow an a/c making an evasive half roll when attacked from a higher altitude with higher speed, which the MiG drivers favored, it was a big risk the attacker could not level out in time, before meeting the fishes!

It's not only the aircraft, but very much the pilot who makes the difference in the end.

Photo: F19Gladiator
Aircraft: J 32 Lansen

Lansen, Sven Stridsberg, 1992, Allt om Hobby f¶rlag.
Svensk Flyghistorisk Tidskrift 1/2004. Bert Stenfeld article.
Svensk Flyghistorisk Tidskrift 4/2004. Olle Jensen article.
Svensk Flyghistorisk Tidskrift 1/2000. Hans Rogberg article.
Guldvingen, Roy Fr¶jdh, 2003, Air Historic Research AB

05-17-2006, 02:04 PM
Those airbrakes on the J29 and on the J32 are kinda funny http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-very-happy.gif

05-17-2006, 03:05 PM
Hi 'Bremspropeller'.

Yes you can see one of the four J 32 fuselage dive brakes in extended position.

The picture below show them in action. One can actually see three out of four of them extended here:


The aircraft 29 had two types. You can not see them on the picture I posted. Aircraft 29001-29132 had hydraulically operated wing speed brakes. Later aircraft got fuselage speed brakes as seen "in action" below:

Ref: Flygande Tunnan by Lennart Berns, Allt Om Hobby F¶rlag.

They extended from the fuselage just in front of the wheel wheels. On the first picture I posted you only see them retracted but the gaps in the plates in front of the wheel well reveal their position. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/10.gif

05-17-2006, 04:48 PM
great topic http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif
Did anyone notice the Horten glider behind the Pilqui I? (what's it doing in Argentina?)
I think the Cutlass is the pretiest of all early jets (poor performer though)


05-17-2006, 11:49 PM
Originally posted by woofiedog:
OKB-1 EF 140 http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif curses! . . . . . well done Woofiedog - if you can get a prtotype as obscure as the EF140 im not going to try anymore http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-very-happy.gif

Originally posted by F19Gladiator:
it was a big risk the attacker could not level out in time, before meeting the fishes! wow , what your describing is a very violent impact - im amazed accounts like this are not more well knowen . that Lansen must have been quite the performer - a contemporary of the Hunter , Mig-17 & F-100 Saber no ?

05-17-2006, 11:54 PM
Originally posted by Badsight.:
low quality Mig-15 cut-aways . . . . would LOVE to get a hold of hi-res versions : )


http://img225.imageshack.us/img225/1033/mig15bis559bt.jpg (http://img225.imageshack.us/img225/1033/mig15bis559bt.jpg%5B/IMG%5D)

who knows what the plane below is :


hint : its russian

Russian OKB

Sweet design and aircraft forward swept wings are far superior to aft swept except for the stability problems created with positive G bending and twisting. Someday when composites are twice as strong as they are now all high performance aircraft will probably utilize this design...

05-18-2006, 12:49 AM
Badsight... LoL Luck on my part. Good try though.

jimDG... The Cutlass also gave many pilots back problems from faulty landing gear.

Quote... The Cutlass faced many other design problems. The nose landing gear system contained a weak link brace that would crack when making a Carrier landing. This caused the nose gear to collapse and usually resulted in injury or death to the pilot.

05-18-2006, 01:02 AM
Vought F7U Cutlass


The Vought Company designed the Cutlass as a tailless, carrier-based fighter for high speed and high rate of climb. Three models were designed, F7U-1, F7U-2 and F7U-3, but owing to problems with the power plant in the F7U-2, only the F7U-1 and F7U-3 were produced. Experience with the F7U-1 indicated that the F7U-3 would benefit from redesign of the airframe. The most obvious of the changes was in the nose section. All F7U-1s served as trainers; only the F7U-3 deployed in the fleet as a fighter aircraft.

The Navy awarded Vought a contract for the XF7U-1 on 25 June 1946. The aircraft first flew in August 1948. The first squadron delivery of an F7U-3 did not occur until May 1954; the Cutlass was last reported in squadron less than four years later on 30 November 1957. A total of 305 F7Us were delivered to the Navy.

Rear view of the F7U Cutlass with its tail hook down.

The Cutlass design was a tribute to innovation. It featured a pressurized cockpit and tricycle landing gear before they became common in aviation design. It was also the first aircraft to reach production that used afterburning engines. For the Navy it was the first aircraft to have swept wings and use a high-pressure hydraulic system. The F7U-M variant was the first figher plane equipped with air-to-air guided missiles.

Despite these advances the Cutlass faced serious deficiencies. Its J34 Westinghouse engines, still relatively new at the time, could not give the craft the power necessary to function effectively. Even after redesigning the craft for a more powerful J46 engine the Cutlass still lacked the thrust necessary to function effectively as a fighter. In this respect the F-7U was ahead of its time, it would be several years before engines powerful enough for the Cutlass became available.


The Cutlass faced many other design problems. The nose landing gear system contained a weak link brace that would crack when making a Carrier landing. This caused the nose gear to collapse and usually resulted in injury or death to the pilot.

The F7U had four 20mm cannon that were situated above the air intakes for the jet engines. When the guns were fired the engines were prone to stall out in mid-flight. This resulted in the loss of several pilots and planes. Eventually it was determined that the firing of the cannon simultaneously created a pressure wave near the air intakes that created a resonance in the eingine's compressor and caused the compressor blades to over heat and burnout. When the guns were modified to alternate shooting the problem was corrected. In addition, the F7U was also able to carry rocket pods under the wing and eventually modified to carry Sparrow I air-to-air missiles.


One variant, the F7U-3P was equipped for photographic reconnaissance missions.

Although it was not without problems, the Cutlass was popular with those who flew it. It was comfortable to fly, capable of "high-g" and acrobatic manuvers and offered good pilot visibility. The rakish Cutlass looked exciting, but its performance and flying characteristics were downright terrifying -- by the time the type was retired from service in 1957, it would be responsible for the deaths of four test pilots and 21 Navy fliers.

General characteristics
Primary function Fighter
Contractor Vought
Power plant Two Westinghouse J46-WE-8A turbofans
Thrust 2x 6,140 lb 2x 2,785 kg
Length 44 ft 3 in 13.49 m
Height 14 ft 7 in 4.44 m
Wingspan 38 ft 8 in 11.79 m
Wingarea 496 sq ft 46.08 sq m
Weight empty 18,210 lb 8,258 kg
takeoff 31,642 lb 14,350 kg
Range 660 miles 1,062 km
Max. speed 680 mph 1,095 km/h
Rate of climb 13,000 ft/min 3,962 m/min
Ceiling 40,000 ft 12,191 m
Crew One


05-18-2006, 02:01 AM
Originally posted by Top_Gun_1_0_1:


Intersting thing about this plane is that - if I remember this correctly - the He280 actually flew before the war, or at least before American involvement in the war. At any rate, the prototype He280 flew years before the Me262 did, and exibited excellent flying qualities.

Unfortunately, Heinkel fell out of political favor with the German government at the time this aircraft was being developed, and never got the proper funding to further develop this already excellent aircraft.

The He280 obviously never got to the point of being produced in numbers.

05-18-2006, 04:54 AM
Originally posted by Treetop64:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by Top_Gun_1_0_1:


Intersting thing about this plane is that - if I remember this correctly - the He280 actually flew before the war, or at least before American involvement in the war. At any rate, the prototype He280 flew years before the Me262 did, and exibited excellent flying qualities.

Unfortunately, Heinkel fell out of political favor with the German government at the time this aircraft was being developed, and never got the proper funding to further develop this already excellent aircraft.

The He280 obviously never got to the point of being produced in numbers. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

He 280 first flight Sept 22 1940. It always suprises me how early this was, only 36 or so years after the Wright Bros first flight.
The earlier He 178 did a 'short hop' off the runway on 24 Aug 1939!

He 178:






05-18-2006, 06:45 AM
jimDG... Quote... Did anyone notice the Horten glider behind the Pilqui I? (what's it doing in Argentina?)


Here's a bit of info on the Horton Gliders.




05-18-2006, 07:51 AM
QUOTE]Originally posted by Badsight.:

Originally posted by F19Gladiator:
it was a big risk the attacker could not level out in time, before meeting the fishes! wow , what your describing is a very violent impact - im amazed accounts like this are not more well knowen . that Lansen must have been quite the performer - a contemporary of the Hunter , Mig-17 & F-100 Saber no ?[/QUOTE]

'Badsight', you are right in that Lansen was contemporary with The Hunter, MiG-17 etc. The service life actually spread over 30 years, also as S 32C reconnaissance version and J 32 E ECM version but also different test aırcraft for radar and electronics developments.

Regarding timing, it first flew on 3 November 1952 and the first A 32A were delivered to F17 Wing in December 1955.

When it was introduced it had modern electronics for its time and was constantly upgraded. It was a very reliable and versatile weapons system at the height of its career. Over time it of course had to face the fast technological development. We shall also remember that this was an attack aircraft designed for primarily delivering weapon loads against invasion attempts from 10-20 m height at 950-1000kms/h - not a dog-fighter.
For fighter protection the Mach 2 capable J 35 Draken or 'Dragon' interceptor, another unique Swedish design, was at hand.

In the 50-ies and 60-ies the defence budget allowed for frequent and realistic pilot training and many clocked loads of hours training hard with their aircraft type, why the pilot capability was high. This together with the coordinated Stril 60 air-defence-system made up into a potent defence force.

Regarding the incidents over the Baltic Sea, they did happen but are not well recorded or easily accessible from one source or single publication yet. These incidents took place under the cold war era, which could turn hot enough sometimes.
A well documented case, on which books have been written, is when a RSwAF DC-3 evaluating Soviet radar activity was shot down over the Baltic Sea by Soviet MiGs. Also a sea-rescue Catalina (Canso) was shot down in connection with the DC-3 incident. the DC-3 was recovered the other year and its remains are now in storage in Sweden.

RSwAF often met and also photographed encounters with Soviet aircraft (and NATO's) as part of the always maintained "incidence watch" at 24h high alert, meeting and warding off airplanes coming too close to Swedish airspace. Soviet Navy movements and exercises were routinely watched and recorded by the reconnaissance aircraft, mainly by the F11 Wing based near Nyk¶ping.
It was inevitable that the two airforces met over the sea, and sometimes some guys tried to show off their flying skills. As I referred to earlier, some MiGs are claimed to have studied the fauna at the bottom of the sea after failed such "displays". On the other hand I have seen a tape of a RSwAF reconnaissance Viggen crashing into the sea after curving very low over the Baltic Sea close to a new Soviet cruiser, probably because of "pilot error" in the ambition to show the "red force" what a Viggen could do at low level.
It was a rule however never to fly above the foreign navy vessels which could have triggered an AAA reaction. Flying at the same level as, or below, the ship's bridge but to the side and parallell was another matter.
Another excercise was to approach the Baltic coast at "lowest" and then heave up fast just before the territorial water, and then turn to the side, thus testing the alarm and radar reaction on the other side. I once got the opportunity to talk to a guy who at that time was a radar guided AA robot unit officer on the receiving end in Lithuania, when a 37 Viggen pulled this trick. Another, higher, officer in charge was out in a boat fishing nearby when the alarm went off. He "got his fishes hot" afterwards from his superiors. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_cool.gif

05-18-2006, 08:50 AM
Heinkel He 280 flew in september 1940 as a glider. It flew under jet power for the first time on 31st march 1941. It had less range than the Me 262, one of the reasons it was cancelled....

05-18-2006, 04:18 PM
Originally posted by Heliopause:
Heinkel He 280 flew in september 1940 as a glider. It flew under jet power for the first time on 31st march 1941. It had less range than the Me 262, one of the reasons it was cancelled....

I stand corrected. It was towed by a He 111 before release. 9 protoypes were later built and flown. First flight with the engines was April 1941 according to The Encyclopedia of Aircraft, ed. Robert Jackson 2004.

05-19-2006, 08:45 AM
April '41 is the month that turns up often in the He 280 books/articles. Wolfgang Wagner in his book: "first jetplanes in the world" explains that Heinkel was able to buy the Hirth motorenwerke (engine factory) if his He 280 jet plane flew before April 1941. 30th March was the day the He 280 flew for the first time for a brief 3 minutes with pilot Paul Bader at the controls.
(from memory I came up with 31 march but after reading it appeared to be 30 March 1941. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif)

05-19-2006, 12:54 PM
thanks woolfiedog, thats very enlightening.

I read somewhere a test pilot acount for the Cutlass. He was saying that the Cutlass handled beautifully, was very acrobatic and wouldn't spin under any conditions. However - once it spun - there was no recovery.
Decades later (i.e. nowadays) it's actually proven theoretically that the more stable an aircraft is (and more difficult to put into a spin), the more difficult it is to recover from a spin.
He also complained about the hydraulics - all controls were hydraulic (the first aircaft to use all-hydraulic-control was the Cutlass), but the system failed so often that there was a conventional push-rods mechanical control system in parallel. It took 30 sec for the mechanical controls to engage and become operational after a hydraulic failure, so the test pilot joked that he had lots of flying hours in the Cutlass "as a passenger" (while waiting for the systems to switch after a failure..and flying with no controls!)

05-19-2006, 01:38 PM
Avro Vulcan

The world's first delta-winged bomber to reach operational service, the Avro Vulcan was one of the cornerstones of Britain's nuclear deterrent during the height of the Cold War.
In later years it was adapted for conventional bombing and saw active service in the Falklands War.
It's final career was as an airshow star, a role in which it excelled - and may do so again.


The origins of the Vulcan lie in an Air Staff Requirement formulated a year after the end of World War 2. OR 229 called for a high-altitude, high-speed, strategic bomber capable of delivering a single 10,000 lb (4536 kg) nuclear weapon to a target 1725 miles (2780 km) distant. No British atomic bomb existed at the time, and so both the aircraft and weapon would need to be developed in parallel. After some discussions with industry, detailed specification B.35/46 was formally issued in early 1947.
Innovative aerodynamic and structural design were required to meet the exacting requirements of this specification and the clear favourite to emerge from the contest was the Avro Type 698, later known as the Vulcan. As an insurance, the runner-up design, the Handley Page HP.80 was also selected for further development (becoming the Victor).

Although unusual in appearance, the Avro design was of conventional design structurally.
The delta wing plan-form allowed the engines, undercarriage, fuel and bomb load to be enclosed in a low drag shape which gave good high altitude and high speed performance. The four engines were located in pairs and fed by 'letterbox' inlets in the wing root leading edge.
The short fuselage, merging into the wing root, was a relatively late addition which gave extra space for internal equipment and the pressurised crew compartment. A single large vertical fin provided directional stability.

An order for two prototype Type 698s was signed in June 1948. A short while later, an additional order was placed with Avro for the development of the Type 707 series of research aircraft. The Avro 707 was intended to investigate the low and high speed characteristics of delta wings, for application to the 698 design. In the event, development ran almost parallel to the Type 698 and only a small amount of useful data was obtained.

The first Type 698 prototype (VX770) took to the air for its maiden flight on 30 August 1952. Development of the intended Bristol Olympus engines was running behind schedule at the time, and so the first aircraft was fitted with four 6,500 lb (2,948 kg) thrust Rolls-Royce Avon R.A.3s.

A year later the Avons were replaced by 7,500 lb (3,402 kg) thrust Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire A.S.Sa.6s. The Olympus Mk 100 engine of 9,750 lb (4,423 kg) thrust was first installed on the second prototype (VX777), which was initially flown on 3 September 1953. VX777 featured a 16 in (0.41 m) longer fuselage to increase fuel capacity and accomodate a longer nose leg, a ventral blister for visual bomb aiming and an improved crew compartment.

In the meantime, the first production Vulcan B. Mk 1 order had been placed, and the first of these aircraft (XA889) flew on 4 February 1955. XA899 was principally used for engine development, flight testing each upgraded version of the Olympus as it was produced. The B. Mk 1 was successively fitted with Olympus Mk 101, 102 and 104 engines.


Avro test pilot Roly Falk caused a sensation at the 1955 Farnborough Air Show by slow-rolling the second production aircraft during its display. Thus giving a clear demonstration of the control and stability of the still strange-looking aircraft.

Flight testing showed that the application of g at high altitude at high Mach numbers could result in aerodynamic buffeting (high frequency vibration), which posed a fatigue problem in the outer wings. This was remedied by reducing the sweep angle on the central portion of the wing, giving a kinked leading edge instead of the previously unbroken 52º sweep.
This Phase 2 wing was first flight tested on the second prototype in October 1955 and progressively retrofitted to early production aircraft.
On 31 May 1956, No.230 Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) was formed to train Vulcan crews for Bomber Command.
The first crews went on to form No.83 Squadron which received its first aircraft on 11 July 1957. A total of six squadrons were eventually equipped with the B. Mk 1.


A second version, the B.2, became operational in 1960. A total of 133 Vulcan bombers were produced.

Armed with the "Blue Steel" nuclear air to ground missile, the Vulcan represented a good portion of the United Kingdom's nuclear force. However, the Vulcan bombers were relegated to a conventional role in 1966, when the Royal Navy's Polaris submarines became operational. Later, some Vulcans were converted to the role of Strategic Reconnaissance.

The Vulcan made its mark in aviation history during the Falkland Islands War of 1982. Several Vulcan bombers were converted back to bomber status and flew several bombing raids against the Port Stanley Airport and several radar sites. These missions, code named "Operation Black Buck", held the record for the longest (distance) bombing raid in history. This record has since been broken by the Strategic Air Command during Desert Storm in 1991. The Black Buck missions were flown from the Ascension Islands to the Falklands and back, a distance of over 7,700 miles.

The aircraft on display at Castle Air Museum, XM 605, is a B.2 version which was operated by the Royal Air Force's 44 Squadron and was based at R.A.F. Waddington, Lincolnshire, England. It arrived in 1981 and is on indefinite loan to the museum, courtesy of Her Majesty's Government.


Avro Vulcan B.2

Crew: 5; Pilot, Co-Pilot, Navigator Plotter, Navigator Radar and Air Electronics Officer
Length: 99 ft 11 in (30.45 m)
Wingspan: 111 ft 0 in (33.83 m)
Height: 27 ft 2 in (8.28 m)
Wing area: 3965 ft² (368.4 m²)
Empty weight: lb (kg)
Loaded weight: 199,585 lb (90,530 kg)
Useful load: 21,000 lb (9,550 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 204,000 lb (92,500 kg)
Powerplant: 4Ӕ Rolls Royce Olympus 201/301 turbojets, 17,000 lbf/20,000 lbf (76 kN/355.9 kN) each
Never exceed speed: mph (km/h)
Maximum speed: 645 mph (1,040 km/h)
Cruise speed: 625 mph (1,005 km/h)
Stall speed: mph (km/h)
Range: 2,300 mi (3,700 km)
Service ceiling: 62,300 ft (19,000 m)
Rate of climb: ft/min (m/s)
Wing loading: 50 lb/ft² (246 kg/m²)
1x Blue Steel cruise missile semi-recessed in the fuselage or 1x Yellow Sun Mk.2 nuclear bomb or 21x 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs. Aircraft participating in the Falklands war also carried 2x AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missiles under the wings.

<span class="ev_code_YELLOW">Black Buck 1, 30th April/1st May 1982: The nearest useable airfield was on Ascenscion Island, a small island near the coast of Africa. The trip to the Falklands would take eight hours flying time and require multiple in-flight refuelling sessions. In all eleven Victor tankers would be needed. A carefully planned sequence had the Victors refuelling both the Vulcan (XM607) and the other tankers, with increasingly smaller numbers of tankers continuing with the Vulcan while empty tankers returned to Ascenscion. Due to unexpected differences in the performance of the Vulcan and Victor, many of the Victors returned with barely enough fuel to land - at one point several Victors had to land one after the other, without even enough spare fuel to allow the previous Victors to clear the end of the runway. The last Victor had to give up so much fuel to the Vulcan that it did not have enough fuel left to reach the island, so another Victor had to be scrambled to refuel the incoming Victor so it could reach the airfield! Had one not been available that last Victor would have crashed into the sea 400 miles short of Ascenscion.

With refuelling finished, the Vulcan continued alone towards the Falklands. About 300 miles out, they descended to 300 feet above the sea. At about 40 miles out they began to detect signals from the Argentine radars and climbed to 10,000 feet to begin their bombing run. 10 miles out the AEO detected a gun-laying radar attempting to lock-on to the Vulcan. The American ALQ-101 jamming pod was activated and no lock-on was made. The bomb doors were opened. Two miles out and the bombs began to drop. The aim of the mission was to place at least one bomb on the runway at Port Stanley. A textbook attack was carried out, laying 21 1,000lb bombs in a diagonal line across the width of the runway. One bomb hit the runway dead centre. Another blew a large crater in the edge of the runway and the rest missed the runway and made a mess of the surrounding area. Not only did some fuel and ammo stores suffer, so did the golf course! Racking the huge bomber into a tight turn, the Vulcan crew quickly made their exit. Much more lightly loaded on the return trip, fewer refuelling sessions were necessary and a single Victor kept them company on the home trip once they had reached the rendezvous point near Brazil.

While any damage caused was more to Argentine morale than Argentine installations, the message sent to Buenos Aires - you are not out of range - was obviously one that was heeded, because many Argentine fighters were kept back from the Falklands to defend against a possible attack on Argentina. Several more Black Buck missions were flown against the Argentine radars on the islands. Black Buck 2 was a repeat of Black Buck 1 but had less success, with the bombs missing the runway. Black Bucks 3 and 4 were cancelled because of problems with refuelling. The navigator of Vulcan XM597, Dave Castle provides the following accounts of the next two missions:


05-19-2006, 04:06 PM
Early jets?


I think i just owned you all. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/59.gif

A little video:Coanda 1910 (http://stream.servstream.com/ViewWeb/The_Discovery_Channel/File/Coanda_English_300k.rm?Media=12134)

05-19-2006, 04:46 PM
u is wrong

"..Hero, an Egyptian scientist from Alexandria, developed the first "jet engine" about the year 100 BC... "

05-20-2006, 01:50 AM
Excellent postings... http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

05-20-2006, 11:35 AM
Some drawings from my collection (not sure where I got them off the web)






05-20-2006, 11:46 AM



05-20-2006, 11:48 AM
Some more






05-20-2006, 12:06 PM
Those look like some kind of modeller's drawings Luft. Strange seeing them in cyrillic. Ta'.

05-20-2006, 12:22 PM
luftluuver... Very Nice line drawings.

I have roughly 500 Hard Covers {or Hard Copies as you stated in another post. LoL} about history in my Library which I began in Gammer School [that was back in the early 60's]... but scaning is difficult with my small printer.

I'd love to show some of the Aircraft Line Drawings from the books of the Japanese Artist Watanabe... who was also a fighter pilot during WW2. He made some of what I think are the Best in Publication... also included would be his Aircraft Prints.

But Again Thank's for the posting of these Drawings.

05-20-2006, 12:38 PM
Must have got them from Russian site.






Note that the drawings had to be reduced 25-50% to be uploaded to my host.

Vought drawings can be found at http://www.vought.com/heritage/html/down.html

Other a/c drawings, http://membres.lycos.fr/wings2/3vues/3vues.html

05-20-2006, 01:19 PM
One of the meanest looking cold war bombers:

Tu-22 Blinder


http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/bomber/tu-22.jpg http://www.globalaircraft.org/photos/planephotos/tu-22_1.jpg

05-20-2006, 03:50 PM
Originally posted by luftluuver:
Note that the drawings had to be reduced 25-50% to be uploaded to my host. gah! , wish you hadnt have said that - especially after seeing the russian pics you posted

http://picsplace.to/ will allow you to upload up to 1.5 Mb

http://www.imageshack.us/ allow up to 1 Mb

and you could just post the link they give here without the image tags , not that im sugesting anything . . . .

05-20-2006, 08:58 PM
Originally posted by Badsight.:
and you could just post the link they give here without the image tags , not that im sugesting anything . . . .

Thanks for the link.

I wish I could remember where I got them from.

05-22-2006, 07:53 AM
Mig I-320


-320 (R-1, R-2).

Two-seat interceptor-fighter with two engines and "Tory-A" radar.

The works on development of two-seat interceptor-fighter were started in accordance with Council of Ministers' Decision dated 12 June 1949 and Ministry of Aviation Industry's Order dated 18 June 1949.

Two prototypes of the I-320 interceptor-fighter were built: the first prototype (R-1) with two RD-45F engines and the second prototype (R-2) with two VK-1 engines.

The I-320 aircraft represented itself cantiliver monoplane with wing sweepback of 35o. A crew was laid-out at pressurised cabin in a configuration of side-by-side (pilot was on the left, navigator-operator was on the right) that in case of availability of a crew inter-phone provided close co-operation of crew's actions. Availability of dual controls and two radar indicators provided to reduce pilot load by the second crewmember during search of enemy and prolonged flights. Armament included three 37-mm N-37 cannons (50 rounds per each cannon). Power plant was arranged in the fuselage according to a tandem configuration. The engines were arranged under the cabin and slightly in front of it with location of a nozzle exit under fuselage behind the cabin. The rear engine was arranged at the rear part of fuselage. A common air intake had three separate ducts (one duct for the first engine, the second and the third ducts for the second engine). "Tory-A" radar was arranged at the nose part of fuselage. Airplane equipment also included RSIU-6 radio station, OSP-48 blind landing equipment, "Bary" IFF responder and SPU crew inter-phone.

The first I-320 prototype was manufactured and was handed over for factory tests in April 1949. The first flight took place on 16 April (pilots Ya.I. Vernikov and S. Amet-khan). Factory tests of the R-1 underwent from 16 April 1949 to 18 January 1950 inclusive. Leading test pilot was Ya. I. Vernikov, leading engineer was A.M. Block. The I-320 got a good evaluation on the basis of tests. The commander of Air Defence fighter aviation lieutenant-general E.Ya. Savitsky participated in a fly-off, which also gave a positive opinion of it. The aircraft was stable, simple and pleasant in handling. Its system operated without any failure. Single-engine flight did not practically change the aircraft trim and could be performed both in circling and altitude climb modes. However they failed to complete the program of factory tests fully due to occurring of buffet at speeds which corresponded to Mach numbers of 0.82 - 0.84. Therefore the following aircraft operating limitations were specified: indicated airspeed (IAS) not more than 850 km/h, Mach number not more than 0.80, it was allowed to use airbrake flaps up to 500 km/h (IAS). Besides tests of the aircraft check flight tests of "Tory-A" radar were carried out from 19 October to 20 December inclusive 1949.


During the year development works on the R-1 aircraft and state tests of "Tory" radar were carried out. In December 1950 the R-1 aircraft was equipped with "Korshun" radar according to a contract with NII-17 and was handed over to NII-17 to perform its tests.

Meanwhile in November 1949 the second prototype of the I-320 interceptor-fighter (R-2) was manufactured. Installation of VK-1 engine provided to get an increment of speed by 50 km/h. Besides changes of engines differences of the R-2 were not numerous. View was improved; emergency canopy jettison became more reliable. Anti-icers were installed at leading edge of wing and stabiliser, electrical heating of engine air ducts was introduced.

Factory tests of the R-2 were started in December 1949. But on 13 March 1950 tests were interrupted due to severe damage of the nose part by exploded projectile within a cannon. During repair, which was continued up to 30 March, a number of modifications were carried out: V dihedral of wing was reduced from -30 to - 1.50; automatic device of airbrake flap deployment was installed; the third stall fence was installed on each outer wing. During the tests that were resumed on 31 March it was revealed that change of the V dihedral impaired relationship of lateral and directional stability. Ventral fin was additionally installed to eliminate this disadvantage.

After completion of factory tests the I-320 (R-2) interceptor-fighter was handed over to GK NII VVS for state tests. But soon the aircraft was withdrawn from tests and was returned to OKB to carry out development works due to revealed serious defects: wing-heaviness at instrument airspeed of 930 - 940 km/h and lateral instability at Mach numbers of 0.89 - 0.90.

Wing stiffness was increased by additional skin installation from the first stall fence to a middle aileron bearing and along a chord from front to rear spars to eliminate wing-heaviness. Besides the third fence was removed, trailing edge of ailerons was reworked and their lines were straightened angle of stabiliser setting was changed. The lateral instability at high Mach numbers was eliminated by installation of wing spoilers. In case of rudder deflection by 20 the spoiler was extended by 38 mm on opposite outer wing.

Factory tests that were carried out from 15 October to 29 December 1950 confirmed the effectiveness of performed actions after that the aircraft was returned to GK NII VVS for state tests. However the I-320 interceptor-fighter just remained as the prototype version because the radar wasn't reliable and was very difficult to operate, so military bodies gave their preference to the aircraft designed by A.S. Yakovlev OKB - Yak-25M with "Sokol" RP-6 radar. Subsequently the I-320 was used to develop various radio/radar equipment.

05-22-2006, 10:55 AM
Fokker S.14 jet trainer

After the occupation of WWII the fokker factory started producing airplanes again, backed by the government. Initially the main focus was on trainer airplanes. After a couple of prop designs (like S.11 and S.13) Fokker came with it's S.14 jet trainer.

S.14 prototype at Schiphol airfield.

The student and instructor sat next to each-other in Martin-Baker ejection seats. The plane was powered by a Rolls-Royce Derwent III engine. It had straight wings. First flight took place on May 19th 1951. The Fairchild factory bought licence rights for production, but the type was overshadowed by the Lockheed T-33 and only Holland used the type in limited numbers. (appr. 20)

S.14 in it's trainer life.

Picture from a museum's example.

05-23-2006, 12:06 AM

Valiant origins: Vickers Type 660
Handley-Page and Avro came up with very advanced designs for the bomber competition. These would become the Victor and the Vulcan respectively, and the Air Staff decided to award contracts to both companies, again as a form of insurance.

Vickers-Armstrong's submission had been rejected as too conservative, but Vickers' chief designer George Edwards energetically lobbied the Air Ministry and made changes to meet their concerns. Edwards managed to sell the Vickers design on the basis that it would be available much sooner than the competition, going so far as to promise delivery of a prototype in 1951 and production aircraft in 1953. The Vickers bomber would be useful as a "stopgap" until the more advanced bombers were available. Apparently, the Air Ministry did not think there could be too much insurance.

Although the idea of developing, much less fielding, three entirely different large aircraft in response to a single request is unthinkable now, aircraft were less sophisticated in those days. Usually, development was not so troublesome, and it certainly was much less expensive. Indeed, one aviation writer observed, with a certain amount of exaggeration, that it cost less to develop a combat aircraft at the dawn of the jet age than it would to produce the manuals for a modern equivalent.

In April 1948, the Air Staff issued a specification with the designation B.9/48 written around the Vickers design, which was given the company designation of Type 660. In February 1949, two prototypes of the aircraft were ordered. The first was to be fitted with four Rolls-Royce RA.3 Avon engines, while the second was to be fitted with four Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire engines and redesignated Type 667.

The first prototype took to the air on 18 May 1951, as George Edwards had promised, and beat the first Short Sperrin into the air by several months. It had been only 27 months since the contract had been issued. The pilot was Jeff "Mutt" Summers, who had also been the original test pilot on the Supermarine Spitfire, and wanted to add another "first" to his record before he retired. His co-pilot on the first flight was Gabe "Jock" Bryce, who replaced Summers on his retirement.

The Vickers Type 660 was given the official name of "Valiant" the next month, recycling the name from the Vickers Type 131 general-purpose biplane of 1931. Traditionally, RAF bombers had been named after towns and cities, for example "Lancaster", "Halifax", and "Canberra", but the new aircraft technology seemed to suggest a break from tradition, and the name "Valiant" was selected by a survey of Vickers employees.

The Valiant jet bomber prototype was lost due to an in-flight engine fire in January 1952, all the crew escaping safely except for the copilot, who struck the tail after ejecting and was killed.

After modifications to the fuel system to eliminate a fire hazard, the second prototype, Vickers Type 667, first flew on 11 April 1952. It was fitted with RA.7 Avon engines with 33 kN (7,500 lbf) thrust each, rather than the Sapphires originally planned. The loss of the initial prototype did not seriously compromise schedule, since the accident occurred late in the flight test programme.

An initial order for 25 production Valiant B.1 (Bomber Mark 1) aircraft had already been placed in April 1951. The first production aircraft flew in December 1953, again more or less on the schedule Edwards had promised, and was delivered to the RAF in January 1955. Britain's "V-bomber" force, as it had been nicknamed in October 1952, was now in operation. The Victor and Vulcan would follow.

Valiant details and variants
The first Valiant prototype was a relatively conservative and conventional design, with a shoulder-mounted wing and twin Avon RA.3 turbojets, each with 29 kN (6,500 lbf) thrust, in each wing root. The design gave an overall impression of a plain and clean aircraft appealing in its simplicity, like many early jet aircraft. George Edwards described it appropriately as an "unfunny" aircraft.

The wing's good size allowed it to have a chord (ratio of wing thickness to length at the root) of 12% and still accommodate the Avon engines within the wing. This engine fit contributed to the aircraft's aerodynamic cleanliness. However, it made engine access for maintenance and repair more troublesome, and increased the risk of "fratricide", with the failure of one engine possibly contributing to the failure of its partner.

The wing had a "compound sweep" configuration, devised by Vickers aerodynamicist Elfyn Richards. It had a large 45? angle of sweepback in the inner third of the wings, with outboard a shallow angle of about 24?. The compound sweep was a good compromise between aerodynamic efficiency and aircraft balance.

The engine inlets were long rectangular slots in the first prototype, but later Valiants featured oval or "spectacle" shaped inlets to permit greater airflow for more powerful Avon engine variants. The jet exhausts emerged from fairings above the trailing edge of the wings. The tail was swept back, and the horizontal tailplane was mounted well up the vertical tailplane to keep it out of the engines' exhaust and so improve controllability.

The wing loading was relatively low and the Valiant was fitted with double-slotted flaps, shortening take-off run and improving range. The aircraft featured tricycle landing gear, with twin-wheel nosegear and tandem-wheel main gear retracting outward into the wing. Most of the aircraft's systems were electric, with the power system based on 112 V DC. The brakes and steering gear were hydraulic, but its pumps were electrically driven.

The Valiant was built around a massive "backbone" beam that supported the wing spars and the weight of bombs in the long bomb bay. The crew were contained in a pressurized "egg" and consisted of pilot, copilot, two navigators, and an electronics operator. Only the pilot and copilot had ejection seats. This was a concern for the other three crew members, who had to jump out of the bomber on their own.

In fact, the Air Ministry had originally requested an escape system that would eject the entire crew compartment or, if that were not possible, ejection seats for all crew. Vickers engineers replied that this requirement was impractical. Experiments were later performed on providing the other three crew members of the Valiant with ejection seats, but this was not done due to the expense. In hindsight the good safety record of the Valiant, and indeed of all the V-bombers, made it clear this would not have been a good use of money.

The Valiant B.1 could carry a single 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) nuclear weapon or up to 21 1,000 lb (450 kg) conventional bombs in its bomb bay. Large external fuel tanks under each wing with a capacity of 7,500 litres (1,650 Imperial gallons), could be used to extend range. The aircraft had no defensive armament.

Initial Valiant production aircraft featured four Rolls-Royce Avon 201 turbojet engines, with 42 kN (9,500 lbf) thrust each. Trials were performed with two underwing De Havilland Sprite and Sprocket rocket booster engines. However, the booster rockets were deemed unnecessary, due to the availability of more powerful Avon variants, as well as fear of accidents if one booster rocket failed on take-off, resulting in asymmetric thrust.


Low-level operations proved too much for the Valiant. Following a series of accidents, inspections showed that the main wing spars of the Valiants in operation were suffering from excessive fatigue. Despite the aircraft's continuing usefulness, particularly in the tanker role, replacing the wing spars was deemed too expensive since the aircraft was going out of service in a few years anyway, and had been built as an interim solution to begin with. The Valiant force was grounded in October 1964, and was officially withdrawn from service in January 1965.

The Valiant was a thoroughly competent and effective aircraft. It was particularly noteworthy for the speed with which it was designed and introduced, with remarkably few changes between the initial prototype and production machines. In fact, some aviation observers suggest that if the Valiant B.2 had been adopted, the Victor and Vulcan would have been redundant. This would have given Britain just as effective a V-bomber force at a lower cost. This isn't an idea that would necessarily please V-bomber enthusiasts.

The Valiant was Vickers last military aircraft, it was followed by the Vanguard, a passenger turboprop designed in 1959 and flying into the 1990s, and the Vickers VC-10, a jet passenger craft from 1962, though the latter did act as military transport for the RAF.

Only one complete Valiant survives today. This aircraft, Vickers Valiant B1 XD818 has recently been moved from RAF Museum Hendon to RAF Museum Cosford. Here it will join a Victor K2 and Vulcan B2, amongst other jets of the period as part of a new Cold War Jets Collection planned to open sometime in 2006.

The three V-Bomber's

General characteristics
Crew: five - two pilots, two navigators, electronics engineer
Length: 108 ft 3 in (32.99 m)
Wingspan: 114 ft 4 in (34.85 m)
Height: 32 ft 2 in (9.80 m)
Wing area: 2,362 ft² (219 m²)
Empty weight: 75,880 lb (34,420 kg)
Military load: 21,000 lb (9,500 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 138,000 lb (62,600 kg)
Overload take-off: 175,000 ib (79,400 kg) with underwing tanks)
Powerplant: 4Ӕ Rolls-Royce Avon RA28 Mk 204 turbojet, 10,000 lb (44 kN) each
Maximum speed: Mach 0.84 at 30,000 ft plus, 414 mph (666 km/h)
Range: 4,500 miles with 10,000 lb bomb halfway, with underwing tanks (7,200 km)
Service ceiling: 54,000 ft (21,000 m)
Rate of climb: 4,000 ft/min (20 m/s)
Wing loading: 58 lb/ft² (286 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.29
1x 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) bomb or
21x 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs

Including three prototypes, a total of 107 Valiants were built, including:

39 Valiant B.1 pure bomber variants, including five pre-production Type 674, which were powered by Avon RA.14 engines with the same 42 kN (9,500 lbf) thrust each as the earlier Avon 201.
34 Type 706 full-production aircraft, powered by Avon RA.28 204 or 205 engines with 47 kN (10,500 lbf) thrust each, longer tailpipes, and water-methanol injection for take-off boost power.
8 Type 710 Valiant B(PR).1 bomber/photo-reconnaissance aircraft. Edwards and his team had considered use of the Valiant for photo-reconnaissance from the start, and this particular batch of aircraft could accommodate a removable "crate" in the bomb-bay, carrying up to eight narrow-view/high resolution cameras and four survey cameras.
13 Type 733 Valiant B.PR(K),1 bomber/photo-reconnaissance/tanker aircraft
44 Type 758 Valiant B(K).1 bomber / tanker aircraft. Both tanker variants carried a removable tanker system in the bomb-bay, featuring fuel tanks and a hose-and-drogue aerial refuelling system. A further 16 Valiant B(K).1s were ordered, but cancelled.
Valiant production ended in August 1957.


05-24-2006, 12:51 AM


Northrop YB-49

On June 1, 1945, a contract ordering the conversion of two of the YB-35 flying wings into jet configuration was issued. The four Wasp Major engines of the B-35 were to be replaced by eight 4000 lb.s.t. Allison J35-A-5 turbojets buried inside the wing, four on each side. The engines were to be fed by intakes cut into the leading edges of the wing. The designation given to the jet-powered flying wing bomber was originally supposed to have been YB-35B, but this was changed to YB-49 before the first flight took place.

Since the addition of jet power promised a marked improvement in the performance of the flying wing, work on the YB-35 project was abandoned and plans were made to convert all the YB-35 airframes beyond the first to YB-49 configuration.

The airframes for the second and third YB-35 (42-102367 and 42-102368) were selected for modification to YB-49 configuration. The eight 4000 lb.s.t. Allison J35-A-5 turbojets were mounted in banks of four on either side of the wing. The leading edge was reconfigured to provide a low drag intake slot for each of the two sets of jet engines. In order to achieve greater stability a pair of four small vertical fins were added to the wing trailing edge extending both above and below the wing just inboard and outboard of the engines. In addition, a set of wing fences were added to the upper wing surfaces extending all the way from the vertical fins to the wing leading edge. These surfaces were added in order to provide a stabilizing effect that the propellers and propeller shaft housings had given to the YB-35. All guns except the tail cone guns were eliminated. The crew of seven were housed entirely within the wing center section, with the pilot seated underneath a large bubble canopy near the wing leading edge. For long flights, an additional off-duty crew of six members could be carried in quarters in the tail cone just aft of the flight section.

Conversion of the YB-35 to the YB-49 configuration was originally scheduled to be completed by June of 1946. However, this schedule slipped by more than a year because of unforeseen problems encountered in adding fins to the wings.


The first YB-49 (42-102367) took off on its maiden flight on October 21, 1947 from the Northrop field at Hawthorne, California, piloted by Northrop's chief test pilot, Max Stanley. At the end of the flight, it landed at Muroc Air Force Base where it was to carry out its test program. It was later joined by the second YB-49 (42-102368), which flew for the first time on January 13, 1948.

Over twenty months of flight testing was carried out. Northrop test pilots flew the first YB-49 for almost 200 hours, accumulated in some 120 flights. Air Force pilots completed about 70 hours of flight time in the first YB-49, totaled in some 20 flights. The second YB-49 carried out some 24 flights with Northrop crews for a total of about 50 hours. The Air Force crews flew the second YB-49 five times for about 13 hours. A maximum speed of 520 mph was achieved, and a service ceiling of 42,000 feet was attained. A normal 10,000 pound bombload could be carried for an estimated 4000 miles on 6700 gallons of fuel, less than half the range of the piston-engined B-35. In spite of the added rudders and wing fences, the YB-49 design still encountered some stability problems which were never fully corrected.

On April 26, 1948, the first YB-49 achieved a milestone of sorts, the aircraft staying up in the air for 9 hours, 6 hours of which were above 40,000 feet. This is believed to have set an unofficial record for that period.

On May 28, 1948, the second YB-49 (42-102368) was turned over to the USAF. Only a few days later, tragedy struck. On the morning of June 5, 1948, 42-102368 crashed just north of Muroc Dry Lake. The pilot, Air Force Capt. Glenn Edwards, and all four other members of the crew were killed. What caused the crash is not known, but it was suspected that Capt. Edwards managed to surpass the "red line" speed of the aircraft while descending from 40,000 feet, causing the outer wing panels to be shed and the aircraft to disintegrate in midair. Muroc AFB was renamed Edwards AFB on December 5, 1949 in honor of the late Capt. Glenn Edwards.

In spite of the crash, the Air Force still had sufficient confidence in the YB-49 that they continued with plans for the conversion of nine of the remaining eleven YB-35 airframes to a basically similar RB-49B strategic reconnaissance configuration with 8 jet engines, with another airframe to be used as a static test vehicle. In addition, orders were placed for 30 new RB-49s to be built from scratch.

Many deficiencies turned up in the second series of tests. The J35 turbojets of the YB-49 were extremely thirsty for fuel, and the jet-powered YB-49 had only half the range of the YB-35 that preceded it. The test pilots complained that the aircraft was extremely unstable and difficult to fly. They also maintained that the YB-49 was completely unsuitable as a bombing platform -- it could not hold a steady course or a constant airspeed and altitude, and that here was a persistent rocking motion in yaw, which tended to upset the bomb sights. In comparison with the B-29, the YB-49 had a much poorer circular average error and range error during bombing trials. In retrospect, many of the stability problems with the flying wing may have been insoluble with the technology available in the late 1940s, requiring the fly-by-wire technology that was developed much later for their solution.

By 1948, progress in range extension by other projects had reached the level that the YB-49 was now considered as being a medium bomber rather than a heavy bomber. This put it in competition with the XB-46, XB-47, and XB-48 projects, where the XB-35 had been considered as a B-36 competitor.


On January 4, 1949, the Air Force ordered Northrop to fly 42-102367 from Muroc AFB to Washington D.C. for a military air display at Andrews AFB. It departed Muroc on February 9, 1949, and when it landed at Andrews it had set a new transcontinental speed record of 4 hours and 20 minutes for the 2258-mile flight, averaging 511.2 mph. The pilot was Major Robert Cardenas, who had replaced the late Capt. Glen Edwards as chief of flight test on the Northrop flying wing test program. Northrop test pilot Max Stanley was also on board. During the display at Andrews AFB, President Harry Truman inspected the YB-49 and was impressed.

On the way back to California, 42-102367 stopped off at Wright Field in Dayton so that the Air Force could take a look at the new plane. On February 23, the YB-49 took off to return to Muroc, but during the flight three of the J35 engines on the left and one on the right side caught fire, forcing an emergency landing at Winslow, Arizona. There were hints of sabotage, since it was later determined that the cause of the engine fires was that the turbine oil reserves had not been filled in any of the J35 engines during refueling at Wright Field. The FBI was called in to investigate, but a blanket of security was thrown over the entire affair and the incident was all but forgotten.

By October of 1948, the YB-49 was clearly a doomed program. Nevertheless, testing continued, and there was always a remote possibility that its problems might be cured. However, the accidents and stability problems continued. On April 26, 1949, a fire occurred in one of the aircraft's engine bays, forcing $19,000 worth of repairs. The handwriting was now on the wall -- the contract for 30 new RB-49A aircraft was canceled in April of 1949. In November of 1949, the conversion of existing YB-35 airframes to YB-35B configuration was also canceled.

On March 15, 1950, the cancellation of the entire YB-49 program became official. On that very same day, the first YB-49 (42-102367) got itself involved in a ground taxiing accident at Edwards AFB. There were no fatalities, but crewmen were injured and the aircraft was totally destroyed by fire. Excessive shimmy of the nose wheel followed by total gear collapse were blamed for the mishap.

The movie War of the Worlds filmed between 1952 and 1953 used stock footage of one of the YB-49s. In the movie, it was the plane which delivered a nuclear bomb onto the attacking Martian force.


Specification of Northrop YB-49:
Eight 3750 lb.s.t. Allison J35-A-15 turbojets.
Maximum speed 493 mph at 20,800 feet, 464 mph at 35,000 feet. Cruising speed 429 mph. Stalling speed 90 mph. Service ceiling 45,700 feet, combat ceiling 40,700 feet. Initial climb rate 3785 feet per minute. Combat radius 1615 miles with 10,000 pound bomb load. Ferry range 3575 miles. A normal 10,000 pound bombload could be carried for 4000 miles on 6700 gallons of fuel. A load of 36,760 pounds of bombs could be carried 1150 miles.
Wingspan 172 feet, length 53 feet 1 inch, height 15 feet 2 inches, wing area 4000 square feet.
88,442 pounds empty, 133,559 pounds combat, 193,938 pounds gross.

05-24-2006, 01:29 AM
I always thought that those flying wings were the most beatifull craft made.

05-24-2006, 07:06 AM
I agree on the Beauty of these Bird's.

A few more of the B-49...

Cockpit of the YRB-49


05-24-2006, 08:32 AM
A sad end... Luckily Jack Northrop lived to see B-2! http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/clap.gif

05-24-2006, 04:15 PM
I stumbled across this tonight:

" ....the single Fairey Delta 1 VX350, built at Heaton Chapel in 1951. A developed version of this aircraft the FD2 ,of which two versions were built at Faireys Hayes, Middlesex factory, went on to break world speed records flown by Peter Twiss. The FD2 would also be used to help in the development of the BAC/Sud Aviation Concorde."


from :

05-24-2006, 10:18 PM
Very interesting find... I have a book that was published in the 50's that has a very comprehensive listing of early jets from the first up till 1958 or so... found it at a Flea Market for about $2.00. LoL
I'll see what is has on the Fairey Delta 1 VX350.

While checking for a little more info... found these sites.


05-24-2006, 10:38 PM
De Havilland D.H.108 Swallow

The first sweptwing jet to fly over Britain was the de Havilland DH-108, a tailless conversion of the Vampire that made its first flight on May 15, 1946.
Unofficially known as the Swallow, the first DH-108, TG-283, was alleged to have suddenly jumped from Mach .98 to Mach 1.05 while being test-flown by John Derry on September 9, 1948. Derry's passage through the sound barrier, which he stated occurred during an uncontrolled dive, remains unofficial, but his principal achievement was having survived, for the DH-108 proved to be dangerously unstable and tricky to fly.
Three versions were built and all three crashed, killing their pilots--the first victim being Geoffrey de Havilland himself, killed on September 27, 1946, while flying the second prototype.


All three aircraft crashed killing there pilots.
TG 283 1/5/1950 G.Genders,
TG 306 27/9/1946 G.De Havilland
VW 120 15/2/1950 J.Muller-Rowland


Specifications (DH.108 3rd prototype)

General characteristics
Crew: One
Length: 8.17 m (26 ft 10 in)
Wingspan: 11.89 m (39 ft 0 in)
Height: 4.27 m (14 ft 0 in)
Wing area: 30.47 m² (327.86 ft²)
Loaded weight: 4,064 kg (8,940 lb)
Powerplant: 1x de Havilland Goblin 4, 16.67 kN (3,738 lbf) thrust

Maximum speed: 1,090 km/h (677 mph)
Service ceiling: 10,800 m (35,425 ft)
Wing loading: 133 kg/m² (27 lb/ft²)
Thrust/weight: 0.42

The Swallow
The De Havilland 108 Crash
15 February 1950

The de Havilland 108 was a swept wing high speed research aircraft built to explore the effects of high speed flight close to the speed of sound. Powered by a de Havilland Goblin jet engine, the aircraft was constructed using a standard de Havilland Vampire fuselage with a newly designed swept back wing at the de Havilland factory at Hatfield. Three aircraft were built for the programme: TG283, TG306 in 1946 and VW120 in 1947.

TG306 crashed on 27th September 1946 killing the pilot Geoffrey de Havilland during a high speed dive. TG283 crashed on 1st May 1950 killing the pilot George Genders whilst carrying out stalling trails at Hartley Wintney.

VW120 crashed on 15 February 1950 at Little Brickhill whilst involved in transonic dive research, killing the pilot Squadron Leader Stuart Muller-Rowland. The test flight was supposed to examine the effects of change from sub-sonic to transonic flight, but the aircraft is thought to have broken up whilst in a dive. The inquest into Muller-Rowland's death was opened two days later by North Bucks Coroner Mr E T Ray at Bletchley. Witnesses told of hearing an explosion. (Note: it is not clear if this "explosion" was the cause of the aircraft breaking up or a sonic boom.)

Some of the wreckage came down at Little Brickhill, the cockpit came down somewhere near Bow Brickhill church. Other pieces were found as far away as Husborne Crawley. Muller-Rowland's body was found near Sandy Lane between Bow Brickhill and Woburn Lane. Woburn, Bletchley and Leighton Buzzard fire brigades were all called out to attend the accident. Because of the secrecy of the aircraft the local police sealed the area to keep the public away, and after the crash police officers visited local schools to appeal for any 'souvenirs' to be returned.

Stuart Muller-Rowland was born on 27th November 1921 in Woking, Surrey. During the war he flew Bristol Blenheim bombers with 60 Squadron in India, later flying Bristol Beaufighters with 211 Squadron in Burma. After the war, with the rank of Squadron Leader, he joined the Empire Test Pilots School, completing No. 6 course. He was posted to the Royal Aircraft Establishment in 1948 and was named DH 108 pilot for the high speed programme.

VW120 was the first British aircraft to break the sound barrier on 6th September 1948 piloted by John Derry. In fact VW 120 was only the third aircraft ever to fly at Mach 1. VW 120's first flight was on 24th July 1947 piloted by John Cunningham. The three de Havilland 108 aircraft made a total of 480 flights that greatly explained a lot of the questions that needed to be answered about the transition to sonic flight, although all three aircraft eventually crashed killing their test pilots. Unofficially the DH 108 was known as "The Swallow".

Information from Jack Bromfield
Buckinghamshire Aircraft Recovery Group, Bletchley Park


05-24-2006, 10:54 PM
You guys might be interested in this small museum in my local area:


Also some of my photographs of these early jets.

http://smg.photobucket.com/albums/v640/pc777/Classic%20...%20Fighter%20Museum/ (http://smg.photobucket.com/albums/v640/pc777/Classic%20Jets%20Fighter%20Museum/)

I have a 360 Degree .mov file I made from instide the F86 cockpit, if anyone would like to host a place for it, I would be happy to share it.


05-24-2006, 11:05 PM
Some truely excellent information on this page and some great Images.


05-25-2006, 01:19 AM
PC777.au... Thank You for taking the time and sharing your photo's with us.

Extremely Mint photo's and a Jem of a museum.

I noticed in the F-86 photo's the 30mm cannon armament used aboard the Commonwealth Sabre instead of the 50 cal used in the US version.

Again Thank's

05-25-2006, 04:47 AM
Originally posted by woofiedog:
De Havilland D.H.108 Swallow

The first sweptwing jet to fly over Britain was the de Havilland DH-108, a tailless conversion of the Vampire that made its first flight on May 15, 1946.
Unofficially known as the Swallow, the first DH-108, TG-283, was alleged to have suddenly jumped from Mach .98 to Mach 1.05 while being test-flown by John Derry on September 9, 1948. Derry's passage through the sound barrier, which he stated occurred during an uncontrolled dive, remains unofficial, but his principal achievement was having survived, for the DH-108 proved to be dangerously unstable and tricky to fly.
Three versions were built and all three crashed, killing their pilots--the first victim being Geoffrey de Havilland himself, killed on September 27, 1946, while flying the second prototype.


All three aircraft crashed killing there pilots.
TG 283 1/5/1950 G.Genders,
TG 306 27/9/1946 G.De Havilland
VW 120 15/2/1950 J.Muller-Rowland


Specifications (DH.108 3rd prototype)

General characteristics
Crew: One
Length: 8.17 m (26 ft 10 in)
Wingspan: 11.89 m (39 ft 0 in)
Height: 4.27 m (14 ft 0 in)
Wing area: 30.47 m² (327.86 ft²)
Loaded weight: 4,064 kg (8,940 lb)
Powerplant: 1x de Havilland Goblin 4, 16.67 kN (3,738 lbf) thrust

Maximum speed: 1,090 km/h (677 mph)
Service ceiling: 10,800 m (35,425 ft)
Wing loading: 133 kg/m² (27 lb/ft²)
Thrust/weight: 0.42

The Swallow
The De Havilland 108 Crash
15 February 1950

The de Havilland 108 was a swept wing high speed research aircraft built to explore the effects of high speed flight close to the speed of sound. Powered by a de Havilland Goblin jet engine, the aircraft was constructed using a standard de Havilland Vampire fuselage with a newly designed swept back wing at the de Havilland factory at Hatfield. Three aircraft were built for the programme: TG283, TG306 in 1946 and VW120 in 1947.

TG306 crashed on 27th September 1946 killing the pilot Geoffrey de Havilland during a high speed dive. TG283 crashed on 1st May 1950 killing the pilot George Genders whilst carrying out stalling trails at Hartley Wintney.

VW120 crashed on 15 February 1950 at Little Brickhill whilst involved in transonic dive research, killing the pilot Squadron Leader Stuart Muller-Rowland. The test flight was supposed to examine the effects of change from sub-sonic to transonic flight, but the aircraft is thought to have broken up whilst in a dive. The inquest into Muller-Rowland's death was opened two days later by North Bucks Coroner Mr E T Ray at Bletchley. Witnesses told of hearing an explosion. (Note: it is not clear if this "explosion" was the cause of the aircraft breaking up or a sonic boom.)

Some of the wreckage came down at Little Brickhill, the cockpit came down somewhere near Bow Brickhill church. Other pieces were found as far away as Husborne Crawley. Muller-Rowland's body was found near Sandy Lane between Bow Brickhill and Woburn Lane. Woburn, Bletchley and Leighton Buzzard fire brigades were all called out to attend the accident. Because of the secrecy of the aircraft the local police sealed the area to keep the public away, and after the crash police officers visited local schools to appeal for any 'souvenirs' to be returned.

Stuart Muller-Rowland was born on 27th November 1921 in Woking, Surrey. During the war he flew Bristol Blenheim bombers with 60 Squadron in India, later flying Bristol Beaufighters with 211 Squadron in Burma. After the war, with the rank of Squadron Leader, he joined the Empire Test Pilots School, completing No. 6 course. He was posted to the Royal Aircraft Establishment in 1948 and was named DH 108 pilot for the high speed programme.

VW120 was the first British aircraft to break the sound barrier on 6th September 1948 piloted by John Derry. In fact VW 120 was only the third aircraft ever to fly at Mach 1. VW 120's first flight was on 24th July 1947 piloted by John Cunningham. The three de Havilland 108 aircraft made a total of 480 flights that greatly explained a lot of the questions that needed to be answered about the transition to sonic flight, although all three aircraft eventually crashed killing their test pilots. Unofficially the DH 108 was known as "The Swallow".

Information from Jack Bromfield
Buckinghamshire Aircraft Recovery Group, Bletchley Park


Brave men. What an expensive price to pay for super sonic data. Didnt they have to give it all to the USA afterwards too? Leading to the US being first to break the sound barrier.

I saw somnething about it on TV. (must be true http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif)

I know for sure if it wasnt for the Geoffery De Havilland accident, the Brits would have reached the sound barrier first, but after the accident did they give all the data to the USA?

05-25-2006, 06:00 AM
Bump for a great thread.

I mention it regularly, but in case anyone has missed it, there are lots of high quality pics available for download at the RAF's website:-


Keep up the good work, chaps. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

05-25-2006, 07:23 AM
Thank's to all that have taken the time to Read or Add to this thread.

Low_Flyer_MkVb... Great site I go there offen for info and looking around... ton's of information on the RAF and the Airwar.

Xiolablu3... You might want to check out this earlier posting...

Link: http://forums.ubi.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/23110283/m/7241004244/p/3

Also this...

05-25-2006, 07:43 AM
Man that sucks, so Miles gave away all its info in a so called 'agreement' and the USA just laughed and said, thanks, now p*ss off?

Hmm didnt know that. I thought it was the De havilland data which was given away.

05-25-2006, 02:01 PM
The De Havilland Sea Vixen

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/10_Sea_Vixen_landing_on_Eagle_Mediterranean_Jan197 0.jpg

In January of 1947 the Royal Navy issued specification No. 40/46 and the RAF specification F.44/46 for an aircraft to cover broadly similar requirements for a night fighter.
De Havilland proposed the DH. 110 for both specifications. At first the RAF showed greater interest and updated their specification to F.4/48 in early 1948.
About a year later, in April 1949, the Ministry of Supply ordered seven land-based night fighters plus two long range fighter prototypes from De Havilland for the RAF. For the Fleet Air Arm they ordered two night fighter and two strike fighter prototypes to specification N.14/49.
Gloster Aircraft were to supply four of the delta winged Gloster GA.5 (which evolved into the Javelin) to the RAF as a back-up.
Due to ministerial machinations and vacillation by the Admiralty, the Navy was persuaded to drop the DH 110 in favour of the cheaper Sea Venom, which was thought could be more quickly evolved out of the RAF Venom, and the RAF chose the Gloster aircraft instead (which it could be argued was a mistake on their part). Well that was the idea.
But as usual when politicians have their way, this stopgap measure ignored the difficulties and expense of turning a land-based plane into one robust enough for carrier operation.
By the time a satisfactory Sea Venom version (Mk21 or Mk22) became operational it was still somewhat under-powered and the Vixen replaced it within a year or two. The best that could be said of this dilatory policy was that carrier expertise was being kept alive and developed.

The unusual shape of the DH 110 and Sea Vixen was one that grew out of the already successful twin-boomed Vampire, which had adopted this plan in order to keep the jet pipe short and thus minimize thrust loss from the puny centrifugal compressor turbojets (Goblin) of the day.
With the DH. 110 a similar configuration was used so that two engines could be mounted as close together as possible thus minimizing asymmetric thrust in the event of an engine failure.
Other advantages were a more rigid tail construction minimizing flutter at high speed, easier engine replacement and simplified engine compartment structure. A tail-less form like the DH. 108 was rejected by reason of high landing speeds and directional vices at high speed.


There were only ever three DH. 110 prototypes the first of which Hatfield built WG 236 had its maiden flight on September 26, 1951 with De Havilland Chief Test Pilot John Cunningham at the controls.
The date of this first flight is the reason behind the choice of date for the 'Sea Vixen 50' reunion, September 29 2001 being as close as practicable.

Sadly it was WG 236 which crashed at the 1952 SBAC Farnborough airshow killing the pilot John Derry and his observer Tony Richards, as well as 27 people in the crowd with another 63 injured. An event my father witnessed.

The Sea Vixen is an aircraft which has, much overlooked, historical importance in as much as it was the first jet aircraft to enter naval service as an 'integrated weapons platform' using radar and infra-red guided missiles, Firestreak (Blue Jay whilst under development)on Mk 1 and Red Top on Mk2.
It was also the Fleet Air Arm's first swept-wing, all weather aircraft and was a significant advance on the Sea Venom with twice the rate of climb.
The Mk2 version is instantly recognisable by the forward extension of the tail booms into the bulbous fronted pinion fuel tanks. Some Sea Vixens were built as Mk 2s but more were converted from Mk1s.
Some of these Mk1 to Mk2 conversions were performed on site at Yeovilton by a CWP (Contractor's Working Party), indeed this was the case with some of the Mk2s of 893 Squadron which I joined in 1966. The conversion of Sea Vixen Mk1s to Mk2s by a CWP at Yeovilton is rarely, if at all, mentioned in Sea Vixen related literature.
The boom modifications allowed the fitting of a liquid oxygen system (LOX), for aircrew breathing, in the port boom, to replace the gaseous breathing oxygen system of the Mk 1. The aircrew found the starboard boom to be a useful luggage stowage.


Sea Vixens first equipped 700 Squadron 'Y' Flight at Yeovilton with eight aircraft. 700Y, under the command of Cdr. MHJ Petrie, proceeded to carry out trials on HMS Victorious and HMS Centaur during 1958.
The first operational unit was 892 Squadron which, with Cdr. Petrie in command, commissioned on 2 July 1958 and embarked on HMS Ark Royal in March 1960. Later in 1960, 892 Squadron moved to HMS Victorious, moving again to HMS Hermes before finally operating from HMS Centaur from December 1963.
From November 1959, 766 Squadron became responsible for operational and conversion training.
In order to carry out this intensive task 766 was equipped with as many as forty aircraft and retained a flight of Sea Venoms in the early years. The Sea Vixen equipped four front line squadrons, 890, 892, 893 and 899 Squadrons. All Sea Vixen squadrons were based at RNAS Yeovilton (HMS Heron).

Aircraft carriers which operated the Sea Vixen were HMS Victorious, HMS Eagle, HMS Ark Royal, HMS Hermes these all operating Mk 1 and later the Mk2. HMS Centaur operated only the Mark 1, being retired from service in 1965.

Mk 2 Vixens were first deployed with 899 Squadron which embarked on HMS Eagle in December 1964. The next squadron to re-equip with the Mk 2 was 893 which embarked (with myself) on HMS Victorious in 1966. 899 Squadron was the last front line Sea Vixen squadron which disembarked from HMS Eagle for the last time and disbanded at Yeovilton on 23 January 1972.

Sea Vixen FAW.2
General characteristics

Crew: 2 (pilot, radar operator)
Length: 55 ft 7 in (16.94 m)
Wingspan: 51 ft 0 in (15.54 m)
Height: 10 ft 9 in (3.28 m)
Wing area: 648 ft² (60.20 m²)
Empty weight: 27,950 lb (12,680 kg)
Loaded weight: 41,575 lb (18,860 kg)
Powerplant: 2Ӕ Rolls-Royce Avon Mk.208 turbojets, 11,230 lbf (50.0 kN) each
Maximum speed: Mach 0.91, 690 mph at sea level (1,110 km/h)
Range: 790 mi with internal fuel (1,270 km)
Service ceiling: 48,000 ft (14,630 m)
Rate of climb: 9,000 ft/min (45.7 m/s)
Wing loading: 64.2 lb/ft² (313.3 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.54
4x Red Top or Firestreak air-to-air missiles
2x 500 lb (227 kg) bombs

http://www.ams.vr.it/AircWalkAround/Zeltweg/Zeltweg_AP2...Bull/Sea_Vixen_2.htm (http://www.ams.vr.it/AircWalkAround/Zeltweg/Zeltweg_AP2003/walkaround/DH.110_Sea_Vixen_Red-Bull/Sea_Vixen_2.htm)

05-25-2006, 02:47 PM

I saw her flying at the Zeltweg Airshow last year http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif.

05-25-2006, 03:01 PM

Great looking Bird... But I'm not to sure of the present Paint Scheme.
One of the Orginal Squadron colors would be a choice... just a thought.

It must have put on a Excellent show though.

Thank's for posting the Photo.

05-25-2006, 03:15 PM
not to forget....
http://user.tninet.se/~xpz458v/SAAB32_Lansen-english.htm (http://user.tninet.se/%7Expz458v/SAAB32_Lansen-english.htm)

05-25-2006, 04:02 PM
Originally posted by woofiedog:

Great looking Bird... But I'm not to sure of the present Paint Scheme.
One of the Orginal Squadron colors would be a choice... just a thought.

It must have put on a Excellent show though.

Thank's for posting the Photo.

Here is some Info on the plane:

05-25-2006, 10:47 PM
FliegerAas... Thank's for the additional info.

F0_Dark_P... Some Great color photo's of the Saab Lansen... Thank's for the link.

05-25-2006, 11:11 PM
Convair YB-60

From the Tony Landis collection

The YB-60 originated in August 1950, when the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft (Convair) Corporation offered to develop the B-36G, a swept-wing, all-jet version of the B-36F-fourth model of the basic B-36, initiated in 1941. The design, covered by the contractor's formal proposal, could eventually be converted into a turboprop bomber. Moreover, existing B-36s could later be brought up to the new configuration's standards.

The first in a series of post-World War II military characteristics for heavy bombardment aircraft was issued on 23 November 1945. These characteristics were revised many times, but by 1950 the experimental aircraft thus far favored still fell short of satisfying the overall performance and long-range requirements expected of an atomic-capable, strategic bomber, due to be operational around 1955.

A letter, rather than a formal agreement, supplemented the basic B-36 contract and authorized Convair to convert 2 B-36Fs into prototype B-36Gs, entirely equipped with turbojets but capable of accepting turboprop engines. The first YB-36G was to be ready for flight testing in December 1951; the second, in February 1952.

The proposed B-36G had little in common with the B-36F The Air Force therefore determined that the B-60 designation would be assigned to the plane, because of the striking change in physical appearance and improvement in performance over that of the conventional B-36 airplane.

A misunderstanding concerning the configuration of the B-60 prototypes compelled Convair to recommend in August 1951 that at first only 2 stripped aircraft be developed. Accepting responsibility for the error, the contractor also proposed that the second YB-60 later be completed as a full tactical model. The Convair solution meant that separate specifications would have to be developed for each prototype. The Air Force agreed, after a 2-day conference during which the basic tactical configuration was set.

From the Tony Landis collection

The B-60 prototype differed significantly from the B-36 by featuring swept-back wings and swept-back tail surfaces, a new needle-nose radome, a new type of auxiliary power system, and 8 Pratt & Whitney J57-P-3 jet engines, installed in pairs inside "pods" suspended below and forward of the leading edge of the wings. Another special feature of the YB-60 was its extended tail, which enabled the aircraft to remain in a level position for a considerable period of time during takeoff and to become airborne, with a gross weight of 280,000 pounds, after only 4,000 feet of ground roll.

The J57-P-3, earmarked for the YB-60, was primarily scheduled for the B-52. Thus, while Convair would be able to use the Boeing-designed nacelles and engine pods, which seemed to be a distinct advantage, engine shortages were to be expected. This was particularly true, since the J57 engine was itself the product of an intensive effort to develop a high-thrust turbojet with a low fuel consumption. By the beginning of 1951, engine prototypes had accrued only 550 hours of full-scale testing. In 1952, even though production was already started, the engines were likely to remain in very short supply for quite a while.

The YB-60 flew for the first time on 18 April 1952-only 12 days after the prototype's eighth J57-P-3 engine finally arrived at the Convair's Fort Worth plant. The 66-minute flight was hampered by bad weather, but 2 subsequent flights in the same month were entirely successful, the YB-60 actually displaying excellent handling charateristics. This encouraging trend, however, did not prevail.

From the Tony Landis collection

Flight testing of the YB-60 officially ended on 20 January 1953, when the Air Force canceled the second phase of the test program. Convair test-flew the first YB-60 for 66 hours, accumulated in 20 flights; the Air Force, some 15 hours, in 4 flights. The second YB-60, although 93 percent complete, was not flown at all. By and large, test results were worrisome, because the stripped YB-60 displayed a number of deficiencies. Among them were engine surge, control system buffet, rudder flutter, and problems with the electrical engine-control system.

The Air Force canceled the B-60 program several months before the prototype testing was officially terminated. The decision was inevitable. From the start, the project's sole purpose had been to help the Air Force in its quest for a B-36 successor. In this capacity, the B-60 competed all along with the B-52. There was no official competition, but test results were irrefutable. The YB-52 demonstrated better performance and greater improvement potential than the YB-60. The YB-52's first flight on 15 April 1952-3 days ahead of the YB-60's-was an impressive success and generated great enthusiasm for the Boeing airplane.The latter was handicapped by the speed limitation imposed by structural considerations at low altitude and buffet at high altitudes. Also, the Convair prototype's stability was unsatisfactory because of the high aerodynamic forces acting upon the control surfaces and the low aileron effectiveness of the plane.

The B-60 program was canceled in the summer of 1952, and testing of the stripped prototype ended in January 1953. Even so, the Air Force did not accept the 2 YB-60s before 24 June 1954. There were valid reasons for the delay. Convair truly believed, and tried to convince the Air Force, that the YB-60s should be used as experimental test-beds for turbopropeller engines. Shortage of money and the YB-60's several unsafe characteristics accounted for the Air Force's decision to turn down Convair's tempting proposal.

The final cost of the 2 B-60 prototypes was set at $14,366,022. This figure, agreed upon by both the Air Force and the contractor on 13 October 1954, included Convair's fee, the contract termination cost, and the amount spent on the necessary minimum of spare parts.

The Air Force scrapped the 2 YB-60s before the end of June 1954.

Specification of Convair YB-60
Engines: Eight 8700 lb.s.t. Pratt & Whitney J57-P-3 turbojets.
Performance: Maximum speed 508 mph at 39,250 feet.
Combat ceiling 44,650 feet.
Maximum range 8000 miles.
Combat radius 2920 miles with 10,000 pound bomb load.
Initial climb rate 1570 feet per minute. An altitude of 30,000 feet could be attained in 28.3 minutes. Ground run 6710 feet, takeoff to clear a 50 feet obstacle 8131 feet.
Normal cruising altitude 37,000 feet. Maximum cruising altitude 53,300 feet.
Dimensions: wingspan 206 feet 0 inches, length 171 feet 0 inches, height 60 feet 6 inches, wing area 5239 square feet
Weights: 153,016 pounds empty, 300,000 pounds gross
Armament: Two 20-mm cannon in the extreme tail.
Maximum bombload 72,000 pounds.

http://home.att.net/~jbaugher2/b60.html (http://home.att.net/%7Ejbaugher2/b60.html)

05-26-2006, 11:46 PM
Supermarine Attacker


Type Fighter
Manufacturer Supermarine
Maiden flight June 1947
Introduced 1950
Retired 1956

Primary users Fleet Air Arm
Pakistan Air Force
The Supermarine Attacker was a single-seat jet fighter of the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), built by the Supermarine company, and was the first jet fighter of the FAA.

The Attacker developed from a Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter jet project, the E10//44 . The project was intended to be an interim fighter for the RAF while another aircraft, being made by Gloster, was developed. Both were rejected by the RAF, with the Gloster Meteor and Vampire aircraft becoming the RAF's first two operational jet types. In response, Supermarine offered a navalised version of the project to the Admiralty.


The design of the Attacker used the straight-wings of the Supermarine Spiteful , a piston-engined fighter intended to replace the legendary Supermarine Spitfire, and the Attacker was originally referred-to as the "Jet Spiteful". The Attacker suffered from a number of deficiencies which led to it quickly being superseded, one being that the aircraft retained the Spiteful's tail-wheel undercarriage, (due to the extent of the re-tooling that would have been required to alter the Spiteful's wing) rather than a nose-wheel undercarriage, thus making the Attacker more difficult to land on aircraft carriers. Because of the tail-down attitude, on a grass airfield the Attacker's engine jet-efflux would create a long furrow in the ground that three men could lie-down in.

WK338 is seen fitted with a large ventral fuel tank of 270 gallons (1,227 l) capacity. Further fitted are 12 rocket projectiles and 8 RATOG rockets for assisted take-off.

The first navalised prototype first flew in June 1947, three years after the RAF's Gloster Meteor had made its first flight. The first production aircraft to take to the skies was the F.1 in 1950, entering service with the FAA the following year; its first squadron being No. 800 NAS. The F.1s armament consisted of four Hispano 20 mm cannons. It was powered by a single Rolls-Royce Nene Mk. 101 turbojet engine.

Two more variants of the Supermarine Attacker were built for the FAA. The FB.1 was a fighter-bomber which only differed from the F.1 in that a ground-attack role was introduced to it. The third, and last, variant of the Attacker was the FB.2 which introduced a new Rolls-Royce Nene engine and modifications to its structure. The Supermarine Attacker now had eight pylons capable of being armed with two 1000 lb (450 kg) bombs and eight unguided rockets. Over 100 Attackers would eventually be built for the Fleet Air Arm.

The Attacker had a brief career with the Fleet Air Arm, not seeing any action during her time with the FAA and being taken out of first-line service in 1954. It remained in service with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) service for a little while longer; it was taken out of service in 1956. The Attacker was replaced by the more capable Hawker Sea Hawk and de Havilland Sea Venom jets in the Fleet Air Arm. The Attacker was only exported to one country, Pakistan. Between 1952-53, just over thirty Attackers were sold to the Pakistani Air Force (PAF). The aircraft was eventually replaced in the PAF by the 1960s.

A total of 43 F1, 16 FB1 and 84 FB2 were built for the Royal Navy (36 de-navalised Attackers were also supplied to the Pakistan Air Force)

Attacker FB2

Dimensions: Span 11.25 m (36ft 11in) ; Length 11.43 m (37ft 6in) ; Height 3.02 m (9ft 11in) ; Wing Area 21.03 sq.m (226.4 sq.ft)
Weights: Empty 4495 kg (9,910 lb) ; Maximum Take-off 7870 kg (17,350 lb)
Powerplant: one Rolls Royce Nene Mk 102 turbojet - 1950 kg (5,100 lb) thrust.
Performance: Maximum speed at sea level 590 mph (950 kph, 513 kt) ; Service ceiling 45,000 ft (13715 m)
Armament: 4 20 mm cannon ; 8 pylons for 2 1000lb bombs and up to 8 60lb rockets



05-27-2006, 12:41 AM
Nice jet,

I am not sure who pioneered modern jets after WWII
US or UK? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-indifferent.gif

05-27-2006, 01:33 AM
http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-happy.gif Good quesion... I couldn't answer all of your quesion, but here is a bit of information that will help you get started.

Your local library and book stores are your best way of answering your quesion properly though.

Some early Pioneer's of the Modern Jet were...

Henri Coanda
Romanian Scientist (1886-1972)

Coanda Effect...

Sir Frank Whittle

Dr. Hans von Ohain
http://www.xs4all.nl/~jqmgrdyk/jetpower/german-jetpower-p1a.htm (http://www.xs4all.nl/%7Ejqmgrdyk/jetpower/german-jetpower-p1a.htm)

05-27-2006, 01:49 AM
woah - not totally OT , but not really on topic either

Nasa image link (http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/)

just got directed to it tonight

05-27-2006, 02:53 AM
Cool site, a lot of information... it would be Mint if we had some of the IL-2 fuctions, such as the FMB, set-up with the interactive this site has.
It would help alot with the new players learning the Ropes of IL-2.
Thank's for Posting.

05-27-2006, 05:55 AM
SAI Ambrosini Sagittario

After WWII Italy started to design and build airplanes again and backed by NATO orders even smaller airplane designers came up with jet designs.

Ambrosini gave his designer Stefanutti control in a jet fighter design wich was based on a prop plane (S.7). Stefanutti gave the new plane swept wings, it's jet engine being a Turboméca Marboré. This first design flew for the first time on april 1953. A second (final) design was powered by a Rolls-Royce Derwent 9 engine, and flew it's maiden flight on may 19th 1956. In a shallow dive it could "break" the speed of sound. In the end it was used as a test plane and no production came forth.

05-27-2006, 10:34 AM
Some extra photo material on the "Attacker". http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif


05-27-2006, 12:15 PM
The Avro Arrow






Specification Arrow 1 Arrow 2
Wingspan 50'-0" (15.24 m) 50'-0" (15.24 m)
Overall Length 77'-9.65" (23.715 m) 76'-9.65" (23.41 m)
Height 21'-3" (6.477 m) 21'-3" (6.477 m)
Engine P&W J75-P-3 (RL201) and J75-P-5 Orenda PS-13 Iroquois
Dry Thrust 12 500lb (55.6 kN) static (J75) 19 250lb (85.6 kN) static (Iroquois)
Wet Thrust 18 500lb (82.3 kN) static (J75) 26 000lb (115.7 kN) static (Iroquois)
Total Fuel 2897 Imp. Gal. (13170 L) 2897 Imp. Gal. (13170 L)
Usable Fuel 2508 Imp. Gal. (11401.6 L) 2509 Imp. Gal. (11406.1 L)
External Fuel None 500 Imp. Gal. (2273 L) available (external)
Crew 2 (pilot/radar operator) 2 (pilot/radar operator)
Armament None Multiple configurations available

* Avro of Canada had made a significant contribution to the air defense of North America with its CF-100 "Canuck" interceptor of the early 1950s, and hoped to follow it with a truly advanced aircraft, the Avro "CF-105 Arrow".

The Arrow was a huge, twin-engined delta-winged interceptor that in completion would have been able to attain Mach 2.5, but costs and changing mission requirements kept it from ever leaving the prototype stage. This impressive machine represented the highest ambition of Canadian aircraft design and remains a romantic ideal for Canadian aviation enthusiasts. This document provides a history and description of the CF-105 Arrow.

* During World War II, Avro of Britain built some production of their Lancaster bomber at the Victory Aircraft factory in Canada. In late 1945, British Avro bought the plant from the Canadian government and established Avro Canada. The Canadian government took over Avro Canada in 1954, organizing the company into an aircraft division and an engine division, later known as Orenda Engines.

Of the postwar aircraft produced by Avro Canada, the most important was the Avro "CF-100 Canuck", a big twin-engined straight-winged jet interceptor. 692 were built between 1950 and 1958, and the aircraft proved reliable and useful.

With the rapid improvements in aircraft performance after World War II, the success of the CF-100 led to consideration of a more capable replacement. Initial concepts were of modified CF-100s with swept wings, and then the designs evolved to delta winged aircraft.

In April 1953, after a year of analysis by Avro, the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) presented a requirement for a twin-engined, two-seat interceptor with a maximum speed of Mach 2, a maximum ceiling of 18.3 kilometers (60,000 feet), and a combat radius of 370 kilometers (200 nautical miles). It would have a fast rate of climb and would be able to maneuver at two gees at high speed and altitude, an extremely difficult requirement to meet. The new aircraft would be armed only with missiles stored in an internal weapons bay, and would use a sophisticated radar fire-control system to allow collision-course intercepts, instead of tail-chase pursuit. The result was the Avro "CF-105 Arrow".

* The Arrow was conceived in response to the threat posed by fleets of Soviet nuclear-armed bombers, then believed to be under construction, cruising into North American airspace from over the poles. It seemed crucial to have a weapon that could intercept and destroy these intruders over the empty northlands before they reached Canadian and American cities farther south.

The RCAF requirements implied a big aircraft. The final design had a boxy fuselage and a slightly drooping high-set delta wing, with a sweep of 60 degrees and a "dogtooth" leading edge. Although most of the airframe was made of magnesium, key parts were made of titanium to withstand the heat of high-speed flight, and an environmental control system was provided to protect the crew against flight temperatures, as well as the extreme cold of the Canadian north.

The high wing led to long landing gear, with main gear legs some 3.65 meters (12 feet) in length. The nose gear retracted forward, while the main gear hinged in the wings to retract towards the fuselage. The nose gear had twin side-by-side wheels, while each of the main gear had two wheels, arranged in a tandem configuration to permit storage in the wing. Delta winged aircraft tend to be "hot" on landing, and so a drag chute was fitted in the tail cone.

The RCAF had originally requested two hand-built engineering prototypes, but decided that the project was too urgent and that flight tests would be done on a handful of preproduction prototypes. Since this meant expensive production tooling would have to be in place before the Arrow ever flew, this requirement stepped up the pressure on the design team, who were forced to implement extensive preflight testing to ensure that the preproduction prototypes operated as intended.

Wind tunnel tests were used to refine the aircraft's aerodynamics, which were tuned by the application of the "area rule" contour. This scheme was devised by an American, Richart T. Whitcomb, then at the US National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, one of the precursors of NASA) Langley Research Center in Virginia. The principle behind area ruling was to minimize abrupt changes in aircraft cross section to improve transonic handling. In practice, it dictated a fuselage with "Coke bottle" streamlining.

11 free-flight models of the Arrow were launched on Nike boosters from the end of 1954 to the beginning of 1957 to validate the aircraft's design. For whatever reason, the Nike boosters were fitted with a large tailfin and a wide-span tailplane. Two of these flights were conducted at the NACA facility at Langley Field, Virginia, in order to use NACA's sophisticated tracking and telemetry equipment. The others were conducted in Canada over Lake Ontario, and in recent years Arrow enthusiasts have been searching the waters of the lake to find some of the flying Arrow models that were lost there.

After much consideration of alternatives, the Orenda PS-13 Iroquois engine was chosen as the powerplant. Since this engine would not be ready in time for initial flight tests, an alternate engine was needed for early flight testing. The Avro team originally selected the new Rolls-Royce RB.106, but development of that engine was delayed in turn, and the Pratt & Whitney J75, used on the Republic F-105 Thunderchief and Convair F-106 Delta Dart, was chosen to power the preproduction prototypes, which were designated "Mark 1". Prototype development would in principle then evolve to the Iroquois-powered "Mark 2", resulting in an aircraft that would be capable of Mach 2.5. The production model would be designated "Mark 3".

The J75 had a dry thrust of 55.9 kN (5,700 kgp / 12,500 lbf) and an afterburning thrust of 92.4 kN (8,400 kgp / 18,500 lbf). The Iroquois was the most powerful engine in North America, with a dry thrust of 82.4 kN (8,400 kgp / 18,500 lbf) and an afterburning thrust of 115.8 kN (11,800 kgp / 26,000 lbf). It had an unprecedented 5:1 thrust to weight ratio, achieved partly by the extensive use of titanium.
The Iroquois was ground-tested in 1955. In 1957, the US Air Force loaned a B-47E Stratojet bomber to the Canadians for a flight-test platform. The engine was bolted to the side of the aircraft, near the tail. The lopsided bomber was apparently something of a handful to fly. Some snags were encountered in testing, but in general the engine development effort went well. The Iroquois was removed from the B-47E after the completion of trials, and the bomber was returned to the United States. However, apparently its airframe had been warped by the asymmetric thrust of the Iroquois, and the aircraft was scrapped. Interestingly, this particular B-47E was the only American strategic jet bomber that was ever operated by a foreign country.

The Arrow's two crewmen sat under clamshell-type canopies. Visibility was not the best, particularly for the back-seat radar operator, who only had small window panels on either side, but the cockpit layout was superb. Martin-Baker ejection seats were provided. An Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) was developed that could operate in several modes, and in principle could even land the Arrow automatically or compensate for severe damage to the aircraft. Control surfaces were hydraulically operated and electronically controlled; the Arrow was one of the first "fly by wire" aircraft ever built.

The armament system was devised as a replaceable pack that could be plugged into the aircraft's big weapons bay, which was 5.5 meters (18 feet) long. This allowed different weapons systems or fuel tanks to be fitted as required, with all armament carried internally.

The armament system would prove to be the greatest weakness of the Arrow project. At the beginning of the project, the CF-105 was specified to use the American Hughes MX-1179 fire control system, directing eight Hughes AIM-4 Falcon air to air missiles (AAMs) carried in a huge internal weapons bay. The MX-1179 was in development; it would emerge later, after some difficulties, as the MA-1 fire control system for the F-106. The Falcons were available and were in principle proven technology, though experience in the 1960s with air-to-air missiles would show the confidence of 1950s designers in their guided weapons to be somewhat misplaced.

In 1955, the RCAF changed their minds and decided that they wanted new technology, in the form of the RCA Victor Astra radar and fire control system, and an advanced version of the Raytheon Sparrow, the Sparrow II. The Arrow would carry four Sparrow IIs as well as the eight Falcons. While the RCAF had been dithering about the weapons fit to the point where Avro engineers had simply designed the fire-control system as a modular pack that could be upgraded, the engineers nonetheless protested at such a drastic change in plans while their program was well under way, as well as at the adoption of completely unproven technology. Their fears were justified. The Astra fire control system was complicated and its development was to be full of problems.

Sparrow II was even more unrealistic. The existing Sparrow I was a "semi-active" missile, with a guidance seeker that only included a receiver system that tracked emissions from the launch aircraft's radar. That meant that the launch aircraft had to keep the target "illuminated" all the way to missile impact. Sparrow II was to have a complete, compact radar system with both transmitter and receiver; it would be, in modern terms, a "fire and forget" missile. The Sparrow II was an attempt to build a radar-guided fire-and-forget missile in a Sparrow airframe, essentially the same requirement that produced the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) in the late 1980s. AMRAAM's development would prove troublesome enough. Attempting to build such a weapon in the 1950s was out of the question. The US Navy cancelled Sparrow II in 1956, but the RCAF revived the project, with Canadair working with Douglas, the original contractor on the program.

* While the Arrow's development seemed to be going well, astute observers could see the program was running out of steam. Missiles seemed to be the way of the future for both defense and offense. Improved anti-aircraft missiles seemed able to deal with Soviet bombers, which American intelligence, through the use of the new U-2 spy plane, had discovered were by no means as numerous as had been thought. In any case, the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) made visions of squadrons of such bombers streaking in over the Arctic obsolete, since ICBMs could not be intercepted by any technology available at the time.

In 1957, the new Conservative Canadian government under Prime Minister John Diefenbaker cut the number of Arrows planned down to 100, escalating unit cost. Nonetheless, the first Arrow Mark 1, Number 201, was rolled out on 4 October 1957, and flew for the first time on 15 March 1958. The day of the initial roll-out, 4 October, was by coincidence the same day that the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik I, hinting that the threat that the Arrow had been designed to deal with was moving to a higher ground.

Number 201 continued its test flights, demonstrating fine handling characteristics, and exceeding Mach 1.5 on its 7th flight. On its eleventh flight it suffered a landing gear failure and ended up performing a belly landing, but damage was relatively minor, and Number 201 was flying again by early October. Four more Mark 1s were delivered between August 1958, and January 1959.

Despite these milestones, the program was falling apart. In late September, the Astra radar and associated Sparrow II AAM were cancelled, to be replaced by a combination of the Falcon and a pair of nuclear-armed unguided Genie missiles. This was a hint of things to come.

In August, the Canadian government sent a mission to the US Air Force to sell them on the Arrow, but the USAF wasn't interested. They countered by promoting the Boeing BOMARC-B anti-aircraft missile, with a range of over 700 kilometers (435 miles), that seemed perfectly able to defend against intruding bombers, though the BOMARC program would prove to have problems of its own, with an unreliable guidance system and other troubles. The Diefenbaker government bought on to the BOMARC, while tentatively hanging on to the Arrow program at the same time.

However, Canada was in a recession and the Arrow had become the most expensive single defense project the country had ever taken on. The Canadian Army and Navy were reluctant to sacrifice their own programs to support the aircraft. RCAF Air Marshall Hugh Campbell understood the politics, and told the Defense Ministry that he would accept cancellation of the Arrow if he could obtain an alternative high-performance interceptor.

On 20 February 1959, Prime Minister Diefenbaker cancelled the CF-105, with the order taking effect immediately. The prototype Arrows had completed 66 flights, for a total of 70 hours of flying time. The first Mark 2 prototype was almost ready for flight tests, with four more Mark 2s virtually complete. All the Arrows built or in production were scrapped, and design documentation and production tooling was generally disposed of. None of the Iroquois-powered Mark 2s ever flew.

Avro ended up laying off 14,000 workers. The layoffs were a massive shock to Canada's aircraft industry, and the day of the Arrow's cancellation has been known as "Black Friday" ever since. Air Marshall Campbell obtained 66 F-101 Voodoo supersonic interceptors from the United States to handle his air-defense requirements. The Voodoo was a perfectly modern aircraft for the time, capable of Mach 2 flight; it wasn't an Arrow by any means, but it was available.

* As noted, Canadian aviation enthusiasts hold the Arrow near and dear to their hearts, and in the minds of some it has become cherished as a Lost Cause. The wisdom of and motives behind its cancellation remain hotly debated. The facts in the case seem remarkably complicated and it is unlikely there is any one person who was in a position to have an objective understanding of them at the time or later.

The Diefenbaker government is often singled out as irrationally hostile to the Arrow, insisting on its cancellation out of ignorance of the facts. The destruction of Arrow prototypes, components, tooling, and documentation is sometimes blamed on Diefenbaker himself, but it appears that was not the case. The Arrow was highly advanced secret technology, and it was all destroyed since keeping the program materials and data under secure lock and key would have been troublesome. Nobody wanted to bother with the expense.

The high costs of the Arrow are given by some as a compelling reason for the government to cancel the aircraft, while others maintain that costs were inflated by unrealistic assumptions. The absence of any mention of a particular champion for the Arrow within the Canadian government makes the consideration even murkier.

Others accuse the Americans of deliberately sabotaging the Arrow program. In fact, this assertion has evolved into a full-blown conspiracy theory, given widespread exposure north of the border by a two-part TV movie released in 1996 by the Canadian Broadcasting Company (CBC) on the development of the Arrow, starring Dan Ackroyd. The movie apparently features scenes such as one where US President Eisenhower pressures Prime Minister Diefenbaker to cancel the Arrow and "buy American". The movie was labeled as a "work of fiction" and had elements that were clearly inventions of scriptwriters, but it apparently did much to convince people that the conspiracy theory is an indisputable fact.

In reality, this conspiracy theory, like all good conspiracy theories, is long on emotions, contrived arguments, and convictions, but short on hard evidence. Conspiracy theorists claim the US defense secretary told his Canadian counterpart that Canada would be better off to drop the Arrow and purchase US hardware, while one Diefenbaker cabinet member much later insisted that the US was highly supportive of the program, calling the conspiracy theory "nonsense".

The US did clearly try to sell the Canadians on BOMARC, but at the same time the Americans were clearly involved with and supportive of the program from its early days, with NACA providing test support, a B-47 provided to help test the Iroquois engine, and US hardware like the J75 engine fitted to the prototypes. After all this time, the argument seems tiresome. Incidentally, in 1980 the CBC did produce a documentary show on the Arrow that was much less sensationalistic than the movie.

There is little doubt that the Arrow would have been a magnificent aircraft, and it was certainly a shame the Iroquois-powered prototypes never flew, but on the same coin it is apparent that the program was extremely ambitious and risky. The RCAF requirements were gold-plated, and the aircraft was based on almost entirely new technology, including the airframe, engine, fire control system, and missiles. The mission focus was also specialized by modern standards, with the aircraft sold almost entirely as an interceptor, and by the time the Arrow prototypes were flying, the Soviet bomber threat seemed less substantial since ICBMs were clearly going to be in service soon. The combination of circumstances was more than enough to give a government with a relatively modest defense budget reason to reconsider the project.

Interestingly, while the Canadians were working on the Arrow, the Americans were working on a conceptually similar long-range, high-performance interceptor, the North American "F-108 Rapier". The Rapier never got beyond the mockup stage, being cancelled in September 1959. The same logic that worked against the Arrow worked against the Rapier, with the same results. Whatever the facts of the case, it is hard not to sympathize with those who dream of the CF-105 thundering on patrol over Canada's snow-covered north.

It seems that a number of nonflying CF-105 replicas have been built for museum displays, including at least one full-scale replica built by a Canadian named Allan Jackson that was used in the Dan Ackroyd movie; that replica was cut up at the end of the film and the owner got it back in pieces. Apparently there was some miscommunication and Mr. Jackson was compensated for the screwup, but it took him some time to get the replica back into shape again. It has since had other ups and downs. Work is underway to build a subscale flying replica, which would certainly be an interesting airshow demonstrator.

05-27-2006, 03:45 PM
Heliopause & DrHerb... Excellent post's

That photo of the nose shot of the Arrow is Mint.


05-28-2006, 03:35 AM
Nord 1402

French manufacturer Arsenal joined the Nord company after WWII. It had already started investigating the deltawing configuration. In 1952 the government came with a order for a experimental plane for testing trans- and supersonic speeds.


The design 1402 flew for the first time in 1954 (januari 15th) and 8 months later it was the first French plane to brake the "sound barrier". The design received a better engine, the Atar 101D-2 at the end of 1954 and a n improved wing. This design was called 1402B Gerfaut I.

On april 17th 1956 an improved Nord 1405 Gerfaut II took to the air. With even more powerful engines and a bigger delta wing. It was able to reach 3000m in 51 sec. In the end other manufacturers came with better designs and only two Nord planes were build and used for testing. (e.g. testing the first air to air missiles)

05-28-2006, 09:17 AM
Northrop X-4 Bantam


As the X-1 program neared completion, Yeager and his teammates began working on a variety of other research projects. One of these was the semi-tailless Northrop X-4 Bantam. Always interested in aircraft without tails, Jack Northrop built the X-4 to study the lack of a horizontal stabilizer on transonic flight. Following the contractor€s initial flights and some necessary modifications, Yeager made the first X-4 flight for a combined Air Force/NACA test program on Aug. 18, 1950. The X-4 proved to be skittish in the air and Yeager later described his seven flights as €œamusing.€ €œYou could take that airplane up €" it had plenty of power. You could take it out to about .92 or .93 Mach number. If you sat there, the thing would begin to pitch, yaw, and roll. If you didn€t back off, it would go divergent on you.€


The Northrop X-4 Bantam was built to investigate the tailless configuration at transonic speeds. The hope of some aerodynamicists was that eliminating the horizontal tail would also do away with stability problems at transonic speeds resulting from the interaction of supersonic shock waves from the wings and the horizontal stabilizers.
As with many aircraft that came after the Second World War, it was strongly influenced by wartime German design and research; the Germans had flown the tailless, swept-wing Messerschmitt Me-163 Comet rocket-propelled fighter, which actually saw combat; a few had been captured, but American and British test pilots had been reluctant to fly the volatile little rocket plane under power.
Northrop made 2 X-4s, the first of which [S/N 46-676]. The first flight was made on December 16, 1948, by Northrop company test pilot Charles Tucker. The resulting aircraft was very compact, only large enough to hold two J30 jet engines, a pilot, instrumentation, and a 45-minute fuel supply.
Nearly all maintenance work on the aircraft could be done without using a ladder or footstool. A person standing on the ground could easily look into the cockpit. The aircraft also had split flaps, which doubled as speed brakes.
The first ship proved mechanically unreliable, and the second one (46-677) did most of the flying. It had a redesigned wing and a number of other improvements, and the first X-4 was grounded and used for spare parts.

The X-4, having to do without conventional horzontal tail surfaces, was equipped with controls that combined ailerons and elevators, known as "elevons." The craft also featured these split speedbrakes.
In his autobiography, Chuck Yeager noted that in a straight-down power dive in the X-4 with the speedbrakes out, he could do no more than 250 MPH.

The X-4 proved that the tailless configuration wasn't all the aerodynamicists thought it was cracked up to be. It was only marginally controllable at low speeds, and at high speeds (close to transonic) it proved to be longitudinally unstable, entering a kind of "porpoising" motion as it approached the speed of sound.

The two X-4 aircraft were 23 ft long, 14 ft high, and had wingspans of 26 ft. They weighed almost 8,000 pounds at takeoff.
The X-4 was powered by two Westinghouse XJ-30 turbojet engine s with 1,600 pounds of thrust each. These engines boosted the X-4 up to speeds of 620 mph and up to altitudes of 40,000 feet.


Span: 26 ft. 10 in.
Length: 23 ft. 3 in.
Height: 14 ft. 10 in.
Weight: 7,550 lbs. max.
Armament: None
Engines: Two Westinghouse XJ-30 turbojet engines of 1,600 lbs. thrust each
Crew: One
Serial number: 46-677

Maximum speed: 640 mph.
Cruising Speed: 480 mph.
Maximum endurance: 44 minutes
Service Ceiling: 44,000 ft.

Both aircraft survived the test program without serious incident. The No. 1 X-4 is displayed at the Air Force Academy. The No. 2 aircraft was transferred to the Museum shortly after the program ended. It was restored by the Western Museum of Flight, Hawthorne, California.

Video Clip Download:

05-28-2006, 10:16 AM
Thanks, The Arrow was a first for many new technologies, and for its day was the most technically advanced aircraft put into the skies, who said Canadians can only drink beer and play hockey, we can drink beer and build planes too lol

05-28-2006, 11:08 AM
One can see the only original piece left of the Arrow at the Aviation Museum in Ottawa. It is just the cockpit forward. The museum also has a Me163 and He162.

list of a/c:
http://www.aviation.technomuses.ca/collections/artifact...craft/aircraft.shtml (http://www.aviation.technomuses.ca/collections/artifacts/aircraft/aircraft.shtml)

05-28-2006, 05:19 PM



05-28-2006, 07:40 PM

One of the primary weaknesses of early jet fighters was their voracious appetite for fuel, resulting in a short range and a limited endurance as compared to conventional piston-engined fighters. In March of 1944, the Bell Aircraft Corporation was asked by the USAAF to construct a jet fighter with extended radius to overcome some of these limitations. A Letter Contract for two prototypes was issued on March 29, 1944. The designation XP-83 was assigned.

Bell had actually been working on an interceptor design since March of 1943 under the company designation of Model 40. In April, in response to the USAAF's requirement, the Model 40 was reconfigured as a long-range escort fighter. The Bell Model 40 retained the basic overall configuration of the earlier P-59A Airacomet, the first US jet-propelled aircraft. Twin General Electric I-40 (J33) turbojets were installed in housings underneath the wing roots, adjacent to the fuselage. This arrangement had the advantage in that no appreciable asymmetric forces were exerted if one engine went out. In addition, no fuselage space was occupied by engines, leaving internal fuselage capacity free for fuel tankage and armament.

The rather large and bulky fuselage was of all-metal semimonocoque construction. A fully-retractable tricycle undercarriage was fitted. Internal fuel capacity was a capacious 1150 US gall. In addition, a pair of 250 US gall drop tanks could be carried. The ailerons were hydraulically-operated, and the flaps were electrically-controlled. A pressurized cabin was provided. The cockpit had a small, low canopy with a very sloping windscreen. The proposed armament was to be six 0.50-in machine guns with 300 rpg, all guns being mounted in the nose. However, alternative armament schemes of four 20-mm or 37-mm cannon and even a battery of 20 (!!!) 0.50-in machine guns were also considered.

A USAAF contract for two XP-83 prototypes was awarded on July 21, 1944, confirming the Letter Contract of March. Serials were 44-84990 and 44-94991. Only seven months after the awarding of the contract, the first prototype (44-84990) was flown on February 25, 1945 by chief Bell test pilot Jack Woolams. The aircraft proved to be underpowered and somewhat unstable. The close proximity of the turbojets was found to have the unintended side effect of allowing the hot jet exhaust gases to buckle the tailplane during run-ups on the ground unless fire trucks were standing by to spray cooling water on the rear fuselage.

The second prototype (44-84991) flew on October 19, 1945. It had a slightly different bubble canopy and a somewhat longer nose to accommodate a heavier armament of six 0.60-inch T17E3 machine guns. This aircraft was used in gunnery tests at Wright Field in Ohio.

The tailplane overheating problem was cured by modifying the tailpipes so that they angled outwards. Wind tunnel tests showed that an 18-inch extension of the vertical tail would cure the stability problems, but it is not certain whether or not this modification was actually carried out.

The performance of the XP-83 was rather disappointing, and no series production was ordered. Apart from its range, the XP-83 offered no significant advantages over the Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star which was already in production, and further work on the XP-83 project was abandoned.

Following the abandonment of work on the XP-83, the two prototypes were used for a short time as test beds for other development work. The first XP-83 was used in a ramjet engine test program, in which a pair of experimental ramjets were slung under the wings. It was intended that the aircraft would be able to fly on ramjet power only, once sufficient flying speed was obtained. A hatch was cut in the belly to provide entry into the aft fuselage, and an engineer's station was provided in the fuselage behind the pilot. However, on September 14, 1946, just as the test program was beginning, one of the ramjets caught fire during a test flight, forcing pilot Chalmers Goodlin and engineer Charles Fay to parachute to safety. The XP-83 was destroyed in the ensuing crash.

The second XP-83 survived until 1947, at which time it was scrapped.

Specification of the XP-83:

Two 4000-lb.st. General Electric J33-GE-5 centrifugally-fed turbojets. Performance: Maximum speed was 522 mph at 15,660 feet. Range on internal fuel was 1730 miles at 30,000 feet. With two 250-Imp.gall drop tanks, range was 2050 miles. Initial climb rate was 5650 feet per minute, and an altitude of 30,000 feet could be reached in 11.5 minutes. Service ceiling was 45,000 feet. Weights were 14,105 pounds empty, 24,090 pounds loaded, 27,500 pounds maximum. Dimensions were wingspan 53 feet 0 inches, length 44 feet 10 inches, height 15 feet 3 inches, wing area 431 square feet.

05-29-2006, 11:51 AM
Chance Vought F6U-1

Before WWII ended the Chance Vought company started to design a jet fighter under designation number V-340. US Navy ordered three prototypes. The first flight was conducted on oktober 2nd 1946.


The engine chosen to power the plane was a Westinghouse J34-WE-22. The F6U "Pirate" entered Navy service in august 1949. Although 65 planes were ordered the production ended at 30 planes. They were used in the training roll. A recon version was developed (F6U-1B) but didn't go into production.

05-29-2006, 01:44 PM
Originally posted by Heliopause:


Whoa, with this stallion parked infront of my faculty I could get every chick there!

(Unfortunately there are not many studying physics here... http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/35.gif )

05-30-2006, 11:17 AM
Whoa, with this stallion parked infront of my faculty I could get every chick there!

I think you're right!! LOL

Fiat G.82
Developed after a NATO request for a jet trainer. Giuseppe Gabrielli designed the trainer aircraft.


A prelimenary design was numbered G.80 but proved to be underpowered (powered by a de Havilland Goblin engine).
With an enlarged fuselage and a Rolls-Royce Nene 6/21 engine the G.82 was born. NATO did not show great interest and only 5 machines were build and used by the Italian Airforce at Amendola.

05-30-2006, 05:59 PM
Convair XF2Y-1 Sea Dart


The Sea Dart grew out of a 1948 request for proposals by the US Navy for a supersonic interceptor seaplane. Although flying from the oceans would allow such an aircraft to operate from forward areas, there was another reason for wanting to build such an aircraft: the Navy wasn't certain that a supersonic aircraft could be operated from a carrier of any reasonable size.

Convair's proposal won the competition on 19 January 1951. The contract specified two prototypes of a single-seat delta-wing fighter, to be designated the "XF2Y-1 Sea Dart", that took off and landed on water using two retractable "hydro-skis". The engines were mounted on the back of the aircraft, with the intakes well up above the wings to prevent water ingestion during takeoff and landing.

The Sea Dart had a vee-shaped hull, and its internal spaces were organized as multiple watertight compartments to keep it afloat if battle damaged. It had twin dive brakes on the lower rear fuselage that could be also be used as water brakes or rudders. Flight controls were hydraulic. The Sea Dart could not take off or land on a runway, but each of the hydro-skis had a small wheel at the end, and a third small wheel was mounted near the rear of the aircraft to allow it taxi onto or off of a seaplane ramp. The cockpit canopy pivoted up as a single unit, and featured a somewhat antique-looking windscreen with twin oval glass panels in a metal frame. Apparently the pilot field of view was not very good.

The Sea Dart was originally planned to be powered by twin Westinghouse XJ46-WE-02 engines with 26.68 kN (2,720 kgp / 6,000 lbf) afterburning thrust each. The XJ46 engine, an afterburning derivative of the Westinghouse J34 axial-flow turbojet, was expected to give the aircraft a top speed well in excess of Mach 1. The aircraft was to be fitted with an Aero 13E fire-control system with AN/APS-50 radar, and armed with four 20 millimeter cannon and a pack of 70 millimeter (2.75 inch) folding-fin air rockets (FFARs), though in fact no Sea Dart would ever be armed. The Navy was so enthusiastic about the Sea Dart that even before it flew, the service ordered a total of four "YF2Y-1" service evaluation aircraft and 16 "F2Y-1" production aircraft.

* Since the first Sea Dart prototype was finished before the XJ46 engines were available, it was fitted with twin Westinghouse J34-WE-32 engines with 15.11 kN (1,540 kgp / 3,400 lbf) maximum takeoff thrust each. Taxi trials began in San Diego Bay in mid-December 1953, with test pilot Sam Shannon at the controls, leading to first official flight on 9 April 1953.

The Sea Dart was, to nobody's surprise, badly underpowered with its J34 engines and remained solidly subsonic. The hydro-skis turned out to give an extremely rough ride on takeoff and landing, though a redesign effort helped reduce this problem. It would also turn out that the salty sea air was hard on engines.


The XJ46 engines were installed in the prototype later that year, but they failed to meet their designed thrust levels. The detestable Vought F7U Cutlass carrier would use production J46 engines, and the lack of engine power and poor fuel economy would be high on the list of pilot complaints against the "Gutless", as it was known.

At this point, the Navy began to rethink the Sea Dart program. The second prototype was cancelled, with development moving on to the first service evaluation YF2Y-1, fitted with J46 engines, although the Navy was seriously looking for a better powerplant. The YF2Y-1 was similar in appearance to the XF2Y-1 but had a longer, redesigned exhaust, and the little beaching wheels were removed from the hydro-skis and the fuselage, meaning it had to be fitted with external beaching gear to be brought up on shore.

The YF2Y-1 began test flights in 1954, and on 3 August 1954, Convair test pilot Charles E. Richbourg took the machine through Mach 1 in a shallow dive. The Sea Dart is believed to be the only seaplane to ever break Mach 1. However, since it had been designed before the new "area ruling" scheme was introduced, its supersonic handling characteristics were poor.

The YF2Y-1 was lost in a crash during a low-level demonstration on 4 November 1954, killing Richbourg in full view of a press tour. This accident essentially killed the program as well. The Navy was no longer particularly frightened of operating supersonic aircraft off of carriers, and despite improvements in the hydro-ski design, the Sea Dart still suffered from serious vibration on takeoff and landing.

The Navy had begun cutting back the program in December 1953, before the delivery of the YF2Y-1, cancelling ten of the production aircraft. The other six were killed off in March 1954, well before the fatal accident. Following the accident, the program was further scaled back to a test exercise, and plans to produce an "F2Y-2" with area ruling and a single Pratt & Whitney J75 turbojet with 66.71 kN (6,800 kgp / 15,000 lbf) thrust were abandoned.

The XF2Y-1 was then refitted with twin J46 turbojets and a single-ski configuration in hopes that would solve the takeoff and landing problems. The fit was strictly experimental. The ski was not fully retractable and the wells for the old twin skis were not faired over. The new single ski had a pair of retractable beaching wheels at the end, allowing the aircraft to beach itself. The modified XF2Y-1 first flew in late December 1954, and after some initial problems the single-ski scheme proved remarkably successful, allowing safe takeoffs and landings even in fairly rough seas.

The second YF2Y-1 performed its first flight in March 1955. It was powered by twin J46 turbojets and had a modified twin-ski system, with pivoting beaching wheels at the end of each ski. The twin-ski system didn't work much better than before, and the aircraft was put into storage at the end of April 1955, never to fly again.

Specification for the Convair YF2Y-1 SeaDart:

Engines: Two Westinghouse J46-WE-2 turbojets, rated at 6000 lb.s.t. each with afterburning. Maximum speed: 695 mph at 8000 feet, 825 mph at 36,000 feet.
Initial climb rate 17,100 feet per minute. Range 513 miles.
Service ceiling 54,800 feet. (these are estimated performance figures, which I don't think were ever achieved in test). Stalling speed 132 mph.
Dimensions: Wingspan 33 feet 8 inches, length 52 feet 7 inches (YF2Y-1 no. 3 51 feet 1 1/2 inches), height 16 feet 2 inches (skis retracted) 20 feet 9 inches (skis extended), wing area 568 square feet.
Total internal fuel capacity: 1000 US gallons.
Weights: 12,625 pounds empty, 16,500 pounds gross, 21,500 pounds maximum takeoff.
Armament: The SeaDart was never equipped with any armament.


The other two YF2Y-1 prototypes (135764 and 135765) were completed but never flown.

The four surviving SeaDarts are all preserved in museums. The XF2Y-1 prototype (BuNo 137634) was reportedly at one time with the Maryland Aviation Historical Society at Strawberry Point (I'm not sure where this is, even though I am from Maryland. It might be at the site of the old Glenn L. Martin plant near Baltimore). However, it is now in storage at the Paul Garber Restoration Facility of the Smithsonian Institution in Suitland, Maryland, waiting eventual restoration. It is in terrible shape, with lots of rust, a smashed canopy, and the wings having been cut off by a blowtorch. The 3 surviving YF2Y-1s are with the San Diego Aerospace Museum at Balboa Park (135763), the Wings of Freedom Air and Space Museum at NAS Willow Grove, Pennsylvania (135764) and the Sun n' Fun site at the Lakeland, Florida airport (135765) respectively.

There is a rather odd postscript to the SeaDart story. In 1962, five years after the official termination of the SeaDart project, the Navy was ordered to redesignate all of its fighter aircraft in order to conform to the new tri-service unified aircraft designation scheme. For some obscure reason, the SeaDart was assigned the designation F-7. Why would the Navy bother to redesignate an aircraft which had never entered service? Perhaps some clerk in the Defense Department had some fond memories of this warplane, and decided to honor it posthumously with an official F-number.

05-31-2006, 11:44 AM
Douglas D-558-1 "Skystreak"

The D558-1 "Skystreak" was designed in 1945 by the Douglas Aircraft Company for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, in conjunction with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).


First flight was made on April 14th 1947 piloted by Gene May. On August 20th 1947 it broke the world speed record at 640.633 mph flown by Navy Cdr Turner Caldwell. Four days later this was followed by USMC Marion Carl at 650.606 mph. Power was provided by a Alisson J35-A-11 engine.
On May 3rd 1948 the second prototype was lost when after take-off the compressor desintegrated.

05-31-2006, 02:43 PM
Martin P6M Seamaster


The Martin P6M Seamaster prototype, which made its first test flight on 14 July 1955. During flight testing, speeds in excess of 600 mph (966 km/h) were claimed. It embodied all the design features developed during World War II and immediately after the war. In 1952 Martin was awarded a contract, first, for a design study, and then a production contract for two prototypes known as Model '275. They would be modern in almost every way, despite their untimely destruction during tests.

They were effectively seagoing B-52s, having a small crew of four and a gross take-off weight of 160,000 lbs (72,575 kgs), the same as the Convair Tradewind. The technology involved in its design was the latest known and included four Pratt & Whitney J75-P-2 turbojet engines of 17,500 lbs (7,938 kgs) thrust mounted on top of a highly swept shoulder-mounted drooped wing which had a span of 100 ft (30.48 m).

It had a T tail configuration and a high length-to-beam ratio of its 134 ft (40.84 m) hull. The engines were mounted in such a way as to prevent ingestion of the water spray pattern into the engine air-intake ducts and the wing-tip floats were integral, enlarged parts of the drooped wing configuration. These floats served additionally as wing-tip plates and in the mooring and docking of the Seamaster they played an important role in picking up the mooring buoy which was the key to swinging the aircraft, almost automatically, into the floating beaching gear or into a dock, whichever system was being used at the time. Also incorporated in the design of the P6Ms was a watertight rotary bomb bay. This could be flipped over in flight to expose the bomb racks which could be loaded on the inside of the hull with bombs, mines, cameras or other ordnance stores.


Progress was encouraging, however during flight tests, both XP6M-1s crashed. On December 7,1955 the one thing the flying control designer feared most happened. The actuator controlling the horizontal stabilizer ran to full travel. The huge aircraft, traveling at high speed, pitched down sharply. The engines tore away from the wings, which, under the high airloads, bent down and actually touched beneath the hull, before the aircraft broke up, killing the crew of three.

Trials continued with the second prototype, but during special vibration checks, this too went out of control and executed a tight loop before breaking up. On this occasion, happily, the crew managed to escape from the stricken aircraft. A modification was incorporated in the second ship to allow the crew to escape through a tube like hatch just aft of the flight deck. When the second XP6M-1 crashed the crew was saved because of the escape system installation.

A major redesign program followed this mishap, during which the wing was given dihedral in place of the former anhedral. other changes included the installation of more powerful engines, the jet pipes of which toed out sharply. Most important, a new, all-transistorized auto-pilot and flight control system was installed.


The Navy had ordered an initial fleet of 24 Sea Masters, but through the delay caused by the redesign work and the accompanying steep rise in costs, six aircraft were canceled. The first production aircraft, YP6M-1, flew in February 1959, and the Navy boasted how well their new aircraft could mine the Black Sea, and claimed it was "a major new anti-submarine warfare system . . . able to go after enemy submarines in their home ports." However, by this time the force of 18 aircraft had been reduced to eight, which were planned to operate as a single squadron from a new 'seadrome'. In the event, even these eight aircraft proved too expensive and only an additional three production P6M-2s Sea Masters were built. The Seamaster project was terminated in the autumn of 1959.

Specifications P6M-2

Crew: 4
Length: 134 ft 0 in (40.84 m)
Wingspan: 102 ft 11 in (31.37 m)
Height: 32 ft 5 in (9.88 m)
Wing area: 1,900 ft² (180 m²)
Empty weight: 91,300 lb (41,400 kg)
Loaded weight: 120,000 lb (54,000 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 176,400 lb (80,000 kg)
Powerplant: 4Ӕ Pratt & Whitney J75-P-2 turbojets, 17,500 lbf (77.8 kN) each
Maximum speed: 550 kt (630 mph, 1,010 km/h)
Range: 1,700 nm (2,000 mi, 3,200 km)
Service ceiling: 40,000 ft (12,000 m)
Rate of climb: ft/min (m/s)
Wing loading: 63 lb/ft² (310 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.58
Guns: 2Ӕ 20 mm cannon in tail turret
Bombs: 30,000 lb (14,000 kg)

06-01-2006, 02:41 AM
Beriev Be-R1


Marine recognisance- bomber hydroplane.

Experimental twin-jet flying boat. The R-1 had a gull wing on top of a long and slender fuselage. The wing tip floats folded. Prototypes only.

Type: R-1
Function: maritime patrol
Year: 1952 Crew: Engines: 2 * 2740kg Klimov VK-1
Wing Span: 21.4m Length: 19.43m Height: Wing Area: 58m2
Empty Weight: Max.Weight: 17000kg
Speed: 800km/h at 7000m Ceiling: 11500m Range: 2000km
Armament: 4*g23mm b1000kg



The official record for the fastest jet-powered flying boat is held by the Beriev M-10 that reached 567 mph (911 km/h) on 7 August 1961. Also known as the Be-10 and codenamed "Mallow" by the West, the record-setting craft was designed in the Soviet Union by Georgii Michailovich Beriev and built by his design bureau.

Beriev Be-10 / M-10
Beriev had become the Soviet's primary manufacturer of flying boats during the 1930s, and most of its designs were generally similar to those developed by other nations around the world. The Be-10, however, was a significant departure because it was one of the first seaplanes to be powered by turbojet engines. The aircraft also built on early experience designing jet aircraft and incorporated swept wings, swept tail surfaces, wing fences, and other streamlined characteristics to improve high-speed performance. The Be-10 airframe was built entirely of metal, and its high-mounted swept wings with large anhedral featured stabilizing floats at each tip. Two Lyul'ka AL-7PB turbojet engines mounted near the wing root powered the aircraft. Carrying a crew of four or five, the Be-10 was designed for long-range maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine patrols while carrying up to 4,400 lb (2,000 kg) of weapons.

The Be-10 was first unveiled to the public at the Soviet Aviation Day in 1961, and the aircraft soon captured no fewer than twelve world class records for seaplanes. Chief among these was the previously mentioned world speed record set by pilot Nikolai Andrievskii and a crew of two. Other records captured by the type included a speed record over a 1,000 km closed course while carrying a 5,000 kg payload and an altitude record while carrying a 10,000 kg payload. These and other records were recorded by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, or FAI, the international body that officially recognizes aviation and space records. Most of the records set by the M-10 still stand to this day.

The Be-10 is still considered the only jet-powered flying boat to ever achieve production status. Despite its revolutionary design and many records, however, the type saw only limited production. The Soviets instead favored the Be-12 that used much the same fuselage as the Be-10 mated to a more conventional wing and tail unit. Furthermore, the Be-12 was equipped with turboprop engines to provide much better efficiency than the fuel-hungry turbojets of the Be-10. This change in powerplant gave the Be-12 much better endurance for its maritime patrol duties.


Powerplant: 2Ӕ Lyulka AL-7RV turbojets, 63.7 kN (14,320 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 900 km/h (560 mph)
Range: 3,200 km (2,000 mi)
Service ceiling: 12,200 m (40,000 ft)
2x 23 mm cannons in a radar-controlled tail turret
2x 23 mm cannons in the nose
Anti-submarine missiles may be carried under the wings

06-02-2006, 10:33 PM
Yakovlev Yak-25


The Yak-25 originated from a need for long-range interceptors to protect the USSR's northern and eastern territory. The specification for a two-seat, twin-engine jet fighter and a related reconnaissance aircraft was issued by Stalin on 6 August 1951. The aircraft was to use the new Mikulin AM-5 turbojet. The first prototype, the Yak-120, flew on 19 June 1952.

The new design mounted the turbojets in pods in the wings, with bicycle landing gear, leaving the fuselage volume free for the two crewmen and a substantial fuel load, giving an unrefueled range (with external tank) of about 2,560 km (1,600 mi). The large, blunt nose contained the radome for the air-interception radar. Armament was two hard-hitting 37 mm NL-37L cannon with 50 rounds per gun.


Despite some significant problems the type was cleared for production in 1953. Early production models, designated Yak-25, were delivered the following year, although they were not yet to operational capacity thanks to problems with the 'Sokol' radar. As a result early aircraft used a modified version of the RP-1D (NATO 'High Fix') ranging radar instead. When the 'Sokol' (RP-6) was finally available, the newly equipped aircraft were designated Yak-25M, with deliveries starting in January 1955. The Yak-25M received a number of other improvements, including recoil dampers for the cannon, upgraded AM-5A engines (with the same thrust), and a slight increase in fuel capacity. It was first displayed at Tushino in July 1955, and received the NATO designation Flashlight.

The last Yak-25 interceptors were retired by 1967; the 'Mandrake' reconnaissance version soldiered on in various roles through the late 1970s. Like many other PVO interceptors of the Cold War era, the Yak-25M was not exported to the Warsaw Pact or other nations.

There was also another aircraft named Yak-25 - a light fighter prototype of 1947. After it lost a competition with MiG-15 and Lavochkin La-15, the first Yak-25 program was abandoned and the designation Yak-25 was re-used for a new interceptor. See Yakovlev Yak-25 (1947) for the description of that aircraft.


Interceptor variants
Some Yak-25M aircraft were later fitted with the 'Gorizont-1' system to allow them to be flown (via autopilot) by ground stations for ground control interception missions. These were redesignated Yak-25MG.

In 1955 and 1956 several Yak-25Ms were refitted as testbeds for air-to-air missile armament. The Yak-25K-5 carried 'Izumrud' radar and four RS-1U (NATO AA-1 'Alkali') beam-riding missiles on the wings inboard of the engine pods. The cannon were deleted. The Yak-25K-5 was used to test the K-75 missile, which did not enter service; the same was true of two Yak-25K-7L, with the abortive K-7 weapon. More promising was the Yak-25K-8, armed with two K-8 (NATO AA-3 'Anab') weapons, but this was terminated in favor of the upcoming Yak-28P.

Other variants

The reconnaissance derivative of the Yak-25, the Yak-25RV (Razvedchick Vysotnyj, "high-altitude reconnaissance"), was developed in 1957. It had a completely new, long-span straight wing of 23.4 meters (more than twice that of the Yak-25M interceptor) with a total area of 55 square meters. Camera and sensor packs were added in the fuselage. Some versions may have retained one cannon.

Despite its low wing loading, the 'Mandrake's' altitude performance was marginal at best, with considerable engine problems at high altitudes, excessive vibration, and primitive equipment that imposed high workloads for the crews. VVS nevertheless kept the Yak-25RV (NATO Mandrake) in service until 1974. A few were used in the late 1970s for monitoring of radioactive contamination, with specialized sensors; these were designated Yak-25RRV. Efforts in 1971 to develop the 'Mandrake' as a high-altitude interceptor (Yak-25PA) proved unsuccessful.

The derivative Yak-26 was developed as a bomber, but only nine were built. The Yak-27 was an upgraded version of the Yak-25 that added an auxiliary rocket engine for better high-altitude performance. The Yak-27V interceptor did not enter service, but more than 160 recce-optimized Yak-27R (NATO Mangrove) entered service in the late 1950s.

In 1961 a series of lightened 'Mandrakes' were produced as high-altitude target drones. The Yak-25RV-I was used as a manned target for unarmed (no live fire) interception practice, the Yak-25RV-II as a remote-piloted drone.


Specifications (Yak-25)
General characteristics
Crew: two
Length: 15.67 m (51 ft 5 in)
Wingspan: 10.94 m (35 ft 10 in)
Height: 4.4 m (14 ft 5 in)
Wing area: 28.94 m² (311.51 ft²)
Empty weight: 5,675 kg (12,510 lb)
Loaded weight: 8,675 kg (19,125 lb)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 9,450 kg (29,760 lb)
Powerplant: 2Ӕ Mikulin AM-5 or Tumansky RD-9 turbojets, 23 kN (5,000 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 1,090 km/h (680 mph)
Range: 2,700 km with external tank (1,687 mi)
Service ceiling: 15,200 m (50,000 ft)
Rate of climb: 30 m/s (5,960 ft/min)
Wing loading: 327 kg/m² (67 lb/ft²)
Thrust/weight: 0.53
Guns: 2Ӕ 37 mm Nudelman NL-37 cannon (50 rounds per gun)

06-03-2006, 08:39 AM
I see no justification what so ever for the exclusion of the meteor. It did, after all, see active service including sorties against V1s whereas some jets included in the game never flew, let alone saw action. Am I being paranoid or is there a definite bias against british aircraft? Any chance some talanted designer could do a third party design for the meteor?

06-03-2006, 09:28 AM
The Meteor would surely be a nice add-on. Haven't got the faintest idea why they left it out....


Keep up the posts Woofiedog!!

06-03-2006, 01:03 PM
Heliopause... Thank's for the Excellent post's

I also must say Thank's to the many other's that have added to this thread and taken the time to read the posts here.

Again, Thank's to All.

06-03-2006, 01:35 PM
Saunders Roe SR.A/1


Designed for use in the Pacific the SR.A/1 was proposed by Saunders Roe in 1943.

The fighter flying boat was of light alloy construction and powered by two Metropolitan Vickers F2/4 Beryl turbo jets. Armament comprised of 4x 20mm cannons grouped in the forward hull above the air intake.

The first SR.A/1 did not take to the air until 16 July 1947. As there was no longer a need for a jet fighter flying boat official interest waned. After a brief revival during the Korean war, the last SR.A/1 was retired in June 1951.

06-03-2006, 02:45 PM
It did, after all, see active service including sorties against V1s

And also ground attack missions in Europe in 1945.

06-03-2006, 03:36 PM
in the 1946 Jet vs Jet context , a Vampire Mk1 is what your wanting rather than a Mk3 Meteor

06-04-2006, 05:43 AM


The USAAF had found by painful experience in World War II that fighter escort was absolutely vital for the survival of bombers in enemy airspace.
Unfortunately, the first jet aircraft were notorious fuel hogs and lacked the range and endurance of their piston-engined counterparts, and would be unable to escort long-range bombers such as the B-29, B-50, and B-36 all the way to their targets.
In an attempt to solve this problem, the USAF considered all sorts of proposals for markedly increasing the range of jet fighter escorts, some of which bordered on the bizarre. One proposal for the solution to the escort fighter range problem was for the bombers to tow their escorting fighters into the combat zone and release them when their protection was needed. Several experiments were made with B-29s or B-36s towing P-80 or P-84 jet fighters, none of them being very successful and some being downright dangerous.
Other proposals revived the parasite fighter concept of the 1930s, this time with jet fighters being launched from platforms suspended from the bellies of large bombers.
The best known example of this idea was the McDonnell XF-85 Goblin. Other ideas included the use of mixed power concepts such as that which produced the Convair XP-81. Others involved the construction of large, bulky fighters that were virtually flying fuel tanks, e.g., the Bell XP-83.

The XF-88 was designed to fill a USAF requirement for a "Penetration Fighter", a new class of aircraft for long-range escort of USAF bombers.

Two XF-88s were ordered (S/N 46-525, 526) in 1946 and the first flight was on 29 October 1948.
The XF-88 was underpowered and the second aircraft was modified to the XF-88A by adding afterburning engines which increased its maximum speed to approximately 700 mph.

The XF-88A design was used as the basis for the F-101 "Voodoo".
The original XF-88 was modified to XF-88B with the addition of afterburning turbojets and an Allison XT-38A turboprop. The turboprop engine was added to test the feasibility of extending the cruising range of a fighter aircraft.
This arrangement, like the XF-81, proved impractical and was never adopted for production.


General characteristics

Crew: one
Length: 16.5 m (54 ft 1.5 in)
Wingspan: 12.1 m (39 ft 8 in)
Height: 5.3 m (17 ft 3 in)
Wing area: 32.5 m² (350 ft²)
Empty weight: 5,508 kg (12,140 lb)
Loaded weight: 8,394 kg (18,500 lb)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 10,477 kg (23,100 lb)
Powerplant: 2Ӕ Westinghouse J34-WE-22 afterburning turbojets, 21.4 kN (4,825 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 1,130 km/h (706 mph)
Range: 2,779 km (1,737 miles)
Service ceiling: 12,012 m (39,400 ft)
Rate of climb: 40 m/s (8,000 ft/min)
Wing loading: 258 kg/m² (52.9 lb/ft²)
Thrust/weight: 0.44
6x M39 20mm cannon


Link: http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/p88.html (http://home.att.net/%7Ejbaugher1/p88.html)

06-05-2006, 02:47 AM
Republic F-84F Thunderstreak


The F-84F "Thunderstreak" was introduced in 1949, as a competitor to North American Aviation's F-86 "Sabre". The "F" model differs from the "C" model in that its wings are swept back 40 degrees; its tail and elevator are swept back and it has a smaller canopy and redesigned windscreen. First flown in November of 1952, it was built too late for the "F" model to see combat in Korea. Some "Thunderstreaks" did see combat while serving with England and France in the 1956 "Suez Crisis". The "Thunderstreak" was also produced as the RF-84F "Thunderflash". This version had an extended nose that was capable of carrying 6 cameras for use in the photo-reconaissance role. The jet intake scoops were moved from the nose to the wing roots on the RF-84F model.


Although the F-84F Thunderstreak was a modified F-84E, it only utilized 15% of its ancestor's airframe. With the addition of swept wings and tail, and improved engines, the new aircraft matched anything flying in 1954. The F-84F became the front line fighter bomber of NATO throughout the 1950's. US Air National Guard F-84F's were deployed to Europe to provide close support during the Berlin Crisis of 1961. Turkey and Greece did not retire their F-84F's until the mid 1970's. A reconnaissance version of the aircraft, the RF-84F Thunderflash had a lengthened nose and modified air intakes, making it the first aircraft capable of night photography. It carried fifteen cameras in the elongated nose structure. An RF-84 was also modified for testing for the fighter conveyor program. The RF-84 was carried aboard a B-36 bomber on a retractable trapeze like hook. When the bomber neared the target, the RF-84 would be released to perform reconnaissance after the attack. The little fighter was then retrieved by the trapeze and returned to base with the bomber. The program, although somewhat successful, was very tricky to perform and never caught on.

In 1964, the "Thunderstreak" was transferred to Air National Guard units while front line squadrons re-equipped with the McDonnell-Douglas F-4 "Phantom". The F-84F was operated by Air National Guard units until final type phase out in 1971.


The original production schedule for the Thunderstreak that was prepared in August of 1950 called for the first deliveries to be made by the autumn of 1951. The production F-84Fs were to use heavy press forgings in the construction of the wing structure. However, the only forge press in the country suitable for the job was tied up in the B-47 program. A mechanical breakdown in the press caused further delays. To make matters worse, serious delays were encountered in the production of the J65 license-built Sapphire engines. In July of 1951, Republic was forced to admit to the USAF that the original schedule could not be met.

In order to get the F-84F program back on track, it was decided to redesign the wings so that they could be manufactured with existing tools and facilities. Although this would cure the press forgings problem, this redesign would add many months to the delivery schedule. In order to fill in the production gap until the F-84F could be available, the USAF decided to have Republic built the straight-winged F-84G as a stop-gap measure. The delays in the Thunderstreak program were in fact so time-consuming that the F-84G actually became the most widely-produced F-84 version produced, some 3025 examples being built before the last one rolled off the production lines on July 27, 1953.

The first production F-84F-1-RE (51-1346) was finally ready for its first flight in the late fall of 1952. It took off on its maiden flight on November 22, 1952. The production F-84F differed in several important respects from the earlier service test models. The cockpit canopy had previously been a sliding bubble type similar to that fitted to "straight-wing" F-84s. The cockpit canopy was now of a hinged arm, upward-swinging type that raised the part of the enclosure upward above the pilot before it swung backwards. For normal exits, the canopy was pushed upward, but for emergencies the canopy could be completely released from the aircraft to permit pilot ejection. This canopy was stronger, easier to install, and better sealed than the sliding version.

XF-84F Thunderscreech, a turboprop-driven F-84F Thunderstreak

The production F-84F also introduced a raised "turtle deck" aft of the cockpit, which replaced the rear fuselage deck of the previous bubble-canopied versions.

Service-test Thunderstreak models had a single speed brake on the belly of the fuselage, similiar to that of the Thunderjet. The production Thunderstreak replaced this with two perforated panels on the fuselage sides just aft of the wing trailing edge. These brakes could be opened at any speed up to the maximum dive speed without large trim changes or excessive buffeting.

Leading edge wing slats were added to improve airflow characteristics. Control tabs were removed from the ailerons in favor of an irreversible power-boosted control system.

Production of the Thunderstreak at Farmingdale was supplemented by subcontractors such as Kaiser Metal Products of Bristol, Pennsylvania which built the rear fuselage, Servel of Evansville, Indiana which built wings, and Goodyear Aircraft which built the cockpit windshield, canopy, and rear fuselage turtle deck.


A second source of Thunderstreak production was established in 1952 when a contract was given to General Motors to build Thunderstreaks in a plant at Kansas City. This plant had been used by North American Aviation during World War II to build B-25 Mitchells. General Motors-built Thunderstreaks were known as F-84F-GK (rather than RE), and could be distinguished from Republic-built Thunderstreaks only by their serial numbers.

Ten examples of the F-84F-1-RE were built. They were powered with the early US-built Wright J65-W-1 turbojet.

The F-84F-5-RE had the 7330 lb.st. J65-W-3 or the equivalent Buick-built J65-B-3. The deliveries of this version began in the latter part of 1953. The first F-84F-25-RE (51-1621) appeared at the end of 1953. It introduced an "all-flying" horizontal tailplane, in which the entire horizontal tail moved as a unit. The earlier F-84Fs suffered from a high-g stall pitch-up tendency which was often severe enough to tear the wings off the aircraft. This could make for a real bad day :-). The all-flying tail provided more positive control which helped to alleviate this problem, although the F-84F continued to operate under maneuverability restrictions throughout much of its service life.

The F-84F-50-RE appeared in March of 1955. It had the more powerful J65-W-7 (or J65-B-7), rated at 7800 lb.st. Airframe limitations prevented any improvements in low-altitude speed, but the added power increased the initial climb rate and the combat ceiling.

The F-84F-75-RE was the last version of the Thunderstreak to be built at Farmingdale. It introduced a new fairing under the fuselage for the braking parachute. This feature was later retrofitted to earlier models.

The last Thunderstreak rolled off the production lines at Farmingdale in August of 1957. A total of 2112 examples had been built. An additional 599 had been built by General Motors.


General characteristics

Crew: One
Length: 43 ft 5 in (13.23 m)
Wingspan: 33 ft 7 in (10.24 m)
Height: 14 ft 5 in (4.39 m)
Wing area: 325 ft² (30 m²)
Empty weight: 13,830 lb (6,275 kg)
Loaded weight: 19,340 lb (8,770 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 27,000 lb (12,250 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Wright J65-W-3 turbojet, 7,220 lbf (32.12 kN)
Maximum speed: 695 mph (1,120 km/h)
Cruise speed: 540 mph (865 km/h)
Range: 810 mi combat, 2,340 mi ferry with external tanks (1,300 km / 3,770 km)
Service ceiling: 46,000 ft (14,000 m)
Rate of climb: 8,200 ft/min (41.7 m/s)
Wing loading: 60 lb/ft² (292 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.37
6x .50-cal (12.7 mm) Browning M3 machine guns, 300 rounds/gun
Up to 6,000 lb (2,720 kg) on four external hardpoints including external fuel tanks, bombs, 8x 5 in (127 mm) rockets, 24x 3 in (75 mm) rockets, or 1x Mark 7 nuclear bomb.


Link: http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/research/fighter/f84ts.htm

06-05-2006, 05:40 AM
F-101 Voodoo for teh win.

06-05-2006, 08:38 AM
A little extra...
The "Thunderstreak" was also produced as the RF-84F "Thunderflash". This version had an extended nose that was capable of carrying 6 cameras for use in the photo-reconaissance role. The jet intake scoops were moved from the nose to the wing roots on the RF-84F model.

Some 24 RF-84F Thunderflashes reached the Dutch Airforce in 1956 as part of "grant aid".

06-05-2006, 09:30 AM
Cessna A-37 Dragonfly

History: In 1962, the US Air Force€s Special Air Warfare Center decided to evaluate the T-37 trainer as a future Counter-Insurgency (COIN) light attack aircraft. The T-37 "Tweet" had been in continuous service with the US Air Force since 1957, and had amassed an excellent service-reliability history. Two T-37Bs were tested with their original 1,025-lb thrust Continental J69 engines. The aircraft were loaded to a takeoff weight of 8,700 pounds, almost 33% above their normal maximum, and were understandably found to be somewhat lacking in performance. Subsequently, each aircraft was modified with a pair of 2,400-lb thrust General Electric J85-GE-5 turbojets, and were designated YAT-37Ds. Flight testing showed that the new aircraft could be safely flown at weights up to 14,000 pounds, which allowed for the carriage of a wide variety of weapons. Nothing became of the project until 1966, when the US Air Force€s involvement in Vietnam highlighted the need for a light strike-fighter. Cessna was contracted to convert 39 T-37B trainers procured from the boneyard at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base. Delivery of the new aircraft, now called the A-37A Dragonfly, began in May 1967. In addition to the larger engines, the aircraft was equipped with eight underwing hard-points and wingtip tanks. The first 25 A-37As underwent operational evaluation in South Vietnam and were eventually transferred first to the 604th Air Commando Squadron at Bien Hoa, then to the South Vietnamese Air Force in 1970.

Meanwhile, Cessna had built a prototype called the Model 318E which, while based on the T-37, had significant differences. Its airframe was stressed for 6 Gs, the fuel load was increased to 507 US gallons (1920 liters) plus 400 more gallons (1516 liters) in four underwing auxiliary tanks, and it had air-refueling capability. The aircraft was predictably re-designated the A-37B and, like the A-model, had a 7.62-mm Gattling Minigun in the nose, gun cameras, and armor protection for the pilots. It also had self-sealing fuel tanks, a tracking beacon system, and the ability to directionally track VHF and UHF signals. This prototype of the B-model was first flown in September 1967 and deliveries began in May 1968.

In addition to service with the US Air Force, the A-37 was supplied in small numbers to the South Vietnamese Air Force, Turkey, several South American air forces, and the US Air National Guard, where it remained in service into the early 1990s as an observation and light-attack derivative called the OA-37B. The A-37 is still active in South America, where it has soldiered on into the 21st century. Several have also made their way into the caring hands of private collectors, and it is probable that airshow audiences will begin to see them appearing on an increasingly regular basis.

Nicknames: Super-Tweet

Specifications (A-37B):
Engines: Two 2,850-lb thrust General Electric J85-GE-17A turbojets
Weight: Empty 6,210 lbs., Max Takeoff 14,000 lbs.
Wing Span: 35ft. 10.5in.
Length: 28ft. 3.25in.
Height: 8ft. 10.5in.

Maximum Speed at 16,000 ft: 525 mph

Maximum Cruising Speed at 25,000: 489 mph
Range: 1010 miles (460 miles with 4,100 lb. external weapon load)

Armament: One GAU-2B/A 7.62-mm (0.3-inch) Minigun, plus various mixes of general purpose, incendiary or cl
uster bombs, rocket pods, and gun pods.

Number Built: A-37B: 577; A-37A: 39

http://www.historicalaircraftsquadron.com/airshow_2002/A-37_Dragonfly_3.jpg http://www.warfactory.co.uk/gallery/viet4/dragonfly2.jpg

06-05-2006, 01:53 PM
Great thread. That Dragonfly reminds me very much of a BAC-Strikemaster, although its a 70s aircraft and therefore a bit 'post' for this thread. I remember watching a Strikemaster orbiting over the Omani coastal strip just south of Seeb in the in about 1980 and I swear it was managing to turn inside its own wing radius. And this at about an altitude of 150 ft. Again the Strikemaster was a militarised training jet derived from the BAC Jet Provest, which itself was originally was prop driven.

06-06-2006, 10:23 PM
Martin XB-48


The Martin XB-48 officially originated back in 1944, at a time when the USAAF was already aware of German advances in the field of jet propulsion, especially as applied to the development of jet bombers. Alarmed by German developments, the War Department called for bids on a new family of jet-powered bombers, with gross weights ranging from 80,000 pounds to more than 200,000 pounds. These new aircraft were to be powered either by TG-180 or TG-190 engines which were then under development at General Electric. The TG-180 was eventually built by the Allison Division of General Motors as the J35, and the TG-190 was built by the General Electric company as the J47.

On November 17, 1944, the USAAF issued a specification calling for a bomber with a range of 3000 miles, a service ceiling of 45,000 feet, a tactical operating altitude of 40,000 feet, and a maximum speed of 550 mph. On January 29, 1945 these requirements were amended to stipulate that the aircraft would have to carry specific types of bombs, including the conventional M-121, a 10,000-pound "dam-buster" earthquake bomb.

The Glenn L. Martin company of Baltimore, Maryland came up with the Model 223 in response to this requirement. The Martin proposal was submitted to the Air Technical Service Command on December 9, 1944, and led to Letter Contract W33-038 ac-7675. Approved on December 9, 1945, this initial contract called for one mockup of the Martin Model 223. The designation XB-48 was assigned.

At the same time, three other contractors were awarded development contracts, North American for the XB-45, Convair for the XB-46, and Boeing for the XB-47.


The end of the Second World War resulted in the cancellation of many projects and the delay of others. However, the War Department felt that the development of a jet-powered bomber should still be pressed forward with the utmost speed, and the XB-45, XB-46, XB-47, and XB-48 contracts were left untouched. In 1946, the USAAF decided to forego the competition that would ordinarily be held between the four entries and opted instead to review the available designs to see which of the contestants could be produced first. By that time, the XB-45 and XB-46 were nearing completion, but the XB-47 and XB-48 were still at least two more years away. Since the USAAF was guided by what it felt to be a sense of great urgency, it decided to appraise the XB-45 and XB-46 right away and choose one of them for immediate production. Any consideration of the XB-47 and XB-48 would be deferred until after they had flown. If either the XB-47 or XB-48 turned out to be markedly superior to the plane that was then being produced, then that aircraft would be purchased and the currently-produced version would be phased out. This is indeed what happened when the XB-47 appeared.

On December 13, 1946, the original contract was superseded by W33-038 ac-13492 which called for two XB-48 prototypes, spare parts, and a bomb bay mockup. The first XB-48 was to be flight tested and delivered by September 30, 1947, with the second being delivered by June 30, 1948.

The XB-48 was to be powered by six General Electric TG-180 turbojets, later to be redesignated J35. The six engines were encased three each in lifting aerofoil section pods housed underneath each wing. The lift pods had air ducts between the pods and had adjustable tailpipes on the engines. The pilot and co-pilot were seated in tandem underneath a canopy-type enclosure, and the bombardier/navigator sat in the extreme nose. The wings were too thin to house a conventional landing gear, so the aircraft had a bicycle-type tandem undercarriage, with tandem twin-wheel units retracting into the fuselage ahead and behind the bomb bay. The aircraft had a pair of smaller outrigger wheels underneath each wing outboard of the engine pods. This arrangement had been tested on a XB-26H and had been found to be feasible. The armament was to have been a pair of 0.50-inch machine guns housed in a remotely-controlled tail turret and guided by an AN/APG-27 radar.

The first XB-48 (serial number 45-59585) took off on its maiden flight on June 22, 1947. It took off from Martin's company airfield at Baltimore and landed at the Patuxent Naval Air Station some 80 miles away. It was powered by six TG-180-B1 (J35-GE-7) engines. Development and testing of the XB-48 was delayed by engine difficulties. The first XB-48 went through no less than 14 engines during its first 44 flights.

In the spring of 1948, after early flight test data had been obtained on both the Boeing XB-47 and the Martin XB-48, the Air Force concluded that the XB-47 had an appreciably better performance and showed greater development potential. In addition, the Martin design was over 50 mph slower than its guaranteed speed, and no production of the XB-48 was ordered. The end of the line for the XB-48 became official in September of 1948, when the Air Force ordered its first lot of B-47 Stratojets.

The second XB-48 flew for the first time on October 16, 1948, some three months behind schedule. However, this delay did not matter very much, since by that time the fate of the XB-48 program had already been decided. It was powered by six J35-GE-9 turbojets.

In early 1949, Martin attempted to revive the B-48 program by proposing that the second XB-48 be re-engined with four XT40 turboprops installed in reconfigured nacelles. This converted XB-48 was to have been a prototype for the Martin Model 247-1, an airplane which the contractor insisted was capable of competing with the B-47, B-50, and B-54. The Air Force felt that the contractor's cost and performance estimates were too optimistic, and, in addition, since the XT40 was a Navy-developed engine, it was unlikely that Martin would be able to get enough engines to meet the schedules. Moreover, the Air Force was now of the opinion that turbojets, not turboprops, were the wave of the future for bombers, and on March 31, 1949, Martin was formally notified that the Model 247-1 would not be proceeded with.

Flight tests with the XB-48s continued even after the formal end of the program. In the fall of 1949, the first XB-48 was cannibalized to keep the second flying. The latter aircraft was scheduled for a series of tests on the F-1 autopilot, jet engine cooling systems, and a hydraulic system for jet engines. However, these tests were canceled before any could be carried out. The second XB-48 was used instead for the testing of thermal de-icing systems. In September 1951, the aircraft was flown to Phillips Field at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland where it was static tested to destruction.


Specification of Martin XB-48:

Six General Electric J35-GE-7 axial-flow turbojets, each rated at 3820 lb.s.t.
Performance (contractor's estimate):
Maximum speed 479 mph at 35,000 feet, 516 mph at 20,000 feet, and 486 mph at sea level. Average cruising speed 415 mph. Combat radius 500 miles with maximum bombload. Takeoff run 7900 feet at 102,600 pounds takeoff weight. Initial rate of climb 3250 feet per minute at takeoff weight of 102,000 pounds. Combat rate of climb 4200 feet per minute at combat takeoff weight of 86,000 pounds. An altitude of 30,000 feet could be attained in 21.5 minutes. Service ceiling 39,400 feet.
Wingspan 108 feet 4 inches, length 85 feet 9 inches, height 26 feet 6 inches, wing area 1330 square feet.
58,500 pounds empty, 92,600 maximum takeoff. 102,600 pounds combat with 4968 gallons of fuel included.
Two 0.50-inch machine guns in extreme tail in remotely-controlled turret (not actually fitted). Maximum bombload 22,000 pounds.


06-07-2006, 03:03 PM
Handley-Page Victor


The Handley-Page Victor was the last of the three British V-bombers to enter service. Handley-Page had been considering concepts for some time and the basic design, designated HP.80, was designed to operate at high speed and altitude, above the ceiling of contemporary fighters. The aircraft featured a crescent wing, with the sweep decreasing in three steps from the root to the tip, and the chord similarly decreasing to ensure a constant limiting Mach number across the entire wing and a high cruise speed.

The HP.80's crescent wing was to be tested on a one-third scale radio controlled glider, designated the HP.87, but it crashed on its first flight. This exercise having proven a failure, in 1948 the Air Ministry issued specification, E.6/48, for a piloted demonstrator, which emerged as the HP.88.

HP.88 design and construction was farmed out to General Aircraft LTD. General Aircraft obtained a fuselage for the Attacker jet fighter from Supermarine and refitted it with a crescent wing and a tee tail. The HP.88 performed its first flight on 21 June 1951. General Aircraft had been bought out by Blackburn by this time, and Blackburn test pilot G.R.I. Parker was at the controls.

However, the HP.80's design had changed in the interim and the HP.88 wing was no longer representative of the aircraft it was supposed to be testing. In addition, the initial HP.80 prototype was already under construction, it broke up in flight on 26 August 1951, killing the pilot, Duggie Broomfield.

WB771, the first of the two HP.80 prototypes, was hauled by road 90 miles from the Handley-Page factory at Radlett to the test centre at Boscombe Down for flight trials. WB771 was reassembled at Boscombe Down. WB771 was finally put into condition for taking to the air, and the prototype performed its initial flight on 24 December 1952, with Handley-Page's chief test pilot, Squadron Leader Hedley George Hazelden, at the controls. WB771 was powered by four Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire 7 Mark 200 turbojet engines. Hazelden described the initial flight as comfortable with no anxieties. WB771 made an appearance at the Farnborough Air Show in 1953, with the aircraft painted with a black fuselage with a red cheat line and silver wings. Trials showed the basic design to be sound, with some corrections needed. WB771 was lost in a crash on 14 July 1954 while on a low-level run. The tail assembly was weak and tore off, with test pilot Ronald Ecclestone and his crew all killed.

The second prototype, WB775, which featured a reinforced tail, performed its initial flight on 11 September 1954.

First flight of a production aircraft was on 1 February 1956, with test pilot Johnny Allam at the controls. Allam accidentally broke Mach 1 in a shallow dive on 1 June 1957, making it the largest aircraft to that time to exceed the speed of sound.

The type finally entered RAF service with Number 232 Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) in November 1957, and reached its first operational unit, 10 Squadron, in April 1958.

The Victor was made mostly of aluminium aircraft alloys, in the form of a two-skin sandwich with corrugated filling, held together with spot welding. The wing had large flaps and leading-edge flaps somewhat oddly called nose flaps ? to reduce takeoff distance, plus a sweptback tee tail.

The Victor featured tricycle landing gear. The nose gear had twin wheels and retracted backward; each main gear unit consisted of eight-wheel bogies, with two rows of four tires, and retracted into the wings. Large hydraulic airbrakes were fitted to each side of the tail cone, and the tail cone contained a drag chute. B.1's were initially painted in a tidy overall anti-flash white to reflect the heat of a nuclear blast.

The B.1 was fitted with four Armstrong-Siddeley Sapphire 7 202/207 turbojet engines with 11,000 lbs thrust each.

The Victor carried a crew of five, including a pilot, co-pilot, two navigators, and an electronics systems officer, all in a spacious cockpit. Ejection seats were only provided for the pilot and co-pilot, on the basis that they would generally stay with the aircraft until the rest of the crew got out. There had been thought of building the entire crew compartment as an escape module, but the Air Ministry judged this measure too tricky and expensive.

The nose featured a large dielectric panel for navigation / targeting radar. The Victor could carry a single thermonuclear bomb, generally a British Yellow Sun weapon, though it also carried American fusion weapons under a dual command arrangement. For conventional carpet bombing, the Victor B.1 could carry up to 1,000 pound bombs in its internal bomb bay. The bomb bay could also be fitted with a long-range ferry tank.

The production B.1 visibly differed from the two prototypes in a number of respects. The prototypes had proven uncomfortably tail-heavy, and so the forward fuselage was stretched by 42 inches and the height of the tailfin was cut to fix the problem. In addition, the crew door was moved to allow the crew to bail out without being sucked into the engines; cabin glazing was increased and rearranged; the tailfin fillet was eliminated and the tail tee-joint bullet fairing was modified; and the top of the outer wing was fitted with a set of small vortex generator airfoils to ensure proper low-speed airflow.

A total of 50 B.1s was built, with the last delivered in February 1961, and it also equipped Numbers 15, 55, and 57 Squadrons. By the time the Victor was in full service, adversary fighters and other defences were well able to reach or exceed its speed and altitude. To improve the survivability of the type, 24 were modified to the Victor B.1A standard, being fitted with the Red Steer tail-warning radar, a radar warning receiver (RWR), and a set of jamming transmitters.

Handley-Page felt they could do better with the Victor, and in 1955 began work on the definitive Victor B.2. A Victor B.1 was modified as the prototype, performing its initial flight on 20 February 1959. Unfortunately, this machine crashed into the Irish Sea in August 1959 during trials, the crew being lost. The program went ahead despite the mishap; the B.2 initially went into service with 139 Squadron in February 1962. The B.2 also equipped 100 Squadron.

Four Rolls-Royce Conway 103 turbojets replaced the Sapphires of the B.1 and providing 17,250 lbs thrust each. Fitting of the Conway's required substantial inlet modifications to provide greater airflow.

The wing was stretched, extended by 18 inches at the root and 3 feet 6 inches for an overall stretch of 10 feet.

They soon acquired a midair refuelling probe, sticking out from the top of the cockpit; under wing tanks; speed pod fairings on the rear of the wings to improve aerodynamics, with the pods also carrying chaff dispensers; a hump in front of the tailfin with jamming gear, featuring two prominent elephant ear cooling intakes preceding it; and a countermeasures system in the tail cone, which was ringed with small antenna fairings. Anti-flash white colours gave way to a disruptive camouflage scheme, with the first camouflaged B.2s going into service in early 1964.

A total of 34 B.2s were built up to April 1963, with 21 of these quickly modified to the Victor B.2(RS) specification, featuring up rated Conway 201 turbojets with 20,600 lbs thrust each and the ability to carry the Blue Steel standoff missile semi-externally. The Victor was also to carry the US-built Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile, with two under each wing for a total of four.

The Victor never fired a shot in anger the Victors never did perform any bombing attacks.

There had been plans to modify some of the Victor B.2s to the Victor SR.2 strategic reconnaissance configuration; the program was accelerated to make up for the loss of the reconnaissance Valiants.

The first Victor SR.2 was flown on 23 February 1965. It featured camera and other reconnaissance sensors, including a radar mapping system, fitted into the bomb bay. A total of nine B.2's were converted to the SR.2 standard, and operated by 543 Squadron, which received its first SR.2 in May 1965.

With the introduction of the Victor B.2, the Victor B.1/1A was judged obsolescent for the bombing role. A B.1 was converted to a tanker configuration in 1964 to evaluate the usefulness of the type for midair refuelling, but the Valiant was also being used as a tanker and the retirement of the Valiant force in that same year meant that the RAF suddenly needed new tankers right away and couldn't wait for the trials program to be completed.

Six B.1A's were hastily fitted with a Flight Refuelling FR.20B hose and drogue unit (HDU) under each wing to provide a two-point refuelling capability. They were originally designated Victor BK.1A and later re-designated as Victor B.1A (K2P).

The initial tanker trials were completed and the rest of the conversions of the B.1/B.1A were more thorough, with these airframess fitted with both the wing HDUs and an FR.17 centreline station, with a fuel tank in the bomb bay. Eleven B.1s and fourteen B.1As were modified to this three-point configuration. They were originally designated BK.1 and BK.1A respectively, later changed to K.1 and K.1A. The first Victor tanker squadron, Number 57, became operational in February 1966, to be followed by 55 and 214 Squadrons.

The Victor had not been designed for the low-level operational role, and by 1968 it was apparent that the B.2s would have to be retired from this duty, leaving the Avro Vulcan to carry on in that function. The decision was made to refit the B.2s to a three-point tanker configuration. Handley Page had conducted technical studies on the matter from 1967, but the company went under in 1969, and the contract for the upgrades was awarded to Hawker Siddeley in 1970. Hawker Siddeley completed the upgrade program, with some difficulty since the company had little expertise with the Victor and had to start from scratch.


24 B.2s were upgraded to Victor K.2 spec, with the first flying on 1 March 1972. All the bombing gear was removed, while the wing was strengthened and 18 inches were clipped off each wingtip to reduce flight stress. The under nose glazing was finally eliminated. The K.2 could carry 91,000 pounds of fuel.

543 Squadron was looted for B.2s to make the K.2s, and as a result the squadron was disbanded in May 1974. The first Victor K.2s went into service with 57 Squadron in July 1975, followed by service with 55 Squadron beginning in April 1976. With the improved K.2s in service, Number 214 Squadron, which had been operating the old K.1s, was disbanded. The SR.2s had already been retired by this time, with the last withdrawn from service in 1975 for conversion to K.2s. They were replaced by reconnaissance-configured Vulcan B.2s.

In 1982 Argentina seized the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic, and as part of the operation to retake them, the RAF was to conduct raids with Avro Vulcan bombers. The nearest RAF base was on Ascension Island in the central Atlantic, so that meant a heavy reliance on midair refuelling, provided by Victors. The effort was codenamed BLACK BUCK.

All the Vulcan attacks involved a single bomber, supported by a number of Victors. The first BLACK BUCK strike was on 1 May, with a Vulcan bombing the runway at Port Stanley in the Falklands with high explosive (HE) bombs. It was the longest bomb raid that had ever been flown to that time; it was not only effective in denying local air support to the Argentine Falklands garrison, but also gave the Argentine government notice that the RAF could bomb Buenos Aries or other mainland targets if needed.

A second raid with HE bombs was flown on 3 May. Vulcan's were then fitted with Shrike anti-radar missiles provided by the US, with a flight on 28 May being scrubbed in-flight due to a technical problem with a Victor, but similar missions were flown on 29 May and 2 June, with Argentine radar installations successfully targeted and disabled. The fifth and last BLACK BUCK flight, carrying HE bombs fused for airburst to attack Argentine troops, was on 11 June, with the Argentine garrison finally throwing in the towel on 15 June.

The second combat operations of the Victor took place in the Gulf War. Following Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait, an American-led Coalition assembled overwhelming force to throw him out. The RAF was a significant contributor to the effort, the British component being named OPERATION GRANBY, and eight Victors provided tanker support. They were painted in Desert Pink, really more of a sand colour. The Victors flew 229 sorties, providing refuelling services for US Navy aircraft along with the RAF fleet. Victors also provided tanker support for air patrols over Iraq into 1993.

However, this was the swan song of the Victor, since the Vickers VC.10 was gradually replacing it for tanker duties. The last Victor unit, 55 Squadron, was disbanded in October 1993, dissolving the very last remnant of the V-force. There is now no flying example of any Victor left. Five remain as static display items, all in the UK.

Variant Built Updated Notes

HP.80 2 Initial prototype.
B.1 50 Initial bomber variant.
B.1A - 24 B.1 with improved ECM.
B.1A(K2P) - 6 B.1A quick bomber / tanker conversions.
K.1 - 11 B.1 tanker conversion.
K.1A - 11 B.1A tanker conversion.
B.2 34 - Improved bomber, new engines, wider span.
B.2R - 21 B.2 with Blue Steel, uprated engines.
SR.2 - 9 B.2 strategic reconnaissance configuration.
K.2 - 24 B.2 tanker conversion.

Total 86

As with any successful aircraft, there were a number of un-built variants of the Victor. There was talk of a commercial airliner / transport derivative, with the same flight surfaces but a different fuselage, variously designated the HP.97 and HP.111. Handley-Page also considered a supersonic Victor, with a redesigned forward fuselage, an area ruled rear fuselage, a shorter wing, and new engines. The company also came up with an un-built design for a low-level bomber, with short wings, but it had little in common with the Victor except for the cockpit.

General characteristics
Crew: 5
Length: 114 ft 11 in (35.05 m)
Wingspan: 120 ft 0 in (36.58 m)
Height: 28 ft 1 in (8.57 m)
Wing area: 2,406 ft² (m²)
Empty weight: lb (kg)
Loaded weight: 165,000 lb (75,000 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 185,000lb (kg)
Powerplant: 4Ӕ Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire A.S.Sa.7 turbojets, 11,000 lbf (49 kN) each
Maximum speed: 650 mph (1,050 km/h)
Range: 1,500 mi (2,400 km)
Service ceiling: 49,000ft (18,300 m)
Rate of climb: ft/min (m/s)
Wing loading: lb/ft² (kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.27
35 x 1,000 lb bombs
Blue Steel nuclear missile

The last Victor unit, Number 55 Squadron, was disbanded in October 1993, dissolving the very last remnant of the "V-force". There is now no flying example of any Victor left. Five remain as static display items, all in the UK.



06-07-2006, 11:58 PM
Originally posted by woofiedog:
In addition, the crew door was moved to allow the crew to bail out without being sucked into the engines; wow , how thoughtfull & generous of those engineers http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-very-happy.gif

& how does one "accidently" go faster than sound ? http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

06-08-2006, 12:59 AM
Yes... an Exit Door away from the Main Turbines or Engines is an Excellent thought by the Engineer's! http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif


Airplane and Duck
Estimate the average impact force between an airliner traveling at 600 mi/hr and a 1 pound duck whose length is 1 foot. This is an example of the use of impulse of force.

Link: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/impulse.html#c3

JOHN GOLLEY: Guys were missing, and we didn't know. We didn't know what happened to them, whatever. Their controls could have locked up for some reason or another, which we never knew. We never discussed it. All we knew was that if a guy didn't come back, he'd had it.

CAPT. ROBERT S. JOHNSON: My nose, which I thought was straight down, suddenly tucked under. And my controls locked, and you could not budge the controls, no matter how hard you wanted to. And believe me, your mind was going like this€"What to do, what to do, what to do? Well, you were so frightened that you tried everything, and of course, then, at the bottom of the dive, as it pulled out, you'd black out, so you didn't come to until you're back up to about 19,000 feet.

ANN B. CARL: Funny things began to happen inside the cockpit. Dust was flying around. The stick would bang over against my leg, and I tried various things. It was certainly not a pleasant feeling to have the plane out of control. We were just going so fast that I didn't think I could probably get out.

CAPT. ROBERT S. JOHNSON: I was just standing out there watching, waiting to take off, and I saw these two airplanes just come screaming down, straight down. And there wasn't much else to watch, except they went in, into the water. We didn't know what had happened. We assumed that they just plain old dived in. And they did plain old dive in. But we didn't know that they could not get out of it. It was an uncontrollable situation once you hit that certain speed.

SIR PETER MASEFIELD: The Focke Wulf 190 certainly provided an additional spur to the British designers and test flyers to get the edge on the 190. But we were on the edge all the time, of having to push, push, push to get that little bit of extra which would make the difference between life and death in some of these dog fights and fighter sweeps which were going on at the time. But this was a very difficult period, because we were approaching the speed of sound. And airplanes were becoming uncontrollable, because it wasn't realized what the problem was. This was something quite new. The so-called sound barrier was beginning to be approached.

CAPT. ERIC BROWN: I took the aircraft up to a high altitude of the order of 40,000 feet. There, we would have a flat-out run at full throttle for about five minutes to build up the maximum steady speed we could. I pushed the aircraft over into a dive off the order of 30 to 40 degrees. At that particular angle, you could begin to feel a huge amount of vibration juddering through the aircraft, a lot of noise around the cockpit.

SIR PETER MASEFIELD: Yes, test pilots had always a difficult time, but at no time more difficult than when they were being sent up to try and approach the speed of sound with under control responses from airplanes. Baling out at those sort of speeds€"There weren't ejector seats in those days€"into nearly a 500-mile-an-hour slipstream was a thing which was only just survivable, and in many cases not survivable. Several test pilots, sadly, were lost because the airplane went uncontrollable.

06-08-2006, 10:57 PM
Tupolev Tu-14


In the postwar period, Soviet dictator Josef Stalin began high-priority programs to develop modern jet aircraft, using captured advanced German jet aircraft designs to give Red engineers a leg up on the task. One line of investigation was of course for a high-performance jet fighter, with this work culminating in the excellent Mikoyan MiG-15; the other line of investigation was for a jet bomber.

The experimental design bureau (OKB in its Russian acronym) under Andrei Tupolev began work on a jet bomber by developing the "Tu-12", a jet-powered version of their Tu-2 twin-engine piston-powered bomber. It was really nothing but a practice exercise and there was never any serious intent to go into production.

The first attempt to develop a production machine focused initially on the "Tu-73", which was a straight-winged aircraft with a swept tailplane, powered by an imported Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet in a nacelle in each wing and a Rolls-Royce Derwent turbojet in the tail, with the intake at the base of the tailfin. It featured a ventral remote-controlled dorsal barbette with twin Nudelman-Richter NR-23 23 millimeter cannon behind the cockpit and a similar ventral barbette under the rear fuselage. Initial flight of the Tu-73 was in 1947. A "Tu-78" prototype was also built, being generally similar except for using license-built versions of the Rolls-Royce engines, with RD-45Fs in the wings and an RD-500 in the tail.

Improvements to the RD-45F led to the similar but more powerful "VK-1" turbojet, with 26.5 kN (2,700 kgp / 5,950 lbf) thrust. The VK-1 engines allowed elimination of the clumsy Derwent installation in the tail. Removing the Derwent also meant that a tail turret with twin NR-23s could be fitted. Given good performance, that was seen as adequate defensive armament, and the twin cannon barbettes were eliminated. However, twin fixed forward-firing NR-23s were fitted in the nose. The result was the "Tu-81", which was performed its initial flight in 1949. Prototypes were also flown of Tu-81R reconnaissance and Tu-89 torpedo bomber variants.

The Tu-89 torpedo bomber was approved for production as the "Tu-14T" for the AVMF, the Soviet naval air arm. It could carry free-fall bombs, mines, and torpedoes. Only about a hundred were built; it is unclear if any of "Tu-14 (Tu-81)" standard bomber or "Tu-14R (Tu-81R)" reconnaissance machines were included in that production. In any case, the type was thoroughly overshadowed by the conceptually similar but far more successful Ilyushin Il-28 medium bomber. The Tu-14T was assigned the NATO codename of "Bosun", no doubt reflecting its naval use, and the type apparently remained in service into the early 1960s.

General characteristics
Crew: four
Length: 21.95 m (72 ft 0 in)
Wingspan: 21.67 m (71 ft 1 in)
Height: 5.69 m (18 ft 8 in)
Wing area: 67.36 m² (725 ft²)
Empty: 14,930 kg (32,846 lb)
Loaded: 20,930 kg (46,046 lb)
Maximum takeoff: 25,930 kg (57,046 lb)
Powerplant: 2 x Klimov VK-1 turbojets, 26.5 kN (5,950 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 845 km/h (528 mph)
Range: 3,010 km (1,881 miles)
Service ceiling: 11,200 m (36,745 ft)
Rate of climb: m/min ( ft/min)
Wing loading: 311 kg/m² (64 lb/ft²)
Thrust-to-weight: 0.3
2 x NR-23 23mm cannon forward
2 x AM-23 cannon in tail turret
up to 3,000 kg (6,610 lb) of bombs or torpedoes


06-09-2006, 01:05 PM
Just for fun...

My Dad flew the early AF jets during his 30 year career as a pilot in the AAC/AAF/USAF. He had lots of hours in the P-80, F-86, and F-86D. We talked extensively as he got older and my obsession with warbirds became more pronounced. Some of his tidbits:

The main difference between flying prop fighters and early jets was the acceleration. On the runway, if you punched it in a prop, you picked up speed rapidly. The first time he flew a P-80, he advanced the throttle and the plane SLOOOWLY began to move down the runway. He was afraid he'd never get to rotation speed.

Because of the slow acceleration, and need to not jazz the throttles, and the speed you flew at, you needed to "stay ahead" of the plane. Way, WAY ahead compared to a prop plane.

Ranges were very short compared to prop planes he flew (P-47N and P-51D). You could have three times the hops and not as much air time. He knew a bunch of early jet jockeys with what looked like very limited flying time, when actually they were very experienced pilots, with many sorties.

He thought that the nose mounted 6 x 50 cal was just fine for fighter to fighter combat. Better than the wing mounts in the Mustang.

The F-86D, even though slightly faster, and having an afterburner, was a dog. Didn't do one thing better than the F-86's w/o afterburners except go slightly faster. No range, and the armament was horrible.

He absolutely loved the P-80/T-33. Sweet, easy to fly, forgiving, and very maneuverable with a dandy roll rate. He had a ton of hours in his beloved T-Birds.

He realized he needed reading glasses one day when he took a T-Bird up. He'd been flying F-101B's, and their instruments were bigger. He got into the T-Bird, and realized he couldn't read the smaller dials.

F-86 would go supersonic in a dive easily. Put the nose down and let er rip. Pilots loved doing this.

The F-86 was very, very maneuverable compared to later planes. It easily outrolled and outturned the F-100, F-101, F-102 etc. Of course, it couldn't match their climb, dive and acceleration, or top end.

Early jets needed engine replacement almost immediately.

06-09-2006, 01:20 PM
Slickun... Thank's for taken the time and post this article about your father's time in the Jet's... Very interesting read!

Again Thank's for Sharing! http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

06-09-2006, 01:20 PM
No problem, wolfiedog! My pleasure.

In relation to the F-101B's top speed:

Dad was adamant, and I quizzed him often, showed him literature etc to the contrary, that the F-101B could go mach 2.

According to Pop, and he has no need to lie about this, as the Voodoo got lighter and higher, it just kept going faster. He got it over 1400 mph TAS all the time.

There was sort of an unofficial top speed record for the type, which Dad, as commander of the 87th FIS, put a stop to. Guys were milking the plane for every last mph, then barely making it back to Lockbourne AFB (now Rickenbacker).

They would fly out, then punch it coming back to go as fast as they dared as the fuel ran out, then hopefully be over Columbus Ohio to land on fumes.

Dad drag raced the 101 against the other Century series fighters on a regular basis. The Voodoo blew each and every US airplane away off the line with its twin J-57's , but the F-104's and F-106's would slowly walk back up on it. "Nothing you could do," Dad would say. As the Other guys passed him they would exchange bird salutes.

06-09-2006, 02:29 PM
McDonnell Douglas F-101B Voodoo


McDonnell Douglas F-101B Voodoo
Last revised November 28, 1999
Written by: Joseph Baugher

The F-101B was a two-seat all-weather interceptor variant of the Voodoo, and was numerically the most important Voodoo variant, with a total of 479 being built.


Development of an all-weather interceptor version of the Voodoo was first considered as early as the fall of 1952, but was rejected at that time as being too costly. However, in the spring of 1953, the idea of the all-weather interceptor Voodoo was revived again, this time as a long-range interceptor to complement the relatively short-range F-86D. The idea was turned down again, since the Air Force's ultimate long-range interceptor was going to be the Mach-2 Convair F-102B (later redesignated F-106A).


However, late in 1953 delays in the F-102B program caused the Air Force to reconsider its procurement policy for all-weather interceptors. At that time, the subsonic Northrop F-89 Scorpion was the backbone of USAF long-range all-weather interceptor squadrons, with the supersonic Convair F-102A Delta Dagger just beginning to undergo flight testing. The F-102A had always been considered by the USAF as only an interim interceptor, filling in the void until the far more advanced F-102B could be made available. However, the F-102A was at that time experiencing teething problems on its own and it appeared that its introduction into service might be appreciably delayed. In addition, the explosion of a hydrogen bomb by the Soviet Union in August of 1953 made it imperative that the Air Force find something other than the F-102A that would help fill in the gap between the subsonic F-89 Scorpion and the Mach-2+ F-102B. The Air Force Council invited the aircraft industry to submit proposals. The work was to be done under the aegis of Weapons System WS-217A.

Northrop submitted an advanced version of the F-89 Scorpion, North American offered an all-weather interceptor version of the F-100 Super Sabre, and McDonnell proposed an adaptation of the F-101 Voodoo. In June of 1954, the Air Force deemed the McDonnell proposal the best of the three submissions.

Before being awarded a contract, McDonnell had been looking into both single- and two-seat configurations for their interceptor and had explored several alternative powerplant installations including General Electric J79s, Pratt & Whitney J57s or J75s, or Wright J67s. In November 1954, a two-seat configuration was finally adopted, and it was decided that the powerplants would be a pair of Wright J67s. The Wright J67 was an license-built version of the British Bristol Olympus turbojet which offered a maximum afterburning thrust of 22,000 pounds. The fire control system was to be the Hughes MG-13 system, an improved version of the E-6 system fitted to the Northrop F-89D Scorpion, and the armament was to consist entirely of Hughes Falcon guided missiles equipped with conventional warheads. No internal cannon armament was to be fitted.

The initial go-ahead decision for the interceptor Voodoo was made on February 25, 1955. It was anticipated that the first flight would take place in mid-1956 and that the initial entry into service would be in early 1958. An initial batch of 28 two-seat interceptors was ordered under a Letter of Intent issued on March 3, 1955. On July 12, an official contract increased the fiscal year 1956 order to a total of 96 aircraft. The aircraft seems to have initially been assigned the designation F-109, but the aircraft was officially designated F-101B in August of 1955. A mockup was inspected in September.

However, the Wright J67 engine soon began to encounter serious developmental difficulties, resulting in a delay in the F-101B program. Both McDonnell and the Air Force agreed to switch to a pair of Pratt & Whitney J57-P-55 turbojets fitted with afterburners which were 24 inches longer than those of the J57-P-13 which powered the single-seat Voodoos. These longer afterburners raised maximum thrust rating from 15,000 pounds to 16,900 pounds.

The F-101B retained the center and rear fuselage sections and the wing and tail surfaces of the F/RF-101A. However, it had a revised forward fuselage housing the MG-13 fire control system with automatic search and track mode, a two-seat tandem cockpit with pilot in front and radar operator in the rear, a retractable flight refuelling probe in front of the pilot's cockpit, and an all-missile armament. The internal fuel capacity was reduced to 2053 gallons to provide more room for electronic equipment and armament. Since the F-101B was heavier than its single-seat predecessor, it employed larger tires with a beefed-up undercarriage. Bulges had to be installed in the lower gear doors and in the undersides of the fuselage in order to accommodate the larger tires. Armament consisted of four Hughes GAR-1 semi-active radar homing or GAR-2 infrared-homing Falcon missiles carried on and launched from a rotary armament door covering the fuselage bay beneath and behind the rear cockpit. Two missiles were attached to recessed slots on each side of the door. After the first pair of missiles were launched, the door was flipped over, exposing the other pair. Some references claim that the F-101B carried six Falcons rather than four, but these seem to be in error.

The first flight of the two-seat Voodoo (designated NF-101B, serial number 56-232) took place on March 27, 1957, nearly a year later than predicted back in early 1955. Unlike the airframes of production F-101B, which were stressed for 7.33g maneuvers, the airframe of the NF-101B was limited to 6.33 g maneuvers.

In the next two years, about 50 F-101Bs were accepted and subjected to extensive tests before being released for operational service. Category I flight tests were carried out at Edwards AFB, and Category II and III tests were carried out at Eglin AFB and at Otis AFB, respectively. These tests were completed on March 15, 1959.

During flight testing, problems were encountered with the radar operator's position in the rear cockpit. It had been badly designed, and little could be done except to make minor changes. The Hughes MG-13 fire control system turned out to be inadequate, being merely a refinement of the E-6 fire control system fitted to the F-89D and could not effectively control the weapons of an interceptor as fast as the F-101B. A proposal to replace the MG-13 with the MA-1 system planned for the F-106 was turned down as being too costly. The only option was to improve the Central Air Data Computer that was the heart of the MG-13 system.

The first F-101Bs were delivered to the 60th Interceptor Squadron at Otis AFB in Massachusetts on January 5, 1959. F-101Bs ended up equipping 18 air defense squadrons (the 2nd, 13th, 15th, 18th, 29th, 49th, 59th, 60th, 62nd, 75th, 83rd, 84th, 87th, 98th, 322nd, 437th, 444th, and 445th Fighter Interceptor Squadrons). F-101Bs also served with the 4570th Test Squadron and the 4756th CCTS (later designated the 2nd Fighter Interceptor Training Squadron), both based at Tyndall AFB in Florida. These units carried out operational suitability tests and training for the Air Defense Command.

Late production F-101Bs (blocks 115 and 120) were completed with modified fire control systems and with provisions for carrying a pair of Douglas MB-1 Genie unguided nuclear-armed rockets on the rotary weapons bay in place of the two Falcon missiles. Starting in 1961, many earlier F-101Bs were upgraded to this standard under *Project Kitty Car*. The MG-13 fire control system was capable of hands-off Genie launches, including the automatic launch of the rocket, turning the aircraft into the escape maneuver, and detonating the nuclear warhead at the appropriate time. Since the Genies were bigger and created more drag, and also because they were more classified, they were normally carried internally until they were ready to be fired. Then the door would rotate and the rocket was fired

Between 1963 and 1966, many F-101Bs were fitted with an infrared sensor in front of the pilot's cockpit in place of the retractable refuelling probe. Other modifications were made to the control system as part of the Interceptor Improvement Program (also known as Project Bold Journey). Most F-101Bs were fitted between 1964 and 1968 with a modified pitch control system for the automatic pilot in an attempt to address the ""pitch-up"" problem that had plagued the Voodoo throughout its service life. Included in the upgrades was an enhancement of the resistance of F-101B airframes to electromagnetic pulses, and an improved MG-13 fire control system was installed for use against low-flying targets.

Produced alongside the F-101B interceptor was the F-101F operational and conversion trainer. The two-seat trainer version was initially designated TF-101B. The 79 F-101Fs were equipped with dual controls, but carried the same armament as the F-101B and were fully combat-capable. Most of these F-101Fs were retrofitted with infrared sensors and improved fire-control systems as part of Project Bold Journey .

The last of 480 F-101Bs was delivered in March of 1961. Once the teething troubles with its fire control system had been corrected, the F-101B proved to be a quite successful interceptor. However, it was outshone by the faster and more maneuverable Convair F-106A Delta Dart when that interceptor entered service.


Under a program known as Operation Queens Row, a batch of 56 F-101Bs was delivered to the Royal Canadian Air Force (later renamed the Canadian Armed Forces) between July 1961 and May of 1962. In addition, Canada also received ten F-101F two-seat operational trainers. In Canadian service, they were designated CF-101F.


In 1970-71, the 46 surviving CF-101Bs and CF-101Fs from the initial batch delivered to Canada were traded to the USAF for 56 refurbished and modernized F-101B interceptors and ten new F-101F operational trainers under Operation Peace Wings. These ex-USAF Voodoos were from earlier production batches, but had been upgraded with infrared sensors and improved fire control systems as part of Project Bold Journey.

F-101Bs began to leave active duty with the USAF beginning in 1969, many aircraft being passed along to the Air National Guard. The last active duty USAF squadrons to fly the F-101B were the 60th and 62nd FISs which were deactivated in April of 1971. However, a few F-101Bs continued on with training units for another ten years. The last Voodoo in US service (F-101B-105-MC 58-300) was finally retired by the 2nd Fighter Interceptor Training Squadron at Tyndall AFB in Florida on September 21, 1982.

The first F-101Bs were delivered to the Air National Guard in November of 1969, entering service with the 116th Fighter Interceptor Squadron of the Washington ANG and the 132nd FIS of the Maine ANG. They also served with the 179th FIS of the Minnesota ANG, the 136th FIS of the New York ANG, the 137th FIS of the New York ANG, the 192nd FIS of the Nevada ANG, the 178th FIS of the North Dakota ANG, the 123rd FIS of the Oregon ANG, and the 111th FIS of the Texas ANG. The F-101B passed out of ANG service when the last F-101B was retired by the 11lth FIS in 1981. It had operated the F-101B/F briefly as part of the Tactical Air Command after ADC was inactivated on April 1, 1980.

The Colorado State University operated a civil registered F-101B-110-MC (N8234, ex 57-410) in a research program to study severe storms.

General characteristics
Crew: Two
Length: 67 ft 5 in (20.55 m)
Wingspan: 39 ft 8 in (12.09 m)
Height: 18 ft 0 in (5.49 m)
Wing area: 368 ft² (34.20 m²)
Airfoil: NACA 65A007 mod root, 65A006 mod tip
Empty weight: 28,495 lb (12,925 kg)
Loaded weight: 45,665 lb (20,715 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 52,400 lb (23,770 kg)
Powerplant: 2Ӕ Pratt & Whitney J57-P-55 afterburning turbojets
Dry thrust: 11,990 lbf (53.3 kN) each
Thrust with afterburner: 16,900 lbf (75.2 kN) each
Internal fuel capacity: 2,053 US gal (7,771 L)
Fuel capacity with 2 external tanks: 2,953 US gal (11,178 L)
Maximum speed: Mach 1.72, 1,134 mph (1,825 km/h) at 35,000 ft (10,500 m)
Range: 1,520 mi (2,450 km)
Service ceiling: 58,400 ft (17,800 m)
Rate of climb: 49,200 ft/min (250 m/s)
Wing loading: 124 lb/ft² (607 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.74
Four AIM-4 Falcon in early aircraft, typically two SARH and two IR guided. Two AIM-4 Falcon and two AIR-2 Genie nuclear rockets in later and post-"Kitty Car" aircraft
Hughes MG-13 fire control system

F-101A - initial production fighter bomber, 77 produced.
NF-101A - one F-101A used by General Electric for testing of the General Electric J79 engine.
YRF-101A - two F-101As built as prototype reconnaissance models.
RF-101A - first reconnaissance version, 35 built.
F-101B - two-seat interceptor, 479 built.
CF-101B - 112 F-101Bs transferred to Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
RF-101B - 22 ex-RCAF CF-101B modified for reconnaissance use.
TF-101B - dual-control trainer version of F-101B, redesignated F-101F, 79 built.
EF-101B - single F-101B converted for use as a radar target and leased to Canada.
NF-101B - F-101B prototype based on the F-101A airframe; the second prototype was built with a different nose.
F-101C - improved fighter-bomber, 47 built.
RF-101C - reconnaissance version of F-101C airframe, 166 built.
F-101D - proposed version with General Electric J79 engines, not built.
F-101E - another J79 proposal, not built.
F-101F - dual-control trainer version of F-101B; 79 redesignated TF-101Bs plus 152 converted F-101B.
CF-101F - RCAF designation for 20 TF-101B/F-101F dual-control aircraft.
TF-101F - 24 dual-control versions of F-101B, redesignated F-101F (these are included in the -F total).
RF-101G - 29 F-101As converted for ANG reconnaissance.
RF-101H - 32 F-101Cs converted for reconnaissance use.


http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/f101_3.html (http://home.att.net/%7Ejbaugher1/f101_3.html)

06-10-2006, 06:52 AM
Thanks for that, Woofiedog.

During Dad's time with the 87th FIS, (64-66), they flew the F-101B and T-33.

The 101 version they had only carried two Falcon and two Geenie missiles. Period. It could carry 4 Falcons, but only two were operational, the other two were inert, the fire control wasn't able to employ them. The 87th used the loadout to transfer Falcons to the Canadians. They didn't allow nuclear tipped Geenies into their airspace.

Dad was always miffed about the 101's sent to Canada. They were newer and slightly faster than his planes.

The pitch-up problem was this: If you pulled too many G's, and it wasn't that many at lower speeds, the wings blocked airflow to the tail, and the nose rose, the plane flipped over into a deadly flat inverted spin. If you were below 20,000 feet, the spin recovery technique was to eject. Above 20,000, deploy the drogue chute and pray. Once you dropped below 20,000 feet, and there is no joy, eject.

The problem was never solved. There was sort of a work around, briefly addressed in the article you posted. If you got close to pitch up, the stick would jerk forward in warning.

The 101 was usually considered to be the most difficult plane to fly and land in the inventory. IIRC, there was only a 5 mph leeway in landing speed, 120-125 kts. Deadstick landings were so difficult that Dad said only a couple of guys in the squadron could really do them well enough to actually get the thing intact on a runway, if they really had to.

That said, it could flat out GO. Tremendous acceleration and climb, top speed well over 1000 mph. In Viet-Nam the RF-101's could go faster at low altitudes than the RF-4's.

Dad said the fire control system worked well, the 101 was very good at taking off, acquiring, then blasting incoming A/C.

He also said that the 102 and 106 had an initial advantage in turning, but the Delta wing bled speed so much the 101, with pitch up problem and all, could outturn it. At high speeds Dad said the 101 could pull as many G's as other US planes. It's roll rate was fine, zoom climb outrageous, and the dive was so fast, the plane gathered speed so rapidly, that full power dives just weren't done.

More in next post.

06-10-2006, 07:04 AM
The 87th ran practice intercepts on SR-71's.

The Blackbird would come screaming in at 80,000 feet, mach 3. Dad said that they could see it plain as day on the radar, shining like a beacon being that high. Problem was, they couldn't lock on until it was 15 miles away.

So, you had the 101 going flat out, something over 1000 mph, near 45,000 feet, the SR-71 coming at it at twice that speed. Closure rate ridiculous.

When the RIO said he had it locked, you pulled the 101 into a zoom climb, rocketing way past its operational ceiling (which wasn't that high) in this huge curve. At 15 miles you only had seconds. If you did it just right, you could get close enough to get a shot with a Geenie. Being nuclear and all, Pop said sometimes you would probably have gotten a kill.

Problem now was the Voodoo was 10,000 feet or so higher than its ceiling, and the engines flamed out, and the plane was uncontrollable. As the plane just fell like a pipe, you had to restart the engines, gain control, and land. There were two big buttons on the dash to do a quick re-start.

At 60,000 feet Pop says you can see the curvature of the earth. In all his flying, combat, everything, he said this was his biggest thrill, soaring up, out of control, in a big parabola, no power, totally helpless, looking out the canopy.

Wow. May he rest in peace. The things our cold warriors did, huh?

06-10-2006, 08:02 AM
thats so cool : )

interestingly - the operator of the sole flying FJ-4 Fury says he can get it to out-turn F-86's , which was the trouble F-86's had with well piloted Mig's - in his interview in Aeoplane magazine he was adamant about it

^ they sit real high in the air when parked on their wheels , especially the nose
opposite to the low Panther

06-10-2006, 09:14 AM
Interesting as well.

The guy we buy school supplies from flew the F-86. I'll ask him about that next time he comes by.

Guys back in the day dogfought each other ALL the time. Dad had a ton of dogfights with F4-U's and F6-F's in this P-47's.

Above 15,000 the Jug ruled. Below, the Navy types had the edge.

They would taunt each other until one group went up, or down, and the fight was on.

06-10-2006, 09:24 AM
Interesting stories, Slickun ! http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif
From what I've read of BrigGen Robin Olds, the 101 was very easy to pitch-up.
Pitching up in cruise wasn't too hard and you'd always have the "kicker" working in final approach.

@ Woofie: Wanne loose some words on the F-4 ? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/winky.gif

06-10-2006, 11:56 AM
Although prop planes are really my thing, this is one of the best threads on the board in months!

06-10-2006, 12:02 PM
My thoughts exactly Aaron. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif

06-10-2006, 12:11 PM
For a silly moment I thought that was one of the Thunder City's Buccaneers. Fancy looking jet.


06-10-2006, 01:58 PM
Slickun... Your writtings here about your fathers service would make for an interesting full article or short book.
You should put all of this information togeather some how.

Again Thank You Very Much for taking the time and posting your father's stories... he has some Extremely interesting information and some Great stories and I'd love to hear more.

Please tell him Thank You for sharing with us here on the forum.

06-10-2006, 02:07 PM
Aaron_GT & Low_Flyer_MkVb... Thank's for your support... Credit go's to the many Contributors who have made this thread an interesting place to visit and poke around.

Again Thank's

06-10-2006, 02:27 PM
Bremspropeller... You can't leave out the...

F3H/F-3 Demon Fighter

The F3H Demon was the first swept-wing jet fighter aircraft built by McDonnell Aircraft. It was the first aircraft designed to be armed only with missiles rather than guns. It was the only single-engine Navy fighter McDonnell designed.


The McDonnell F3H Demon had its origin in a Request for Proposal issued by the US Navy Bureau of Aeronautics on May 21, 1948 for a carrier-based interceptor. In the RFP, the Navy was looking for a carrier-based interceptor with a performance equal or superior to that of the most advanced land-based fighters then entering service.

The F3H design effort at McDonnell was led by Richard Deagen. At that time, the Navy was pushing the Westinghouse-designed afterburning J40 turbojet as the powerplant of choice for its next generation of advanced warplanes. Yielding to Navy pressure, McDonnell departed from its previous design philosophy of using twin-engined configurations and decided to adopt a single J40 as the powerplant for its entry, which was designated Model 58 by the company. The Model 58 called for a single-engine, single-seat day fighter with lateral air intakes and a 45-degree sweptback wing and tail surfaces.

Eleven competitors submitted designs in response to the RFP, among them being McDonnell's Model 58. In December of 1948, the McDonnell design was declared the winner of the competition, and on January 3, 1949 an initial Letter of Intent was issued covering the initial design. The designation XF3H-1 was assigned.

The competing Douglas design called for a delta-winged carrier-based aircraft. It was also to be powered by the J40 engine. It came in second in the competition, and was deemed sufficiently promising that the Navy issued a contract for two prototypes under the designation XF4D-1.

A mockup of the XF3H-1 was inspected between July 13 and 15, 1949. Following some redesign in order to save weight, two XF3H-1s were ordered on September 30, 1949.

The F3H had originally been proposed strictly as a day fighter. While the XF3H-1 prototypes were under construction, the Navy changed its mind and directed that production versions of the Demon be designed as general-purpose all-weather fighters. The designation of this production version was to be F3H-1N.

A modified F3H-1N mockup incorporating these changes was inspected in July of 1951. Work on the two prototypes was not affected, as they were seen simply as aerodynamic test vehicles rather than operational test aircraft. However, the sudden change in direction did delay the Demon program significantly.

In the summer of 1951, the first XF3H-1 (BuNo 125444) was finally ready for its first flight. Since the intended 9200 lb.s.t. afterburning Westinghouse J40-WE-8 was not yet available for installation, a non-afterburning 5600 lb.s.t. XJ40-WE-6 was fitted in its place. The XF3H-1 took off on its maiden flight on August 7, 1951, Robert M. Edholm being at the controls. The second prototype (BuNo 125445) followed in January of 1952.

The J40 turbojet proved to be totally unreliable during flight testing. In August of 1952, the first prototype was damaged in a landing accident following an inflight engine failure. Both prototypes were temporarily grounded on two occasions because of engine problems. In addition, early flight testing turned up problems with poor forward visibility, an excessively-slow roll rate, and inadequate lateral stability. A redesign of the nose section on production models cured the visibilty problem. The roll rate problem was cured by moving the ailerons further inboard, with a corresponding decrease in the length and area of the trailing-edge flaps. The lateral stability was improved by removing the wing fence from each outboard wing panel. An autopilot was added.

The second prototype was fitted with a 10,500 lb.s.t. afterburning J40-WE-8 in January of 1953. This engine did not prove to be any more reliable than the non-afterburning WE-6. This aircraft was used for preliminary evaluation tests at the Naval Air Test Center at Patuxent, Maryland beginning in August of 1953. In October of 1953, the second XF3H-1 was used for initial carrier trials aboard the USS *Coral Sea* (CVA-43). These trials were fairly successful, but there were some problems with low visibility during carrier approach and landing.

The first XF3H-1 was lost in a crash on March 18, 1954, following an inflight engine explosion. The second prototype was permanently grounded shortly thereafter. It was later shipped to the Naval Air Development Center at Johnsville, Pennsylvania to be used in barrier engagement tests.


The US Navy wanted the F3H-1N in service as soon as possible in order to counter the swept-wing MiG-15 then being encountered in Korean skies. Consequently, the Navy had ordered the F3H-1N into production even before the XF3H-1 prototype had taken off on its first flight. The Navy had even issued a contract to the Temco Aircraft Corporation of Dallas, Texas, for an additional 100 Demons to be manufactured under license. This early order for the production of the Demon turned out to be a costly mistake.

The production F3H-1N differed from the prototypes in having its ailerons relocated to mid-wing, and the entire nose and cockpit sections were tilted down five degrees in order to improve the forward vision during carrier approach and landing. Total fuel capacity was increased from 1148 to 1506 US gallons. An AN/APG-30 airborne interception radar was housed under an enlarged dielectric nose cone. Armament consisted of four 20-mm cannon situated below and behind the air intakes.

In September of 1952, the Navy also ordered 22 examples of the F3H-1P, a photographic reconnaissance version of the F3H-1N, in which the guns and radar were replaced by a set of cameras.

For initial trials, the F3H-1N was powered by a Westinghouse J40-WE-8 turbojet rated at 7200 lb.s.t. dry and 10,500 lb.s.t. with afterburning. However, in the production form it was fitted with the J40-WE-22 or -22A engine, rated at 7500 lb.s.t. dry and 10,900 lb.s.t. with afterburning. Even with this engine, the F3H-1N was decidedly underpowered, and plans were to replace the WE-22 with the more powerful J40-WE-24 when it eventually became available.

By September of 1953, it was apparent that the WE-24 engine was never going to materialize, and the Navy would have to be satisfied with the lower-thrust WE-22. The first production F3H-1N (BuNo. 133489) took off on its maiden flight on December 24, 1953. The first few F3H-1Ns were intended for service evaluation and carrier suitability tests. In early 1954, the first F3H-1N was turned over to service evaluation at NATC Patuxent River in Maryland.

Production of the F3H-1N proceeded very slowly because of late deliveries of the J40-WE-22 engines. The Navy service test program immediately ran into serious trouble. Within the space of only a few days, no less than eleven accidents occurred, some of them fatal. Newspaper headlines and editorials screamed about the Navy having acquired a dangerous and deadly aircraft, one that was more hazardous to its own pilots than to any potential enemy. Not only was the F3H-1N seriously underpowered, its powerplant was prone to inflight explosions and sudden failures. Consequently, the F3H-1N was a completely unsafe aircraft, and was heartily disliked by its pilots.

In spite of the troubles with the J40 engine, on February 13, 1955, a F3H-1N piloted by McDonnell test pilot C. V. Braun set an unofficial time-to-height record of 10,000 feet in 71 seconds.

The problems with the J40 engine proved to be incurable, and the Navy was forced to call a halt to F3H-1N production after only 58 examples had been built. Work on the F3H-1P photo-reconnaissance variant was dropped before anything could be built, and the contract with Temco was cancelled in its entirety. The Navy permanently grounded all of its F3H-1Ns in July of 1955. The F3H-1N debacle had cost the Navy before anything could be built. The F3H-1N debacle had cost the Navy some 200 million dollars, most of which had been spent on the unsuccessful J40 engine.

The surviving F3H-1Ns were deemed completely unairworthy and were either used as ground trainers or scrapped. Most never made a single flight. Does anyone know if any survive today?

The J40 experience was so devastating for Westinghouse that the company got entirely out of the jet engine manufacturing business shortly thereafter. As for McDonnell, it did not look too good for that company either, and the entire Demon program seemed on the verge of cancellation. However, McDonnell was able to recover some of its good name with the F3H-2 variant of the Demon, in which the unreliable J40 engine was replaced by an Allison J71.


The failure of the F3H-1N would ordinarily have been fatal for the Demon project. However, shortly after the first prototype had flown, McDonnell management had already become alarmed at the deficiencies of the Westinghouse J40, and had the foresight to consider alternative powerplants just in case the J40's problems proved to be incurable.

Back in November of 1952, even before the first production F3H-1N had flown, McDonnell had asked the Navy for permission to consider adapting the Demon to a different engine. The Navy was initially hesitant to approve this change, since they had committed themselves to using the J40 in most of the Navy's advanced combat aircraft projects of the period. However, the Bureau of Aeronautics eventually relented and authorized McDonnell to begin studying the feasibility of using the more-powerful Allison J71 in the Demon. The J71-powered Demon was designated F3H-2N.

A mockup of the F3H-2N was inspected in August of 1953. In November of 1953, the F3H-1N contract was amended tto call for the completion ofthe 32nd and 34th F3H-1N aircraft (BuNos 133520 and 133522) as J71-powered prototypes. This idea met with Navy approval, and the contract was amended so that the 61th and subsequent production Demons would be powered by the J71.

In order to accommodate the increased weight due to the adaptation of the Demon day fighter into an all-weather general-purpose fighter, the F3H-2N was to be fitted with larger wings, with an area increased from 442 to 519 square feet. This was done by extending the chord at the wing root by 40 inches and by moving the trailing edge aft.

The first F3H-2N prototype (BuNo 133520) flew on April 23, 1955. The first production F3H-2N flew in June of 1955. A total of 140 production aircraft which had been ordered as F3H-1Ns were delivered as F3H-2Ns with J71-A-2 engines. The J71-A-2 was rated at 10,000 lb.st. dry and 14,400 lb.s.t. with afterburning. In service, these engines were replaced by similarly rated A-2A or A-2B versions.

The F3H-2N carried an AN/APG-51 airborne intercept radar set. The armament consisted of four 20-mm cannon mounted below and behind the air intakes. Two hardpoints were provided underneath each wing. In addition, two 262-gallon drop tanks could be carried on mounts underneath the fuselage. Later, many F3H-2Ns were retrofitted to carry four AAM-N-7 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. In later years, the upper two cannon were often omitted when external stores or missiles were carried, the blast tubes being faired over.

The F3H-2M (M for "Missile") was a version of the F3H-2N that was equipped to carry and launch the AAM-N-2 Sparrow I semi-active radar homing missile. The F3H-2M was produced in parallel with the F3H-2N, but was modified to carry the AN/APG-51B radar set that was used to guide the Sparrow missiles. Four Sparrow missiles could be carried underneath the wings. The first F3H-2M flew on August 23, 1955. The F3H-2M was produced in parallel with the F3H-2N, 80 examples of the F3H-2M being built.

The F3H-2P was a proposed reconnaissance variant of the J71-powered Demon, with the radar and the armament being replaced by camera installations. The F3H-2P had been originally been proposed as the replacement for the abortive J40-powered F3H-1P project, but the F3H-2P project was itself cancelled before anything could be built.

The F3H-2N and -2M were all built under contracts initially intended to cover the abortive F3H-1N. Following the completion of these contracts, a new Demon version was ordered in 1956-57 under a new set of contracts. This version was designated F3H-2 (with no suffix). The F3H-2 could carry the more capable AAM-N-6 (AIM-7C after September 1962) Sparrow III and the AAM-N-7 (AIM-9B) Sidewinder IA air-to-air missiles. The F3H-2 was optimized as a strike fighter and could carry up to 6000 pounds of ordnance (bombs, rockets, or "special stores") on two fuselage and six wing stations. The F3H-2 also differed from the previous versions in having a slightly shorter beaver tail cone. The last of 239 F3H-2s was delivered on April 8, 1960, bringing the Demon production program to a close. Total Demon production was 519 aircraft.

The J71-powered Demon entered Navy service during the first quarter of 1956. In February of that year, an F3H-2M was delivered to the Naval Missile Center at Point Mugu in California. In March, F3H-2Ns were delivered to VC-3, a development and training squadron based at NAS Moffett Field in California, and to VF-14, an operational squadron based at NAS Cecil Field in Florida. F3H-2Ns first went to sea with VF-14 aboard the USS *Forrestal* (CVA-59) when it deployed to the Mediterranean from January to July of 1957.

The F3H-2N could carry drop tanks on two hardpoints underneath the fuselage. However, aerodynamic drag was excessively high because the two tanks were so close together. Consequently, the pair of drop tanks were rarely carried, or else, only one was carried. Beginning in 1955, a removable refuelling probe was attached to the starboard side of the fuselage above the intake. It could be extended upward and outward during air refuelling.

One F3H-2N (BuNo 133573) was modified in 1957 as a flying test bed for the AN/APQ-50 radar set intended for the F4H-1 Phantom II.

On September 18, 1962, the US Department of Defense combined all Air Force and Navy aircraft designations into the existing Air Force system. A new F-for-fighter series was begun, and Navy and Marine Corps fighters were redesignated to fit in with the new system. The F3H-2N was redesignated F-3C, the F3H-2M became MF-3B, and the F3H-2 became F-3B. The designation F-3A was never assigned, probably being a reflection of the unfortunate F3H-1N which never entered service.

The J71-powered Demon proved to be fairly popular with its crews. They liked its large wings with power-operated slats, and they especially liked its docile handling at high altitudes as well as its good handling during carrier landings. However, the Demon had rather short legs and had a relatively low endurance, even when carrying no external stores. Consequently, the F3H-2 Demon was not often used in its intended general-purpose role. In addition, the Demon was still somewhat underpowered even with the J71 engine, and the two upper cannon were often omitted to save weight, especially when missiles or external stores were carried.

Because of its long gestation period, the J71-powered Demon entered service with the Navy relatively late in the game, and its service career was rather short. After only a few years, Demons were replaced in service by Vought F-8 Crusaders and McDonnell F-4 Phantoms. VF-161 was the last Navy squadron to use the Demon. It finally traded in its F-3Bs for F-4Bs in September of 1964. Most Demons went into storage or were scrapped, although a few examples remained in various test roles for several years thereafter.


General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 59 ft 0 in (17.98 m)
Wingspan: 35 ft 4 in (10.77 m)
Height: 14 ft 7 in (4.45 m)
Wing area: 442 ft² (41.1 m²)
Empty weight: 21,287 lb (9,656 kg)
Loaded weight: 31,145 lb (14,127 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 39,000 lb (17,700 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Westinghouse J40-WE-22 turbojet, 14,400 lbf (64 kN)
Maximum speed: 716 mph (1,152 km/h)
Range: 1,800 mi (2,900 km)
Service ceiling: 42,650 ft (13,000 m)
Rate of climb: 14,350 ft/min (72.9 m/s)
Wing loading: lb/ft² (kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.46
4x 20 mm Colt Mk 12 cannons
6,000 lb (2,720 kg) of bombs
4x AIM-7 Sparrow (F3H-2M) or 2x AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles (F3H-2)
AN/APG-51 radar

06-10-2006, 02:31 PM
Wow, congrats Woofie, there's a fighter I have never, ever seen before! And I've been looking.


06-10-2006, 07:13 PM
Grumman F-11 Tiger


Grumman F11F-1/F-11A Tiger
Last revised January 30, 2000


Although it was destined to have only a short service life with the US Navy and never fired a shot in anger, the Grumman F11F-1 (F-11) Tiger carrier-based single-seat fighter achieved a degree of fame as the mount of the Blue Angels flight demonstration team, thrilling millions at air shows during the late 1950s and all throughout the 'Sixties.

The Grumman F11F (F-11) Tiger had its origin in a 1952 company-funded study to explore the possibility of adapting the basic F9F-6/7 Cougar design to the provisions of the Area Rule, thus reducing transonic drag and enabling the aircraft to achieve a supersonic performance. The project was given the company designation of G-98.

It soon became obvious that more than just a simple redesign of the Cougar would be needed, and by the spring of 1953, the G-98 had evolved into a completely different aircraft that bore no resemblance to the Cougar. The aircraft now had a cylindrically-shaped fuselage with a narrow-chord, mid-mounted sweptback wing with a relatively thin airfoil section. The fuselage was markedly narrowed in width at the position of the wings, in accordance with the provisions of the Area Rule.

The engine of the G-98 was to be the Wright J65, which was a license-built version of the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire. The engine was to be fed by a pair of air intakes mounted on the fuselage sides just aft of the cockpit. The pilot's cockpit was located well forward on the nose, and was covered by a rearward-sliding canopy. A sharp, downward-sloping pointed nose accorded good forward visibility, which was essential for safe landings aboard aircraft carriers. The undercarriage consisted of twin nosewheels which retracted rearward into the forward fuselage and single mainwheels which retracted into wells in the main fuselage. A retractable tailskid was provided for protection against damage to the rear fuselage in case of inadvertent nose-up landings.

Instead of using the standard wing construction technique with thin sheet aluminum riveted to a series of ribs, the main box skins were milled from single light-alloy slabs and integral stiffeners were incorporated to reduce weight. The wings had leading-edge slats and full-span trailing-edge flaps. Lateral control was provided by full-span spoilers which were mounted near the wing trailing edge just ahead of the flaps. An airflow fence was fitted to the upper surface of each wing at about 1/3 span. The wingtips were manually folded downward for stowage aboard carriers.

There was a single triangular-shaped vertical tail. The all-flying horizontal tailplane was mounted low on the rear fuselage.

The Navy Bureau of Aeronautics was sufficiently impressed with the G-98 proposal that on April 27, 1953 they ordered two flying prototypes (BuNo 138604 and 138605) plus a static-test airframe (BuNo 138603). Even though the G-98 now bore no relationship whatsoever to the F9F-6/F9F-7 Cougar, the Navy assigned the designation XF9F-8 to the project. Four months later, the Navy changed its mind and reassigned the XF9F-8 designation to the G-99 project, which WAS a straightforward derivative of the basic F9F-6/F9F-7 Cougar, and redesignated the new G-98 as XF9F-9, which confused just about everyone.

Tests were carried out with a rocket-launched scale model and with a small model mounted on the nose boom of a F9F-6 Cougar. The Navy now felt sufficiently confident to order 42 service test and initial production aircraft (Bu Nos 138606/138647).

Work on the XF9F-9 proceeded rapidly and the first flying prototype was available in July of 1954. However, the afterburning J65 engine was still not available, and a non-afterburning Wright J65-W-7 turbojet rated at 7500 lb.s.t. was fitted for the initial trials. XF9F-9 BuNo 138604 took to the air for the first time on July 30, 1954, test pilot Corwin "Corky" Meyer being at the controls. In spite of the use of the non-afterburning engine, the aircraft almost achieved Mach 1 on its first flight, which further increased the Navy's confidence in the design. The second prototype (BuNo 138605) took to the air for the first time on October 2, 1954.

On October 20, 1954, XF9F-9 BuNo 138604 crashed at the edge of a wooded area near the Grumman Calverton facility on Long Island following an engine flameout. The pilot, LtCdr W. H. Livingston, survived the crash, but the aircraft was too heavily damaged to be repaired. The second XF9F-9 prototype (BuNo 138605) was moved to Edwards AFB in California in search of better flying weather. Once at Edwards, 138605 was fitted with an afterburner and was finally able to achieve supersonic performance in level flight. However, the XF9F-9 (in contradiction to some sources) was not the FIRST Navy fighter to achieve this feat, that honor belonging to the Douglas F4D-1 Skyray which first went supersonic in level flight in June of 1954.

Flight testing at Edwards AFB did turn up some control and stability problems which needed fixing before the aircraft could be declared ready for service. These modifications were incorporated in BuNo 138606, which flew for the first time on December 15, 1954. It had redesigned vertical tail surfaces with a narrower chord rudder, a boundary layer splitter plate for the air intakes, a clear sliding canopy to improve rearward visibility, and a slightly longer nose. By then, an additional 388 production fighter aircraft had been ordered (BuNos 141728/141980, 143232/143366) and 85 reconnaissance versions (BuNos 140379,140413, 141981/142009, and 143367/143387), and these modifications were to be incorporated. The production aircraft were to be powered by the Wright J65-W-18 turbojet, rated at 7400 lb.s.t. dry and 10,500 lb.s.t. with afterburning. Armament was to be four 20-mm cannon mounted in the lower edges of the air intakes. In addition, four Sidewinder infrared-homing air-to-air missiles or two Sidewinders and two 150-US gallon drop tanks could be carried on underwing racks. In accordance with the new Navy requirement for inflight refuelling capability in all its combat aircraft, a partially-retractable refuelling probe was added in the nose.

In April of 1955, the Navy finally admitted that the Tiger was not an upgraded Cougar, and ordered that the aircraft be redesignated F11F-1 (the designation F10F had been taken by the Jaguar variable-sweep fighter). This redesignation covered BuNos 138605/138608 which had already flown, and subsequent production aircraft were redesignated before their completion. The three batches of reconnaissance versions were redesignated F11F-1P. The name Tiger was chosen, continuing the tradition of adopting feline names for Grumman-designed carrier-based fighters.

The first catapult launchings and carrier landings took place aboard the USS Forrestal on April 4, 1956. These trials uncovered further problems which resulted in the need for more changes. The range and endurance of the Tiger was found to be inadequate, and the second production batch of Tigers (beginning with BuNo 141728) incorporated additional fuel cells fitted in the intake walls and in the vertical fin, increasing internal fuel capacity from 914 to 1049 US gallons. Also starting with BuNo 141728, sixty-degree wingroot fillets were added to the wing leading edge and a six-foot longer nose was fitted, which had the retractable refuelling probe moved to a position on the starboard side of the nose. This longer nose was to have been fitted with an AN/APS-50 radar set, but this was never actually installed.

The first short-nosed F11F-1s were delivered to VX-3 based at NAS Atlantic City, New Jersey in February of 1957. VX-3 was assigned the mission of carrying out the initial operational evaluation of the Tiger. Three short-nosed F11F-1s were delivered to VA-156 (which was a day-fighter unit despite its Attack designation) at NAS Moffet Field, California in March of 1957. VA-156 soon received a full complement of long-nosed F11F-1s and was the first Tiger squadron to complete carrier qualifications.

The following squadrons ultimately received F11F-1s:

Pacific Fleet:
VA-156 (redesignated VF-111 in January 1959), VF-24 (redesignated VF-211 in March 1959), VF-51, VF-121, and VF-191.

Atlantic Fleet:
VF-21 and VF-33.

The Tiger served for brief periods aboard the USS Ranger, Intrepid, Saratoga, Forrestal, and Bon Homme Richard

The Vought F8U Crusader entered Navy service at about the same time as did the F11F Tiger. The Crusader was appreciably faster than the Tiger and was a much more satisfactory gun platform. Although the Tiger was slightly faster than the Crusader at sea level and had better handling characteristics, the Tiger was almost 300 mph slower than the Crusader at 35,000 feet and had a slightly slower initial climb rate and a shorter combat range. In addition, the Wright J65 was never the most reliable of powerplants, and had by that time reached its full growth potential. Consequently, the Navy soon became disenchanted with the Tiger and cancelled contracts for additional F11F-1s and cancelled the F11F-1P reconnaissance version in its entirety before any examples could be built. Only 199 F11F-1s were built before production ceased with the delivery of the last F11F-1 on January 23, 1959. For the first time in its history, Grumman now had no Navy fighters in production.

The service life of the F11F-1 with the Navy was destined to be only four years, the last Tigers being phased out by VF-33 and VF-111 in April of 1961. Following its withdrawal from fleet service, the Tiger was used primarily as a training aircraft. They served first with the Jet Transition Training Unit at NAS Olathe in Kansas starting in November of 1958. They were then issued to ATU-203 at NAAS Kingsville and to ATU-223 at NAS Chase Field. These units were redesignated respectively VT-23 and VT-26 in May of 1960. The last examples were retired by VT-26 in mid-1967, the survivors being transferred to the boneyards at the Military Aircraft Storage and Disposition Center at Davis Monthan AFB in Arizona.

The Tiger was to become famous as the mount of the Blue Angels flight demonstration team. Short-nosed F11F-1s were first acquired by the team in April of 1957. They later traded them in for long-nosed Tigers. The team's Tigers became a staple at air shows across the nation and around the world. I remember seeing the Blue Angels Tigers in action during an airshow over Providence, Rhode Island in the mid-1960s. The Blue Angels operated their Tigers for twelve years, finally exchanging them for McDonnell F-4J Phantoms in 1969. Following their retirement, the team's Tigers were relegated to storage at Davis Monthan AFB.

In September of 1962, the F11F-1 was redesignated F-11A in accordance with the new Tri-Service designation scheme. By this time, the only Tigers left flying were those serving with training units or with the Blue Angelsflight demonstration team.

In 1973, two ex-Blue Angels F-11As were taken from storage at Davis Monthan AFB and modified by Grumman as testbeds to evaluate inflight thrust control systems. BuNo 141853 was fitted with a Rohr Industries thrust reverser and BuNo 141824 was kept in standard configuration as a chase plane. Tests of the inflight thrust reverser were carried out by Grumman at Calverton beginning in March of 1974 and were continued by the Navy at NATC Patuxent River, Maryland until 1975. Following the completion of these tests, both planes were returned to storage at Davis Monthan AFB. These were the last Tigers to fly.

Serials of Grumman F11F-1 Tiger:
138603/138608 Grumman F9F-9 Tiger
138605/138608 redesignated F11F-1 in 1955.
138609/138647 Grumman F11F-1 Tiger
138646/138647 completed as F11F-1F
140379/140413 Grumman F11F-1P Tiger - contract cancelled
141728/141884 Grumman F11F-1 Tiger
141885/141980 cancelled.
141981/141999 Grumman F11F-1P Tiger - contract cancelled.
142000/142009 Grumman F11F-1P Tiger - contract cancelled.
143232/143366 Grumman F11F-1 Tiger = contract cancelled
143367/143387 Grumman F11F-1P Tiger - contract cancelled.

Specification of the Grumman F11F-1 Tiger:
These figures refer to late production (long-nosed) F11F-1s unless otherwise specified.

Engine: One Wright J65-W-18 axial-flow turbojet, rated at 7400 lb.s.t. dry and 10,500 lb.s.t. with afterburning. Performance: Maximum speed 753 mph at sea level, 727 mph at 35,000 feet. Cruising speed 577 mph. Initial climb rate 5130 feet per minute. Service ceiling 41,900 feet. Normal range 1275 miles. Weights: 14,330 pounds empty, 21,280 pounds loaded, 24,078 pounds maximum. Dimensions: wingspan 31 feet 7 1/2 inches, length 40 feet 10 inches (early production) 46 feet 11 inches (late production), height 12 feet 9 inches (early production) 13 feet 3 inches (late production), wing area 250 square feet. Fuel capacity: 1049 US gallons maximum internal fuel capacity. Two 150-US gallon drop tanks could be carried on underwing pylons, bringing total fuel capacity to 1349 US gallons. Armament: Four 20-mm cannon in the lower edges of the air intakes. Four underwing pylons for external stores. Four AIM-9 Sidewinder infrared-homing air-to-air missiles or two Sidewinders and two 150-US gallon drop tanks could be carried on underwing racks.

06-10-2006, 07:22 PM
Ryan FR-1 Fireball


The Ryan FR Fireball was a composite propeller and jet powered aircraft designed for the United States Navy during World War II. They entered service before the end of the war but did not see combat. The FR-1 Fireball was the US Navy's first aircraft with jet propulsion.

Design began in 1943 to a proposal instigated by Admiral John S. McCain, Sr. for a composite-powered fighter; early jet engines had sluggish acceleration which was considered unsafe and unsuitable for aircraft carrier takeoff and landing. A composite design allowed for conventional piston-powered flight but gave a jet for higher speeds.

FR-1 Fireballs in formation with piston engines offThe first prototype flew on June 25, 1944 but it was lost in a crash in October that year. Investigation showed that the wing rivets were insufficiently strong, a problem cured by doubling the number of rivets, but not before the other two prototypes crashed in similar fashion.

Orders for 700 aircraft were placed, but only 66 were delivered before Japan's surrender. One squadron, VF-66, was equipped with the aircraft before war's end, but they never saw combat.

The Fireball was the first American aeroplane to land under jet power on a ship, on the escort carrier USS Wake Island in November 1945.

The aircraft were withdrawn fairly soon after the war's end. With the rapid advance in technology, and the removal of the pressing need to get anything into combat quickly, the Navy decided to wait for better aircraft to be developed.

US Navy pilots considered Fireball to be a uniquely poorly chosen name, given its 'fiery accident' connotations.

The FR-1 Fireball was developed into the F2R Dark Shark, which replaced the piston engine with a turboprop, but this never entered service.

One FR-1 Fireball survives at the Planes of Fame Flying Museum, at Chino, California, and it is in the process of restoration to display condition.

06-10-2006, 07:33 PM
Vought F-8 Crusader







Vought F8U-1 (F-8A) Crusader
Last revised January 9, 2000


The F8U-1 was the initial production version of the Crusader. The Crusader test flight program had gone so smoothly that the production F8U-1 was almost identical to the XF8U-1 prototypes. The first production F8U-1 (BuNo 140444) flew for the first time on September 30, 1955, the same day as the maiden flight of the second XF8U-1.

The engine powering the F8U-1 was the J57-P-12A engine, which, after the delivery of the first few dozen aircraft, was supplanted by the J57-P-4A offering an afterburning thrust of 16,200 pounds. The F8U-1 carried an APG-30 gun-ranging fire control radar.

From September of 1955, the Navy required that that all its carrier- based aircraft be equipped with midair refuelling capability. Production F8U-1s were equipped with a retractable refuelling probe enclosed underneath a blister on the left-hand side of the fuselage, just aft of the cockpit.

Initial carrier qualification tests took place aboard the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) with F8U-1 BuNo 140446 (the fourth pre-production F8U-1) in April of 1956. Patuxent test pilot Cdr R. W. "Duke" Windsor carried out the initial tests. The first catapult launch took place on April 4.

The first production F8U-1s reached VX-3 in December of 1956. The first operational squadron to re-equip with the Crusader was VF-32 at NAS Cecil Field in March of 1957, followed by West Coast squadrons VF-154 and VF(AW)-3, then by VF-211, VF-143, and VF-143. The first squadron to operate the F8U-1 aboard an aircraft carrier was VF-32, which embarked aboard the USS Saratoga towards the end of 1957. The first Marine Corps squadrons took their Crusaders in December of 1957--VMF-122, followed by VMF-312, VMF-333, and VMF-334.

In order to show off its new fighter, the Navy decided to use the Crusader to capture the World's air speed record, held at that time by the F-100C Super Sabre at 825 mph. The Navy felt that the Crusader could beat that record by a substantial margin, perhaps even giving the Crusader the distinction of being the first aircraft to set a record that exceeded 1000 mph. However, on March 19, 1956, the Fairey Delta F.D.2, a British research aircraft, set a speed record of 1132 mph, 310 mph greater than the previous record. Undaunted, the Navy went ahead with its plans, but since it did not want to reveal the full capabilities of the Crusader, the team was told to hold back, the only instructions being given to exceed 1000 mph. On August 21, 1956, Cdr "Duke" Windsor in F8U-1 BuNo 141345 (the twelfth production machine) hit an average speed of 1015.428 mph in two speed runs in opposite directions over a 15-kilometer course at an altitude of 40,000 feet over China Lake, California. This set a new national speed record, and for this feat the Thompson Trophy was awarded to the Navy and to Vought.

On June 6, 1957, two F8U-1s, piloted by Capt Robert G. Dose and LtCdr Paul Miller took off from the USS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) steaming off the California coast and flew to the USS Saratoga (CVA-60) waiting off the Florida coast. With one midair refuelling over Texas, the planes made the trip in 3 hours and 28 minutes. President Dwight Eisenhower was aboard the Saratoga to greet the crew as they landed.

A total of 218 F8U-1s were built before production switched in September of 1958 to the F8U-2.

Production aircraft up to and including the F8U-2N were initially fitted with a lightweight high-altitude ejection seat built by Vought. This was replaced in production aircraft by the Martin-Baker Mk F5 from the F8U-2NE onward, and was retrofitted to older aircraft from 1962 onward.

On September 18, 1962, the Crusader was redesignated F-8 under the new unified Tri-Service designation scheme. The F8U-1 became F-8A.

During 1966, Vought instituted a major remanufacturing program in which earlier Crusaders were to be modernized, re-equipped, and remanufactured to bring them up to contemporary standards and increase their service lives. These remanufactured planes were then assigned new series letters. The designation F-8M had been reserved for F-8As that were originally scheduled to be remanufactured to later Crusader standards. However, by the time that the program could get underway, there were very few F-8As still left, and the program was abandoned before any F-8M conversions could be performed.

During 1967 a few F-8As were modified as directors for Regulus I and II drones and designated DF-8A. They were operated by utility squadrons such as VC-7 and VC-8. They were painted in bright colors and retained their cannon armament.

A few other F-8As became QF-8A drones. Sometimes they were known as DQF-8A. Two of these were operated by the Naval Missile Test Center at Moint Mugu, California and were used to guide and track the Regulus II, a submarine-launched cruise missile.

During the late 1950s there was a very real fear that the Soviets would soon have bombers capable of cruising at altitudes of over 60,000 feet. Along with several other companies, Vought sought means by which jet fighters could be able to reach such altitudes and deal with these threats. One technique that was studied was the installation of an auxiliary rocket engine that could help boost the fighter to such high altitudes. In 1957, Vought planned to install a rocket engine in the tail of a couple of F8U-1s (production numbers 16 and 23. The engine originally planned for this installation was the Reaction Motors XLF-40 which provided 8000 pounds of thrust and was fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and jet fuel. Unfortunately, this rocket engine exploded during an early ground text, killing two company mechanics. This accident caused Reaction Motors to pull out of the project, but Vought elected to continue the project using a Rocketdyne XLF-54 engine which gave 6000 pounds of thrust. Although the project never reached flight status, dummy engines were installed above the F8U-1's tail cone just behind the rudder.

In 1969, F-8A BuNo 141354 was turned over to NASA as number 666. It served at NASA's Lewis Research Center as a chase plane for the NF-106B. It was lost in a landing accident later that same year.

F-8A BuNo 141353 was turned over to NASA for supercritical wing research. This type of airfoil reversed the shape of the conventional wing by having the top surface flat and the bottom surface curved. Such a wing allows an aircraft to cruise at speeds closer to Mach 1 without buffeting. It was also hoped that the supercritical wing would reduce takeoff and landing distances as well as contributing to improved low speed handling characteristics. Numbered NASA 810, this F-8A was fitted with a new supercritical wing that had a span of 43 feet. The slender long-span wings imparted a graceful, birdlike quality to the plane's appearance. Following the completion of its part in the program, the supercritical wing program was turned over to a converted General Dynamics F-111.

F8U-1 serials.
140444/140448 Vought F8U-1 Crusader - redesignated F-8A in 1962
141336/141363 Vought F8U-1 Crusader - redesignated F-8A in 1962
142408/142415 Vought F8U-1 Crusader - redesignated F-8A in 1962
143677/143821 Vought F8U-1 Crusader - redesignated F-8A in 1962
144427/144461 Vought F8U-1 Crusader - redesignated F-8A in 1962
145318/145415 Vought F8U-1 Crusader - redesignated F-8A in 1962

Specification of Chance Vought F8U-1 Crusader:
Engine: One Pratt & Whitney J57-P-4A/-12 turbojet, 10,000 lb.s.t. dry, 16,200 lb.s.t. with afterburning. Performance: Maximum speed: 1013 mph (Mach 1.53) at 35,000 feet, 733 mph at sea level. Cruising speed 570 mph Stalling speed 155 mph. Initial climb rate 20,000 feet per minute. Service ceiling 42,300 feet. Combat ceiling 51,500 feet. Combat radius 389 miles, maximum combat range 1474 miles. Internal fuel capacity 1273 US gallons. Dimensions: wingspan 35 feet 8 inches, length 54 feet 3 inches, height 15 feet 9 inches, wing area 375 square feet. Weights: 15,513 pounds empty, 23,659 pounds combat, 26,961 pounds gross, 27,468 pounds maximum takeoff. Armament: Armament consisted of four 20-mm Colt-Browning Mk-12 cannon with 144 rounds per gun. Two AIM-9A Sidewinder air-to-air missiles on fuselage cheek rails. A rocket pack carrying 32 2.75-inch folding-fin rockets could be fitted underneath the fuselage which was lowered with the speed brake.

06-10-2006, 09:10 PM
My Pop was always impressed with the Crusader. Same engine as the F-100, lots more performance.

Kicked the MiGs' butts in Viet-Nam.

06-12-2006, 01:20 AM
Fuji T-1


The Japanese were the third biggest users of the Sabre after the Americans and Canadians, and in fact liked the Sabre so much that they built a tandem two-seat trainer modeled on it, the Fuji "T-1". It was the first indigenously-designed Japanese jet aircraft to be developed since World War II. Although the T-1 was a new-design aircraft, it was clearly inspired by the F-86, with a distinctive new forward fuselage for cadet and instructor that somewhat concealed its Sabre origins.

In 1953, the Japanese government resurrected the country's aircraft industry, with Fuji Heavy Industries receiving large government contracts. The company began development of an axial-flow turbojet of their own design, the "JO-1", and then won a contract for a new jet trainer, the "T1F1", to be powered by the JO-1 or a derivative of that engine. The government ordered seven T1F1s, with the first scheduled to fly in 1957. However, Fuji didn't quite meet that schedule. The JO-1 engine first ran in 1954, leading to the improved J3 engine, which ran in July 1956. The J3 was then transferred to the Japanese Ishikiwajima-Harima company, with the transfer delaying the engine program and trainer program.

The prototype of the trainer performed its first flight on 19 January 1958, powered by the Rolls-Royce Orpheus engine. Although the plan was to use the J-3 engine, original plans for the trainer had forseen the use of a foreign-built engine, and the delays in the engine program forced Fuji to go into production with the Orpheus engine. The result was the "T-1A", which entered JASDF service in May 1960. It was originally named "Hatsutaka (Young Hawk)", but the name was never used in service. Even though the Orpheus was derated to 15.8 kN (1,610 kgp / 4,000 lbf), this was still more engine than the airframe had been originally designed for, and the T-1A was overpowered.

The problems with the J3 engine were eventually ironed out, leading to the "T-1B", powered by a J3-3 turbojet with 11.8 kN (1,200 kgp / 2,650 lbf) thrust. This was about half the thrust as had been available to the F-86A, but the empty weight of the T-1B was also half as much, even though its dimensions were similar; the discrepancy probably had much to do with the fact that the T-1B was not designed for combat service, though it was also a slenderer aircraft than the Sabre. First flight of the T-1B was in May 1960, with service deliveries beginning in 1961. The T-1A and T-1B were externally identical. Final production of the T-1 series was in 1963, after delivery of two prototypes, four preproduction aircraft, 40 T-1As, and 20 T-1Bs, for a total of 66 aircraft. The T-1s were used in the intermediate trainer role.


The T-1 had two underwing pylons and usually flew with two Sabre-type twin-fin drop tanks. It could also be fitted with a single 12.7 millimeter gun in the nose, and Sidewinder AAMs or other stores on the two underwing pylons, but it practice it almost never flew armed.

Three T-1Bs refitted with the uprated J3-7 engine with 13.7 kN (1,400 kgp / 3,090 lbf) were flown, with this conversion referred to as "T-1C" in some sources, but plans to re-engine other T-1s with the J3-7 were dropped. Plans were also considered for an updated T-1 variant with a "stepped" cockpit to provide the instructor with a better forward view, plus an Adour turbofan engine, but nothing came of this study.
The T-1 trainer was finally phased completely out of service in 1999, having been replaced by the Kawasaki T-4.

T-1B in special paint scheme

General characteristics

Crew: two, student and instructor
Length: 12.12 m (39 ft 9 in)
Wingspan: 10.49 m (34 ft 5 in)
Height: 4.08 m (13 ft 4 in)
Wing area: m² ( ft²)
Empty: 2,420 kg (5,335 lb)
Loaded: kg ( lb)
Maximum takeoff: 5,000 kg (11,023 lb)
Powerplant: 1 Ӕ Rolls-Royce Orpheus Mk 805, 17.8 kN (4,000 lbf) thrust
Maximum speed: 920 km/h (575 mph)
Range: 1,850 km (1,156 miles)
Service ceiling: 14,400 m (47,250 ft)
Rate of climb: m/min ( ft/min)
Wing loading: kg/m² ( lb/ft²)
Power/Mass: kW/kg ( hp/lb)
None (In war time,1 Ӕ 12.7 mm Browning M53-2 machine gun)
up to 680 kg (1,500 lb) of disposable stores.


T1F1 : Prototype.
T-1A : The T-1A is powered by a 1814-kg (4,000-lb) Rolls-Royce Orpheus Mk 805 turbojet engine. The original designation was T1F2.
T-1B : The T-1B is powered by a 1200-kg (2,646-lb) Ishikawajima-Harima IHI J3-IHI-7B turbojet engine.
T1F3 : Prototype.
T-1C :


06-12-2006, 10:45 PM
Northrop F-89 Scorpion


Northrop XP-89 Scorpion

The Northrop F-89 Scorpion was one of the primary defenders of North American airspace during the Cold War. A total of 1052 Scorpions were built. During its career, the F-89 equipped 36 active Air Force Units and 17 Air National Guard squadrons. The Scorpion was difficult to fly, costly to maintain, and was subject to mishaps. It had an accident rate of 383 per 100,000 hours, which was astronomically high compared to today's F-15, which has an accident rate of only 0.5 per 100,000.

On March 23, 1945, the USAAF announced a competition for the successor to the Northrop P-61 Black Widow night fighter. It was to be an all-weather fighter-bomber. Initially, a piston-engined design was specified, and on August 28, 1945, the USAAF issued a set of proposed requirements. These included a maximum speed of 525 mph at 35,000 feet, 550 mph at sea level, a climb to 35,000 feet in 12 minutes, and a combat radius of 600 miles.

It was recognized at this time that the wave of the future was jet propulsion, and in December 1945 the Army changed the requirement to stipulate that jet-powered aircraft would also be acceptable.

Six aircraft manufactures (Bell, Convair, Douglas, Goodyear, Curtiss-Wright, and Northrop) submitted proposals for the competition. The Convair entry was a radical, delta-winged design which was eventually to emerge several years later as the F-102. The Douglas entry was a denavalized adaptation of the XF3D-1 Skyknight carrier-based all-weather fighter. The Curtiss XP-87 Blackhawk was a large, four-jet aircraft carrying a pilot and radar operator seated side-by-side. Initially, the USAAF seemed to favor the Curtiss design, if for no other reason than the fact that the Curtiss-Wright company would probably be forced to close down if it did not land the contract. Two prototypes of the Curtiss design were ordered under the designation XP-87.

However, the USAAF also thought highly of the Northrop proposal, which was given the designation N-24 by the company. The N-24 project called for a cantilever, mid-wing monoplane with a long, slim fuselage. An unswept laminar-flow wing was adopted to ensure good low-speed stability, important for an aircraft called upon to make frequent landings in bad visibility. Traditional ailerons and flaps were fitted to the wing trailing edge, and provisions were made for wingtip-mounted drop tanks. The aircraft was to be powered by a pair of Allison J35 afterburning turbojets, mounted one on either side of the belly of the fuselage just underneath the wings. The twin air intakes were mounted flush in front, each intake exactly in line with its engine nacelle. The pressurized cockpit seated the pilot and radar operator in tandem ejector seats underneath a large rearward-sliding bubble canopy. The horizontal tailplane was mounted halfway up on the vertical tail, well out of the way of the turbulent engine exhaust. The nosegear was of a very short, twin-wheel design. The main retractable undercarriage had larger than usual wheels, giving the prototype a rather unusual appearance when sitting on the ground

Since the Northrop aircraft was to be an all-weather fighter, an airborne interception radar was to be installed in the nose. The armament installation was to have been a quartet of 20-mm M-24 cannon carried in a nose-mounted turret. Two different turret designs were to have been considered. One was a Martin design which allowed the guns to be stowed out of sight inside the nose when not needed. When needed, the guns would be elevated and moved forward into firing position. The Martin turret could rotate 360 degrees and the guns could elevate 105 degrees. The other turret design was a Northrop project, which was similar in concept to the Martin design but had only a 30-degree cone of fire.

The USAAF looked favorably upon the Northrop proposal and issued a development contract on May 3, 1946. Two prototypes were ordered under the designation XP-89 in December of 1946. Serials were 46-678 and 46-679.

In the meantime, the Cold War between the West and the Soviet Union was beginning to get underway. It was generally conceded that the acquisition by the Soviet Union of nuclear weapons was only a matter of time. The appearance of the Tupolev Tu 4 (a copy of the B-29) at the 1947 Tushino air display was a shock to American intelligence, since the USSR would now have a means to deliver nuclear bombs onto continental US targets. There were no all-weather jet-powered interceptors yet available to counter this threat. The US was extremely worried about an all-weather fighter "gap" opening up, leaving the continental US defenseless for several years against an onslaught of nuclear-armed Soviet bombers.

Something needed to get to the squadrons right away. Since neither the Curtiss-Wright nor the Northrop designs promised to be immediately available in quantity for several more years, the USAF approached Lockheed in March of 1948 and asked them to see if the TF-80C two-seat trainer could be adapted as an all-weather fighter, with first deliveries to operational squadrons being made before the end of 1949. Lockheed quickly came up with a design which was eventually to emerge as the F-94 Starfire.

The Northrop XP-89 (46-678) rolled out of the factory 9 months later than expected in early June of 1948. The XP-89 was powered by a pair of Allison J35-A-9/-15 engines of 4000 lb.s.t. each. Neither the Martin nor the Northrop turrets were ready, so the prototype carried no armament. The aircraft was equipped with conventional ailerons which drooped for takeoff and landing, adding extra lift.For rollout, the XP-89 did not carry its jettisonable 600-gallon wingtip tanks. It was painted gloss black overall.

Even before the new Northrop fighter made its first flight, on June 11, 1948, the P-for-pursuit designation was replaced by the F-for-fighter designation, and the XP-89 became the XF-89.

Following a number of ground taxi and brake tests at Northrop Field, the XP-89 was disassembled and trucked out to Muroc Dry Lake (later Edwards AFB). The XP-89 made its maiden flight there on August 16, 1948, with test pilot Fred Bretcher at the controls. Flight test results were generally positive, but the aircraft proved to be seriously underpowered. For the first 32 flights, conventional ailerons were fitted, but on February 1, 1949 a new series of trials began with Northrop-invented "decelerons", which was a split surface that could be operated in one piece as a conventional aileron but which could be opened up to serve also as an airbrake. This feature was made standard on all subsequent F-89s.

Even though the flight test crews were enthusiastic about the XF-89, the USAF ordered that a flyoff take place between the XF-89, the Curtiss XF-87, and the Navy's Douglas XF3D-1 Skyknight. The Curtiss XF-87 with its side-by-side seating arrangement was judged to have the best cockpit arrangement, with the XF3D-1 coming in second. The tandem seating arrangement in the XF-89 made communication between pilot and radar operator difficult. Ease of maintenance was found to be the best in the XF3D-1, with the XP-87 coming in second. However, the evaluation team judged the XF-89 as being the superior fighter and having the best development potential.

Since the Northrop XF-89 was judged as having the superior potential as a fighter, on October 10, 1948, the USAF officially cancelled the Curtiss XF-87 project. The failure of the XF-87 to win any production orders was the end of the line for the Aeroplane Division of Curtiss-Wright. Shortly thereafter, the Aeroplane Division of Curtiss-Wright declared bankruptcy, sold all of its assets to North American, and closed its doors forever.

Even though the XF3D-1 did not succeed in obtaining any USAF orders, it nevertheless did receive orders from the US Navy and the US Marine Corps, and went on to serve as both a land-based and carrier-based interceptor fighter for many years.

In January of 1949, President Harry Truman authorized the Air Force to make an initial purchase of 48 F-89As. The second XF-89 would be converted into a service test aircraft under the designation YF-89.

In March of 1949, the name "Scorpion" was officially applied to the XF-89, the suggestion being originally made by ground crews at Edwards who thought that the parked plane with its upward-curving rear fuselage and its high tail looked a lot like the dangerous creature with the deadly stinger in its tail.

On July 14, 1949, the USAF made the order of 48 production F-89A aircraft official. Serials 49-2431/2478 were assigned. An additional 27 aircraft were added to the contract on September 19, 1949.

The second prototype (46-679) made its maiden flight on November 15, 1949. Modifications made when the airframe was almost 90 percent complete led to a change in designation to YF-89, as it was envisaged as being a test vehicle for the production F-89A fighter. The XF-89 had been painted black, but the YF-89 was finished in natural metal overall.

The XF-89 had been unarmed, pending the availability of the nose turret. However, the nose-mounted turret was eventually abandoned as being too complicated, and a more conventional armament of six forward-firing 20-mm Mk 24 cannon was chosen for the Scorpion.

Since the USAF wanted the Scorpion in service right away, production of the F-89A got underway immediately, even before testing of the prototypes was completed. This commitment to production proved to be premature. On February 22, 1950, the XF-89 prototype crashed while making its 102nd flight. During a high-speed low altitude run in front of Air Force officials, the right horizontal stabilizer peeled off, and the aircraft tore itself apart in midair. Pilot Charles Tucker was thrown clear during the breakup and he was able to parachute to safety, but flight engineer Arthur Turton was killed. The cause of the crash was later found to be a failure of the horizontal stabilizer due to excessive flutter.

The YF-89 was grounded for changes, and production of the F-89A was halted. As a result of the grounding, the YF-89 was extensively modified. The nose was completely redesigned. It was reconfigured to be more tapered and was increased in length by three feet. An AN/ARC-33 radar set was fitted in the nose, along with a Hughes E-1 fire control system. Since the XF-89 was somewhat underpowered and had poor takeoff characteristics, more powerful engines were fitted--Allison J35-A-21s, rated at 5200 lb.s.t. dry and 6800 lb.s.t with afterburners. The engine air intakes were redesigned to include external boundary layer bleed ramps and auxiliary pop-in doors were added to the nacelle sides to allow additional air to be supplied to the engine during ground runups. The engineers believed that pulsating exhaust gases from the engine were responsible for the tail flutter problems that had wrecked the XF-89, and the engine exhaust area was redesigned by adding deflector plates to the fuselage to direct the exhaust away from the tail. The pitot tube was moved from the vertical tail and installed in the nose. The jettisonable 300-gallon wingtip tanks of the XF-89 were replaced by permanently-attached more-streamlined 300 gallon tanks.

The heavily-modified YF-89 was redesignated YF-89A (Model N-49), and made its first flight on June 27, 1950, and the Scorpion flight test program was resumed.


The F-89C (Model N-35) was the first major production version of the Scorpion, with a total of 164 being built.

The first F-89C flew on September 18, 1951. It incorporated most of the changes that had been made to the F-89A/B small-scale production run in an attempt to make the Scorpion a fully operational and safe aircraft.

Some of the changes incorporated in the F-89C were primarily internal. A fuel purging system was added which helped alleviate the danger of fuel vapor explosions. A bulge could be seen on the starboard engine nacelle that was introduced by this system. This used engine bleade air and fuel to create an intert gas to purge the fuel system. The wingtip fuel tanks had dump valves installed which allowed them to be emptied in flight. The cockpit air conditioning and pressurization system were upgraded. A Lear vertical gyro was added to provide artificial horizon information to the autopilot. An alcohol deicer tank was added on one of the underwing racks.

Other changes incorporated in the F-89C were external and hence more obviously recognizable. The shape of the canopy was slightly altered. Some sources claim that after production of the first 40 F-89Cs, the external mass balance horns on the horizontal stabilizer/elevator were deleted and replaced by a strengthened horizontal tail with internal mass balances. However, it appears that these internal mass balances were actually fittted to the F-89C from the very beginning. This feature was retrofitted to all previous Scorpions.

During January of 1952, the 74th Fighter Interceptor Squadron based at Presque Isle AFB in Maine (already a user of the F-89B) was declared operational with the F-89C. Other units soon followed. Winterized F-89Cs were sent to Elmendorf AFB in Alaska and to Harmon AFB in Newfoundland.

Even though the Scorpion was rapidly entering squadron service all throughout 1952, the interceptor continued to be plagued by engine failures. The initial production blocks (1 through 20) of the F-89C were powered by a pair of J35-A-21 engines. In service, these engines were very unreliable and were subject to frequent failures. The problem was solved as in the case of the F-89A and B by retrofitting these early F-89Cs with the improved and more reliable J35-A-21A engine.

Beginning with the F-89C-25-NO production block, the engine was changed yet again to the Allison J35-A-33 jet rated at 5400 lb.s.t. dry and 7400 lb.s.t. with afterburner.

Finally, production blocks -35 and -40 were fitted with the Allison J35-A-33A, rated at 5600 lb.st. dry and 7400 lb.st with afterburner. The -33A engine not only had more power, it also had a redesigned inlet, deicing equipment, inlet guide vanes, and redesigned forward engine mounts. The F-89's engines, being mounted quite low on the fuselage, had a tendency to scoop up runway debris into their intakes. To cure this problem, retractable inlet screens were added to the -33A engine.


Other problems with the Scorpion turned out to be much more serious. During 1952, several F-89Cs crashed due to wing structural failures. No less than six aircraft were lost in the spring and early summer of 1952, one spectacular crash taking place in front of thousands of spectators at the International Aviation Exposition at Detroit. The Air Force was forced to ground the entire Scorpion fleet on September 22, 1952 until the cause could be found.

After an exhaustive series of flight tests, the problem was finally traced to a previously unknown effect, known as aero-elasticity. During high-G maneuvers, the wing tended to twist at the tip, exerting excessive strain on the wing attachment points and causing them eventually to fail. The large wingtip fuel tanks were found to be a significant factor in exerting this twisting moment. A total of 194 F-89A, B, and C aircraft were shipped back to Northrop where they were fitted with stronger wings with forged steel attachment points. At the same time, a small fin was added to the outboard rear of each wingtip tank, which reduced the aerodynamic forces on the tank that caused it to flex and twist during maneuvering.

Before the F-89C fleet had been fully retrofitted with the new stronger wing, a total of fourteen months had passed and it was not until 1954 that the Scorpion force reached its intended level. As fast as the F-89Cs could be modified, they were flown directly to their operational units. With the modified wing and the improved engines, the Scorpion became one of the safest and most reliable combat aircraft in the USAF inventory. The 74th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, following its transfer to Thule, Greenland in August of 1954 completed a full year of service with the type without a single accident of any kind.

The F-89C served with the 27th, 74th, and 433rd Fighter Interceptor Squadrons from 1952 onwards. The 57th FIS, based in Iceland, the 65th FIS based in Alaska, and the stateside 438th FIS took delivery of the F-89C in 1953.

The F-89C was phased out of active USAF service during 1954, when later Scorpion models became available. F-89Cs were then transferred to the Air National Guard, equipping some seven units in northern states. ANG squadrons operated the F-89C until well into the 1960s until they were finally phased out of service.

F-89C 51-5795 was modified to test a nose installation with two T110E3 rocket launchers in the nose, one on each side. Each of these rifled barrels was fed by a magazine loaded with a clip of 2.75-inch FFARs. Another F-89C was tested with a battery of four 30-mm Oerlikon 302RK cannon with 100 rounds each.

Specification of the F-89C:

Engines: Two Allison J33-A-33A, 5600 lb.s.t. dry, 7400 lb.s.t. with afterburner.
Performance: Maximum speed: 650 mph at sea level, 562 mph at 40,000 feet. Initial climb rate 12,300 feet per minute.
Service ceiling 50,500 feet.
Maximum range 905 miles.
Dimensions: wingspan 56 feet 0 inches, length 53 feet 5 inches, height 17 feet 6 inches, wing area 606 square feet.
Weights:24,570 pounds empty, 33,100 pounds combat, 37,348 pounds gross.
Armed with six 20-mm cannon in nose. Underwing racks could carry 16 five-inch rockets or 3200 pounds of bombs.


06-12-2006, 10:56 PM
That T-1B with the special paint job looks very Deceptacon http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif Thanks for posting Woofie as always, an education.

06-13-2006, 04:41 AM
I agree that the paint job on the Fuji T-1 is Quite the looker for a military unit. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

06-13-2006, 05:53 AM
Originally posted by Badsight.:
in the 1946 Jet vs Jet context , a Vampire Mk1 is what your wanting rather than a Mk3 Meteor

If your talking 1946, I'd prefer a Meteor F.4, which was faster than both and had better legs.

06-13-2006, 06:33 AM
Dassault Mystere IVA


The "Mystere IV" was essentially a new design, a rethinking of the Mystere II and not just a modification of it. The first prototype was flown in September 1952; it was powered by a Hispano-built Rolls Royce Tay 250 turbojet, as were the early Mystere IIA prototypes.

While the Mystere IV also featured the twin 30 millimeter DEFA cannon adopted for the Mystere II, the Mystere IV had a new and more robust oval-section fuselage, a thinner wing with greater sweep, and new tail surfaces. The result resembled the Mystere IIC in a general way but had cleaner lines, more in the class of the US F-86 Sabre.

There was apparently only one prototype, leading to a production contract for 225 Mystere IVAs for the AdA. Interestingly enough, this batch of aircraft was purchased for the French by the United States as part of the NATO Military Assistance Program, though the French would purchase 100 more Mystere IVAs with their own funds.

The first production Mystere IVA flew in late May 1954, and the type entered service with the AdA the next year, being initially deployed as an interceptor. It would also be used as ground-attack fighter in French service. The first 50 production aircraft used the Tay 250 engine, but all following production was fitted with an uprated Tay, the Hispano-built Verdon 350, with 34.3 kN (3,500 kgp / 7,715 lbf) thrust.

The Mystere IVA had four stores pylons, with a total load capacity of 900 kilograms (2,000 pounds). It appears that in typical flight configurations two of the pylons were fitted with drop tanks while two others carried bombs or Matra 68 millimeter unguided rocket packs. As with many early jet aircraft, the Mystere IVA's range without drop tanks was pathetic.
The Mystere IVA served for a time as the mount for the Patrouille de France. It remained in first-line service with the AdA until the early 1960s, when it was replaced by the Mirage IIIC. It remained in service in the ground-attack role until 1975, when replaced by the SEPECAT Jaguar, and as an operational trainer until 1980, when it was replaced by the Dassault-Dornier Alpha Jet.


60 of the Verdon-powered Mystere IVAs that were ordered by the French ended up being sold to Israel, with the first batch of 24 arriving April 1956, just in time for OPERATION MUSKETEER in October. In the hands of skilled IAF pilots, they proved themselves more than a match for Egyptian MiG-15s. French Mystere IVAs also participated in the October 1956 war, operating from Israeli bases with an Israeli squadron number, and French pilots would also fly some of the Israeli Mystere IVAs during that war.

The remaining 36 Mystere IVs in the batch were shipped to Israel after the 1956 war. Two squadrons of Mystere IVAs were still in Israeli service in the Six-Day War in 1967.

The Indian Air Force also bought 110 Verdon-powered Mystere IVAs; these were all new-production aircraft. First delivery was in 1957. The type was used in the close-support role during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war, and like its ancestor, the Ouragan, proved reliable and able to absorb punishment.


* The Mystere series continued to evolve, with an improved "Mystere IVB" developed to take advantage of the new afterburning engines. The Mystere IVB was almost a new aircraft, with a new fuselage and redesigned tailfin, and also featured a radar gunsight similar to that used on the F-86 in the upper lip of the intake.

The first prototype flew in December 1953. It was powered by an afterburning Rolls Royce Avon RA.7R axial-flow turbojet, with a maximum afterburning thrust of 42.5 kN (4,330 kgp / 9,550 lbf). Another Avon-powered prototype flew in June 1954, while a third prototype, powered by the Atar 101F (which, as mentioned, was fitted experimentally to two pre-production Mystere IICs), flew in March 1955.

Seven pre-production Mirage IVB aircraft were also completed. The first two were fitted with a SEPR 66 bi-fuel rocket motor to provide boost thrust, and the last two were powered by the afterburning Atar 101G-2 turbojet with 44.1 kN (4,500 kg / 9,920 lbf) afterburning thrust. The Mystere IVB was promising, but Dassault was already working on an even better aircraft, the Super Mystere, and so the Mystere IVB did not enter production.

As mentioned previously, a single night-fighter version of the Mystere IVB, the "Mystere IVN", was completed and flew in 1954. The prototype was powered by an Avon RA.7R, and was stretched 1.4 meters (4 feet 7 inches) to accommodate two tandem seats and additional fuel. It was to be fitted with US-built AN/APG-33 air-intercept radar in a nose radome above the intake, giving it a certain resemblance to the US F-86D "Sabre Dog" interceptor.

The Mystere IVN had two 30 millimeter DEFA cannon, and like the F-86D had a retractable tray for unguided air-to-air rockets, in this case accommodating 55 Matra 68 millimeter rockets. Some sources claim that this tray was optionally fitted to the standard Mystere IVA, but if so it appears to have been little used.

The project went nowhere because of problems with the radar and the limited endurance of the aircraft. The French were also developing another night fighter that seemed more promising, the "Sud-Ouest Vautour IIN", and the Mystere IVN was cancelled.


http://www.myaviation.net/search/search.php?view=&aircr...ault%20Mystere%20IVA (http://www.myaviation.net/search/search.php?view=&aircraft=Dassault%20Mystere%20IVA)

06-13-2006, 10:37 AM
Some of the F-89's had unguided rockets mounted in the fronts of the wing-tip fuel tanks. Over 100 were carried IIRC.

06-13-2006, 02:12 PM

That video was taken from:


06-13-2006, 02:27 PM
FliegerAas... Excellent video of the SeaVixen. Thank's

Slickun... The second photo down on the F-89... shows the F-89 firing off it wing tip rocket's.

06-13-2006, 02:47 PM
Some of the obvious that don't appear to have made it yet:

Bell YP-59A

North American FJ-1 Fury

Lockheep P-80 Shooting Star

Lockheed F-94 Starfire

And how could this have been left off?

06-13-2006, 06:09 PM
Not sure if the CF-100 has been posted yet.


Text, http://www.vectorsite.net/avcf100.html

06-13-2006, 06:57 PM
B-58 Hustler

06-13-2006, 09:43 PM
SkyChimp... Here is another one you Missed! http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

Martin XB-51


In 1945, the US Army Air Forces issued a requirement for a light bomber aircraft. In February of 1946, a design competition was announced based on the USAAF requirements.

On April 1, 1946, the Glenn L. Martin Company of Baltimore, Maryland proposed a straight-winged, six-seat attack bomber powered by two TG-110 turboprops and two I-40 turbojets. The aircraft promised a maximum speed of 505 mph, a cruising speed of 325 mph, and a combat radius of 800 miles. The Martin design won the competition, and was assigned the designation XA-45 in the attack series.

In the spring of 1946, the USAAF revised its requirement, calling for an aircraft with better performance for all-weather, close-support bombing. The revised characteristics called for a redesignation of the Martin design as XB-51. A fixed-price letter contract issued on May 23, 1946 called for two XB-51s, to be accompanied by wind tunnel models and mockups.

The military characteristics specified in 1945 and 1946 were revised yet again in early 1947. The XB-51 was now pictured as a low-altitude attack aircraft and the combat radius requirement was reduced. The company designation of Model 234 was applied to the project.

The aircraft that finally emerged was powered by three General Electric J47 turbojet engines, one in the tail fed by a top air inlet and two in nacelles underneath the forward fuselage. The wings were swept back at 35 degrees and had six degrees negative dihedral. The wings had variable incidence to enhance performance for takeoff and landing The wings were fairly advanced for the day, having spoilers instead of ailerons and sporting leading-edge slots and full-span flaps. The crew was two, consisting of a pilot seated underneath a bubble type canopy and a navigator seated behind him within the fuselage. The landing gear was similar to that of the B-47--consisting of a set of tandem dual mainwheels which retracted into the fuselage and supported by a set of small outrigger wheels which retracted into the wingtips. An unusual feature was the use of a rotatable bomb bay door on which the bombs were mounted. When open, the weapons bay load was essentially the same as with external stores, but without the speed restrictions.


The XB-51 prototype (46-0685) flew for the first time on October 28, 1949. It was the USAF's first high-speed, jet-powered ground support bomber.

Phase I tests, which lasted until the end of March 1951, indicated that the design required relatively few modifications. Phase II tests, carried out between April and November 1950 confirmed these findings. Martin test pilots flew the XB-51 for 211 hours in 233 flights. Air Force pilots carried out 221 hours of test flights.

The second XB-51 (46-0686) flew for the first time on April 17, 1950. It was fitted with an armament of eight 20-mm cannon in the nose, with 160 rpg. Up to 10,400 pounds of bombs could be carried, but the basic mission consisted of the delivery of 4000 pounds over a 475-mile radius.


In 1950, following the beginning of the Korean War, the USAF perceived a need for a night intruder bomber to replace the Douglas A-26 Invader. The XB-51 was entered in the contest, along with the North American B-45 Tornado and the North American AJ-1 Savage. Foreign entries included the Avro Canada CF-100, a twin-jet all-weather interceptor, and the English Electric Canberra. On December 15, 1950 a Senior Board of officers recommended that the XB-51 and the Canberra had the best potential as a night intruder. Although a relatively large aircraft, the XB-51 was highly maneuverable for its size. At low levels, it had a very satisfactory turning radius in the speed range of 280-310 IAS. However, its low limit load factor of 3.67 G severely limited its capability during tactical operations, and was generally considered unsatisfactory. The XB-51 was nearly a hundred knots faster than the Canberra at low level, its maximum speed of Mach 0.89 below 30,000 feet made interceptions of the XB-51 by aircraft such as the F-86 extremely difficult. However, the endurance of the XB-51 was much poorer than that of the Canberra, with the Canberra being able to loiter for 2 1/2 hours over a target 780 nautical miles from its base. The XB-51 could loiter only one hour over a target 350 nautical miles from its base. Despite the prospect that improved jet engines would eventually be available, there was little prospect that the range and endurance of the XB-51 would improve sufficiently to meet the loiter time requirement. In addition, it was thought that the small outrigger wheels on the XB-51 might be troublesome at hastily-prepared forward air bases. In early 1951, a flyoff at Andrews AFB finally settled the issue, and the Canberra was declared the winner. On March 23, 1951, 250 examples of the Canberra were ordered under the designation B-57A.

The XB-51 program was cancelled in November of 1951. However, Martin was not all that upset, since they were awarded the contract to build the B-57.

Flight tests with both prototypes continued after program cancellation. The second XB-51 (48-686) crashed on May 9, 1952 during low-level aerobatics over Edwards AFB, killing its pilot. The first prototype XB-51 continued on with various other test work. Extensive tests on high-speed bomb release were carried out, and the tail configuration, variable incidence wing, and bicycle-type landing gear provided much useful data. The XB-51 even starred in a movie--the film "Toward the Unknown" starring William Holden in which it was assigned the spurious designation "Gilbert XF-120". The aircraft was totally destroyed on March 25, 1956 when it crashed on takeoff from El Paso International Airport.

Specification of Martin XB-51:

Engines: Three General Electric J47-GE-13 turbojets, each rated at 5200 lb.s.t.
Performance: Maximum speed 645 mph at sea level. Cruising speed 532 mph, landing speed 153 mph. Service ceiling 40,500 feet.
Initial climb rate 6980 feet per minute. Normal range 1075 miles, maximum range 1613 miles. Weights: 29,584 pounds empty, 55,923 pounds gross, 62,457 pounds maximum.
Dimensions: wingspan 53 feet 1 inches, length 85 feet 1 inches, height 17 feet 4 inches, wing area 548 square feet.
Armament: Eight 20-mm cannon with total ammunition capacity of 1280 rounds. Normal bombload was four internal bombs of 1600 lb. each or two external bombs of 2000 pounds each. Maximum bombload of 10,400 pounds.

Link: http://www.bellx-2.com/ttu/xf-120/

06-13-2006, 11:28 PM
I saw a B-58 nearly buy the farm in 1965, SkyChimp. I was in a park in Greeley, Colorado, with a friend. We heard the sound of a jet and looked up and about a mile away we saw a B-58 headed straight for the ground in what appeared to our juvenile minds to be an unrecoverable death dive. At the last possible moment the huge jet pulled out and avoided the ground by, maybe a couple hundred feet. We were riveted in place figuring we were dead. But, up she went, belting for altitude. We were extremely impressed. Wonder what happened?

06-14-2006, 04:36 AM
luftluuver... Sharp looking paint job on the top CF-100. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/25.gif

Quote... They stayed in service until 1981 and were the last CF-100s to fly for the RCAF. For the farewell flight, at one was painted black with white lightning bolts up each side of fuselage, the same paint scheme used on the initial Mark 1 prototypes.

06-14-2006, 01:39 PM
The HF 24 Marut.


India's first indigenous jet fighter/attack aircraft.


06-16-2006, 03:11 AM
Tupolev Tu-22 BLINDER


With performance roughly similar to that of the American B-58 Hustler, the BLINDER was capable of supersonic dash and cruises at high subsonic speeds, At least three major variants of the BLINDER entered operational service in the Soviet Air Forces €" a free-fall bomber, an ASM carrier, and a photo/electronic reconnaissance variant.

Development of the supersonic TU-22 bomber began after the start of production of the TU-16. During preliminary studies, OKB Tupolev considered three versions: a supersonic attack bomber "98", a long range supersonic bomber "105" and an intercontinental supersonic bomber "108". The first two required swept-wings while the "108" bomber had triangular wings. In the end, the "105" design served as the basis for the TU-22 while the design of the "98" was applied to the long range fighterplane TU-128. The "108" design was completely dropped. The original design drew heavily on the TU-16 and provided for four BD-5 or BD-7 turbojet engines. The angle of the swept-back wings was increased up to 45 degrees. The project was finally approved by the Soviet government in August 1954, despite numerous objections within the Communist Party leadership.


This supersonic medium-range bomber is a swept-wing aircraft with two engines positioned as the base of the tailfin. The low-mounted swept-back wings are tapered with square tips and a wide wing root. The landing gear pods extend beyond wings€ trailing edges. Two turbojets engines are low-mounted on the tail fin, with round air intakes. This eliminated the need for a complicated boundary layer separation system in the intakes, but added a 15% weight penalty, and made engine maintenance much more difficult because of how high they were off the ground. The fuselage is tube-shaped with a solid pointed nose and a stepped cockpit. Tail flats are low-mounted on the fuselage, swept-back, and tapered with square tips. The fin is swept-back, and tapered with square tip.


The prototype of the "105" aircraft with BD-7M engines made its' first flight on 21 June 1958, but was subsequently extensively modified and upgraded. The Russians apparently had engine development problems early in the BLINDER program, and BLINDER prototypes were fitted with interim engines. In April 1958, even before the first flight, the decision was made to equip the aircraft with more powerful HK-6 engines and to build a second prototype with BD-7M engines. As development of the HK-6 engines was delayed, only the second prototype was actually built, which carried out its' first flight in September 1959. During testing, numerous problems arose, and a number of crewman were lost in crashes. Series production of this aircraft -- designated the TU-22 -- started at the plant Nr.22 in Kazan in 1959, where more than 300 TU-22 bombers were built through 1969. It entered operational service in 1962 and by 1970 there were 180 BLINDER aircraft in LRA service.


Several versions of the Blinder-bomber were built:

Blinder A - Tu-22B -- Blinder A is primarily employed as a medium bomber dropping free-fall bombs, All of the ten 22B bombers were mainly used for training purposes. The aircraft also could be modified to serve as a tanker. Initially, converted TU-16Z planes served as tankers, but from 1972 on they were replaced by TU-22RM aircraft carrying new onboard avionics.
Blinder B - Tu-22K -- The Tu-22K was equipped to carry one Kh-22 (AS-4 Kitchen ) 250-nm range air-to-surface The TU-22K carried a missile, and could also carry free-fall bombs. It carried out its' first tests in 1961 and deployment started in 1967 after conclusion of the testing phase.
Blinder C -- In 1962 the maritime reconnaissance aircraft TU-22P was equipped with an air refueling system and received the designation TU-22PD. About 70 'Blinder-C' reconnaissance and electronic warfare aircraft were produced
Blinder D - Tu-22U -- The - Tu-22B is a trainer version similar to Blinder A, though with a raised student cockpit.
Blinder E - TU-22RDM -- Further upgrading in the 1980s lead to the TU-22RDM reconnaissance aircraft.
From 1965 on, all Blinder aircraft were equipped with an air refueling system, consisting of a refueling probe which folds into the fuselage when not in use. And beginning in 1965 the TU-22 fleet was re-equipped with more powerful RD-7M2 engines which allowed an increase in the maximum speed up to 1,600 km/h.


The TU-22 bombers was intended to replace the TU-16, but due to its' poor performance it was deemed unsatisfactory. Carrying a similar payload to only a slightly greater range, the Tu-22 offered no real increase in capability. Its limited range was its main disadvantage, though the TU-22K only carried one missile whereas the TU-16 carried up to three. Unreliable and prone to accidents, the Blinder was not built in sufficient numbers to replace the aging Tu-16 Badgers, which remained in service well into the 1970s. Subseqeuntly, KB Tupolev sought to upgrade the TU-22 in the form of a new design [designated "106"] that was supposed to have a range of 6700km, a speed of 2,000km/h and new HK-6 engines. This effort eventually led to the development of the Tu-22M BACKFIRE.

The Tu-22 was used by the Soviet Union in the Afghanistan War, and served the Soviet Air Force, and Navy into the late 1980€s. Iraq received about 12 Blinders in 1973, while Libya received their 12 to 18 from 1977 to 1983. They were used by Iraq during in Iraq-Iran War, and by Libya during the conflicts in Sudan and Chad. A number of Blinders from each nation were lost to SAM€s of opposing nations. As of 2000, Ukraine remains the sole operator of the type, with the Libyan, and Iraqi aircraft thought to be unserviceable.


Tu-22 'Blinder-A' First production bomber/recon model carrying free-fall bombs
Tu-22K 'Blinder-B' Missile-carrying version armed with Kh-22 ASM and equipped with large guidance radar mounted under nose
Tu-22R 'Blinder-C' Daylight reconnaissance model with six windows in bomb bay for three pairs of long-range cameras, some have 23 mm tail gun removed in favor of ECM gear or flares and IR sensors
Tu-22U 'Blinder-D' Trainer with instructor seated in separate raised cockpit
Tu-22P 'Blinder-E'

ECM model based on Tu-22R, equipped with many elint antennae and EW pods


General characteristics

Crew: three - pilot, navigator, weapons officer
Length: 41.60 m (136 ft 5 in)
Wingspan: 23.17 m (76 ft 0 in)
Height: 10.13 m (33 ft 3 in)
Wing area: 162 m² (1,742 ft²)
Empty weight: kg (lb)
Loaded weight: 85,000 kg (187,390 lb)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 92,000 kg (202,400 lb)
Powerplant: 2Ӕ Dobrynin RD-7M-2 turbojets
Dry thrust: rated 107.9 kN (24,250 lbf) each
Thrust with afterburner: 161.9 kN (36,376 lbf) each
Maximum speed: 1,510 km/h (938 mph)
Range: 4,900 km (3,045 mi)
Service ceiling: 13,300 m (4,055 ft)
Rate of climb: m/s (ft/min)
Wing loading: 525 kg/m² (107 lb/ft²)
Thrust/weight: 0.38
Guns: 1Ӕ AM-23 23 mm cannon in tail turret
Bombs: 9,000 kg (20,000 lb) or
Missiles: 1Ӕ Kh-22 (AS-4 'Kitchen') cruise missile

06-16-2006, 07:49 AM
*cough* Phantom II *cough*

06-16-2006, 09:48 AM
McDonnell Phantom II

Photo Credit: Boeing Photo

The McDonnell Phantom was one of the most successful postwar fighters. It was the second most prolific American jet fighter to be built, outnumbered only by the North American Sabre. Total US production was 5057, with another 138 being built under license in Japan. The Phantom was in continuous production for 20 years (from 1959 until 1979). During the Vietnam War, 72 Phantoms were coming off the production line every month.

Although initially designed as an interceptor and later used primarily in the air-to-ground strike role, the Phantom proved to be surprisingly successful in the air-to-air role when the correct tactics were used. USAF, Navy, and Marine Corps Phantom IIs achieved 277 air-to-air combat victories in Vietnam. In service with the Israel Defense Forces/Air Force, the Phantom claimed 116 air-to-air victories in various conflicts between Israel and its Arab neighbors.

The Phantom served with the United States Air Force, the United States Navy, and the United States Marine Corps. Overseas, it served with the air forces of Australia, Egypt, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, The Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Turkey. In addition, it served for many years with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom. The Phantom is now in the twilight of its career, and is no longer in active service with the armed forces of the country of its origin. Although no longer in service in the United Kingdom, the Phantom should remain in service with the air forces of most of its other customers until well after the year 2000.


The Phantom was the first naval fighter to dispense totally with cannon armament. It was the first fighter that was able to identify, intercept and destroy any target that came into range of its radar without having to rely on ground control. It was the first fighter originally designed solely as a carrier-based fighter to be ordered by the USAF. It was the first fighter to have computer-controlled air inlets for optimum airflow to the engines. Finally, it was the first aircraft to be flown simultaneously by both the Navy's Blue Angels and the Air Force's Thunderbirds flight demonstration teams.

The design of what was eventually to emerge as the McDonnell F-4 Phantom began in August of 1953. The McDonnell design team was headed by Herman Barkley. Initially, the goal of the team was to extend the production life of the F3H Demon single-seat carrier-based fighter by boosting its performance and improving its versatility.

Several quite different design concepts emerged, all of them being informally designated by the company as F3H-X since they were all viewed as a natural follow-on to the F3H Demon.

The first of these preliminary designs was the F3H-C or the "Super Demon". The F3H-C was to be powered by a single Wright J67 turbojet and was to be capable of reaching Mach 1.69 at high altitude. The J67 was a license-built version of the British-built Bristol Olympus turbojet engine, and was untried and unproven at the time.

The F3H-E project (also known as Model 98A by the company) was similarly powered, but dispensed with the nose-high attitude of the Demon and stood level on a tricycle undercarriage. It had a 45-degree swept wing of 450 square feet in area. In the event, the J67 engine never did materialize as a realistic powerplant for American aircraft.

The Model 98B (F3H-G) project was to be powered by a pair of Wright J65-W-2 (or W-4) turbojets rated at 7800 lb.s.t. each. The twin-engined configuration was attractive to many in the Navy, because of the increased amount of safety it offered over a single-engined aircraft. The engines were to be fed by a pair of side-mounted air intakes. A low-mounted swept wing and an all-flying straight tailplane were to be used. This wing was slightly larger than that of the F3H-E, with a 530-square foot area. The fuselage was to be designed in conformance with the area rule, in order that minimum transonic drag be achieved.

The F3H-G aircraft was to be equipped with an Aero 11B fire control system and an AN/APQ-150 radar. Armament was to consist of four 20-mm cannon, but provision for a retractable pack carrying 56 two-inch FFAR rockets was also proposed. A heavy load of bombs and fuel tanks could be carried on up to nine external stores stations (four under each wing and one underneath the fuselage). A maximum speed of Mach 1.52 was envisaged.

The J65 was a license-built version of the British-designed Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire engine, and was already in production at the time. Although at that time the Navy was experiencing a good deal of trouble with the J65 engine installed in its North American FJ-3 Fury single-engined fighter, the McDonnell team fully expected that these problems would be resolved by the time that their F3H-G proposal was ready for production.

The F3H-H was similar in overall configuration to the F3H-G, but was to be powered by a pair of higher-thrust General Electric J79 turbojets. The J79 was at that time a new and untried engine. Assuming that the J79 performed as promised, a maximum speed of Mach 1.97 was envisaged.

The Model 98F was the photographic reconnaissance version of the Model 98C.

Models 98C and D were to be fitted respectively with delta and straight wings, and were to be powered either by a pair of Wright J65s or two J79s.

The Model 98E (F3H-J) was to have been similar to Models 98C and D, but with a larger and thinner delta wing.

Herman Barkley's design team decided that the Model 98B with its twin J65s offered the best potential and they abandoned work on all the other configurations. A full-sized mockup of the Model 98B (F3H-G) was built. The company hedged its bets by designing the right side of the mockup for a J79 engine and the left for a J65.

On September 19, 1953, McDonnell submitted its Model 98B project to the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) in the form of an unsolicited proposal. Since the Navy as yet had no official requirement for such an aircraft, McDonnell tried to cover all bases by developing interchangeable single- and two-seat noses that could be accommodated to widely different roles. Noses were designed that could carry search radars, missile fire-control systems, mapping radars, cameras, or electronic reconnaissance equipment.

Although the Navy was favorably impressed by the Model 98B proposal, the Grumman XF9F-9 Tiger and the Vought XF8U-1 Crusader which had been ordered respectively in April and June of 1953 appeared to satisfy all the Navy's immediate requirements for supersonic fighters. Nevertheless, the Navy encouraged McDonnell to rework its design into a single-seat, twin-engined all-weather attack aircraft to compete against designs being worked on by Grumman and North American.

McDonnell submitted a formal development proposal for the F3H-G/H to the Navy in August of 1954. The Navy responded in October of 1954 by issuing a letter of intent for two prototypes and a static test aircraft. The Navy assigned the designation AH-1 to the project, reflecting its intended ground attack mission. The AH-1 was to have no less then eleven weapons pylons. Armament was to consist of four 20-mm cannon.

On December 14, 1954, the multirole mission of the aircraft was formally abandoned by the Navy, and McDonnell was requested to rework the proposal as an all-weather interceptor. McDonnell was instructed to remove the cannon and all hardpoints except for a centerline pylon for a 600-US gallon fuel tank. In addition, troughs were to be added for four Raytheon Sparrow semi-active radar homing air-to-air missiles. A Raytheon-designed APQ-50 radar was added, this installation being essentially that installed in the F3H-2 Demon. A second seat was added to accommodate a radar operator.

On April 15, 1955, in a formal letter from the BuAer to the Commander of Naval Operations, the J79 engine was formally adopted, and all work on the J65-powered version was dropped.

On May 26, 1955, after further review of Navy requirements, the BuAer requested that the designers complete the two prototypes (BuNos 142259 and 142260) as two-seat all-weather fighters carrying an entirely missile-based armament. On June 23, 1955, the designation was changed to YF4H-1, a fighter designation. A day later, McDonnell issued a new model number for the project--98Q.

This factory designation was to be short-lived, since when a contract for 18 airframes beginning with 2 flight test prototypes and a static test article was signed on June 24, it was for the Model 89R with a modified APQ-50 I/J-band radar with a 24-inch dish which was to be compatible with the Sparrow III semi-active radar homing missile. This order was changed to Model 98S shortly thereafter, the changed designation indicating the provision of the capability of handling the infrared homing Sidewinder missile in addition to the radar-homing Sparrow.

On July 25, 1955, the Navy and the manufacturer agreed to a detailed list of specifications for the YF4H-1. The aircraft was to be capable of staying on patrol for up to two hours at a time at a distance of up to 250 nautical miles from its carriers and was to be able to remain in the air for at least three hours without midair refuelling. At the same time, the go-ahead for the F4H project was confirmed, with a formal contract being written for the two previously-ordered prototypes but also for five pre-production aircraft (BuNos 143388 to 143392).

The YF4H-1 mockup was inspected between November 17 and 23, 1955. The twin J79 afterburning turbojets were to be mounted in the lower portions of the fuselage and fed by fixed-geometry cheek air intakes. The primary armament was to be four Sparrow III radar-guided missiles mounted in semi-submerged slots beneath the fuselage. No provision was made for the mounting of cannon.

At the same time, the Navy authorized Vought to build two prototypes of the single-seat, single-engined F8U-3 Crusader III to compete with the F4H-1. In reality, the aircraft should have been designated F9U, and it should have been Crusader II rather than Crusader III.

After much wind-tunnel testing, it was found that the new McDonnell fighter would encounter severe stability problems at high speeds and would as a result probably be limited to speeds below Mach 2. In order to correct these problems, several important changes had to made. One of these was the application of 23 degrees of anhedral to the all-flying tailplane, which became known as a *stabilator*. This gave the necessary degree of stability but still left the tailplane free of the jet exhaust. Another change was to the outer wing panels. The center section of the wing had originally been envisaged as a single unit spanning 27 feet from wing fold to wing fold. It was decided to give the outer (folding) panels twelve degrees of dihedral, and a dog-tooth leading edge was fitted. Another change was to the air intakes. The intakes had originally had a fixed geometry, but it was now decided to fit movable ramps to the sides of the air intakes. These ramps could be adjusted in flight to admit the optimal airflow to the engines at various speeds and angles of attack. These changes took time to incorporate in the design, and initial structural release was not authorized until December 31, 1956.

In the meantime, on December 19, 1956, the Navy ordered 11 more F4H-1s (BuNos 145307/145317). These were to be the first full production aircraft.

In August of 1957, the modified APQ-50 was dropped for the Phantom, and Westinghouse was given the go-ahead to develop a new system which was initially called the Aero 1A, but later renamed APQ-72. However, the system would not be ready for the first prototypes, which retained the APQ-50.

Tail code MY indicates 347th Tactical Fighter Wing, Moody AFB , Valdosta GA 68th Tatcical Fighter Squadron

The first YF4H-1 was to have been powered by a pair of General Electric J79-GE-8 engines, but delays in their development led to the substitution of a pair of 14,800 lb.s.t. afterburning J79-GE-3A engines on loan from the Air Force. The first F4H-1 was a proof-of-concept aircraft and was not equipped with radar and was not wired for missile firings. However, four dummy Sparrow missiles were carried in their ventral underfuselage recesses. Ballast was provided in place of the AN/APG-50 airborne intercept radar that was to be carried. The tandem cockpits were covered by a canopy that was flush with the top of the fuselage. However, on the first YF4H-1, only the pilot's cockpit was provisioned, with the rear radar operator's position being filled with test instrumentation.

The YF4H-1 was fitted with wing leading edge flaps which extended from the wingtip all the way inward to about one-quarter span. They were in two segments, divided by the wing folding point. These would droop downward at low speed to provide additional lift at low speeds.

The wing leading edges as well as the flaps were all blown by high-pressure air bled from the engine compressors, which produced a sheet of air which helped to keep airflow attached at high angles of attack.

Five-degree fixed air intake ramps were fitted. Flush NACA-type inlets were mounted on the lower sides of the forward fuselage just behind the radome to feed ram air into the air-conditioning system which cooled the electronics.

The trailing edge of the horizontal main wing was divided into two, the inboard surface being a flap and the outboard being a "flaperon". The "flaperon" was a sort of aileron which could be moved down only, not up. Immediately ahead of each was a large spoiler. To roll to the left, the pilot would push the right flaperon down and the left spoiler up. A complex pattern of large perforations was applied to the spoilers which were mounted on the upper wing trailing edges ahead of the flaps and just inboard of the wing folding points. The aircraft had no ailerons in the conventional sense, with control being provided by spoilers and downward flaperons only. The outer wing panels were canted up by twelve degrees and had no control surfaces except for the hinged (drooping) leading edge. The stabilators had a 23 1/4 degree anhedral, and provided all of the pitch control.

The YF4H-1 prototype made its maiden flight on May 27, 1958, taking off from Lambert-St. Louis Municipal Airport with McDonnell test pilot Robert C. Little at the controls. On the first flight, the nose gear door would not close, there were difficulties with the hydraulic system, and there were problems with the engines. Consequently, the flight had to be cut short, but the aircraft landed safely. The right engine was replaced and the air inlet ramps were repositioned at 4 degrees. On the second flight on May 29, the nose landing gear door still would not close. However, on the third and fourth flights on May 31 and June 2, things went better and the aircraft flew at speeds of Mach 1.30 to 1.68.

142259 was sent out to Edwards AFB for initial flight trials. The YF4H-1 and the competing F8U-3 were put through the Navy Phase I flight evaluations at Edwards AFB, and in December of 1958 the F4H-1 was declared the winner of the contest. On December 17, 1958, McDonnell was awarded a follow-on contract for 24 more F4H-1s (BuNos 148252/148275). This brought the total production order to 45 machines.

The second YF4H-1 (BuNo 142260) flew in October of 1958. It was provided with an operable AN/APQ-50 radar and a fully-equipped rear cockpit. Variable-inlet ramps were fitted which were set at 5 degrees for the fixed portion and at ten degrees for the variable panel downstream. The aircraft was provided with unperforated spoilers, and a ram-air turbine was fitted which could be extended upward by a pneumatic ram from a compartment situated above the left intake duct. This turbine drove an emergency hydraulic pump that powered the controls in the case of an inflight emergency. An ASA-32 autopilot was provided. YF4H-1 144260 was later retrofitted with Martin-Baker Mk H5 ejector seats. In 1960, wiring was installed for the firing of the Sparrow missiles.


On July 3, 1959, the F4H-1 was officially named Phantom II in a ceremony held at the McDonnell plant in St Louis. At one time, the project manager, Don Malvern, had wanted to name it Satan, and James S. McDonnell himself had wanted to name the aircraft Mithras, after the Persian god of light. In practice, the Roman numeral II was often omitted from the name, since the original Phantom, the FH-1, had long been out of service and there was no possibility of confusion.

Following trials at Edwards AFB, the first YF4H-1 (BuNo 142259) was returned to the manufacturer in St Louis in October of 1958. It continued to be used for various flight test programs. On its 296th flight, on October 21, 1959, the aircraft suffered a failure of the aft access door of the right engine, which led to a further catastrophic failures and to the crash of the aircraft, killing test pilot Gerald "Zeke" Huelsbeck.

The Navy was anxious to publicize its newest fighter, and the second YF4H-1 (142260) was used on December 6, 1959 by Commander Lawrence E. Flint, Jr. to set a new world's altitude record of 98,560 feet. This record, set as a part of Project Top Flight, bettered the existing record of 94,658 feet, set by Major V. S. Ilyushin of the Soviet Union in a Su-T-43-1. To set this record, Commander Flint took his YF4H-1 up to 47,000 feet and a speed of Mach 2.5. He then pulled the aircraft up into an angle of attack of 45 degrees, and then climbed to 90,000 feet. He then shut down his engines and coasted up to 98,560 feet and went over the top and then began to fall back to earth. At 70,000 feet, he restarted his engines and made a normal landing.

Number 5000, an F-4E (Serial Number 77-0290), delivered on 24 May 1978. Photo Credit: Boeing Photo

On December 22, 1961, Marine Corps Lt.Col. Robert B. Robinson used 142260 to set a new world absolute speed record of 1606.347 mph. On his second run at an altitude of 45,000 feet over the measured 15/25 km course, Lt.Col. Robinson's Phantom was clocked at over 1700 mph. This speed run was known as Operation Skyburner. For the record attempt, 142260 was fitted with a special water/alcohol spray in the engine inlet ducts to cool the air ahead of the compressors and thus increase engine thrust.

Flying the previously-modified YF4H-1 BuNo 142260, Commander George W. Ellis set a new sustained altitude record of 66,443.8 feet.



Cantilever low-wing monoplane. Wing section NACA 0006.4-64 (mod) at root, NACA 0004-64 (mod) at wing fold line, NACA 0003-64 (mod) at tip. Average thickness/chord ratio 5.1 per cent. Incidence 1 degrees. Dihedral, inner panels 0 degrees, outer panels 12 degrees. Sweepback 45 degrees on leading-edges. Outer panels have extended chord and dihedral of 12 degrees.


Centre-section and centre wings form one-piece structure from wing fold to wing fold. Portion that passes through fuselage comprises a torsion-box between the front and main spars (at 15 per cent and 40 per cent chord) and is sealed to form two integral fuel tanks. Spars are machined from large forgings. Centre wings also have forged rear spar. Centreline rib, wing-fold ribs, two intermediate ribs forward of main spar and two aft of main spar are also made from forgings. Wing skins machined from aluminium panels 0.0635 m (2 1/2 in) thick, with integral stiffening. The fuselage is an all-metal semi-monocoque structure built in forward fuselage fabricated in port and starboard halves, so that most internal wiring and finishing can be done before assembly. Keel and rear sections make use of steel and titanium.


Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, mainwheels retracting inward into wings, nose unit rearward. Single wheel on each main unit, with tyres size 30 x 11.5 Type VIII; twin-wheels on nose unit, which is steerable and self-centring and can be lengthened pneumatically to increase the aircraft's angle of attack for take-off. Brake-chute housed in fuselage tailcone. Mk II anti-skid system.


Two General Electric J79-GE-17A turbojet engines (each rated 79.6 kN; 17,900 lb st with afterburning). Variable-area inlet ducts monitored by air data computer. Integral fuel tankage in wings, between front and main spars, and in seven fuselage tanks, with total capacity of 7022 litres (1855 US gallons; 1545 Imp gallons). Provision for one 2270 litre (600 US gallon; 500 Imp gallon) external tank under fuselage and two 1400 litre (370 US gallon; 308 Imp gallon) underwing tanks. Equipment for probe-and-drogue and 'buddy tank' flight refuelling, with retractable probe in starboard side of fuselage. Oil capacity 39 litres (10.3 US gallons; 8.6 Imp gallons).


Crew of two in tandem on Martin-Baker Mk H7 ejection seats, under individual rearward hinged canopies. Optional dual controls.


Four Falcon, Sparrow, Sidewinder, Shrike or Walleye missiles, or two Bullpup missiles, on four semi-submerged mountings under fuselage and four underwing mountings.
Provision for carrying alternative loads of up to 7250 kg (16000 lb) of nuclear or conventional bombs and stores on seven attachments under wings and fuselage.
Stores which can be carried include B-28, -43, -57, -61 nuclear bombs; M117, M118, M129, MC-1, Mk 36, Mk 81, Mk 82, Mk 83 and Mk 84 bombs; MLU-10 land mine; BLU-1, -27, -52 and -76 fire bombs; cluster bombs; practice bombs; flares; rocket packs; ECM pods; gun pods; spray tanks; tow targets' Pave Knife pod; and AAVSIV camera pod. One M61A-1 nose-mounted gun.


Wingspan: 11.77 m (38 ft 7 1/2 in)
Wing mean aerodynamic chord: 4.89 m (16 ft 1/2 in)
Wing aspect ratio: 2.82
Width, wings folded: 8.41 m (27 ft 7 in)
Length overall: 19.20 m (63 ft 0 in)
Height overall: 5.02 m (16 ft 5 1/2 in)


Weight empty: 13,757 kg (30,328 lb)
Weight empty, basic mission: 14,448 kg (31,853 lb)
Combat T-O weight: 18,818 kg (41,487 lb)
Design T-O weight: 26,308 kg (58,000 lb)
Max T-O weight: 28,030 kg (61,795 lb)
Max landing weight: 20,865 kg (46,000 lb)
Max wing loading: 569.2 kg/m/2 (116.59 lb/sq ft)
Max power loading: 176.1 kg/kN (1.73 lb/lb st)

LENGTH (m): 19.20
HEIGHT (m): 5.02
WINGSPAN (m): 11.77
MAX T-O WEIGHT (kg): 28,030
MAX WING LOAD (kg/m/2): 569.20
MAX LEVEL SPEED (knots): 1266

T-O RUN (m): 1338
LANDING RUN (m): 1152
MAX RATE CLIMB (m/min): 2847


http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/f4.html (http://home.att.net/%7Ejbaugher1/f4.html)

06-16-2006, 09:57 AM
I grew up on AF Bases.

The LOUDEST plane i ever heard was the F-4.

At Howard AFB in Panama we had a house a few miles away from ther runway, next to the BOQ.

When the Phantoms would do their run-ups the sound was still stupendous. It's hard to describe.

Interestingly, the F-4's actually got a few kills in Viet-Nam with the Falcon IR missiles that were a sort of mainstay for earlier AF jets, including the F-101B.

Apparently they were very unreliable, hard to get to lock on, didn't maneuver well, and had a small warhead.

I've also read that all F-4's still had sort of a ghost in their fire control systems that looked for the Falcons even up to the end.

06-16-2006, 10:00 AM
Very popular with plastic modellers and wannabe fighter pilots of my generation.
From the usual source (RAF website)

06-16-2006, 10:22 AM
Originally posted by woofiedog:
de Havilland Vampire


While much energy was expended on the first British jet fighter, the Meteor, a second and smaller type was being built by de Havilland as the DH.100 to specification E.6/41. Originally and unofficially named Spidercrab, the new fighter was eventually produced as the Vampire.
The first prototype, LZ548/G, flew on 20 September 1943, some six months later than the Meteor. It was designed around a single H1 engine, later to become the Goblin; power was limited and a lightweight twin-boom configuration was employed. Armament was to be four 20mm cannon.

First jet landing - Sea Vampire F Mk 10 LZ551 alighting on HMS Ocean 3 December 1945 flown by Lt Cmdr E M Brown

General characteristics
Crew: 1
Length: 30 ft 9 in (9.37 m)
Wingspan: 38 ft 0 in (11.58 m)
Height: 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)
Wing area: 262 ft² (24.34 m²)
Empty weight: 7,270 lb (3,297 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 12,385 lb (5,618 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ de Havilland Goblin 2 turbojet, 1,420 lbf (6.3 kN)
Maximum speed: 530 mph at sea level (855 km/h)
Range: 1,090 mi (1,755 km)
Service ceiling: 40,000 ft (12,200 m)
4x 20 mm Hispano cannons
2x 1,000 lb (455 kg) bombs or 8x 3 in (76 mm) rockets


Although eagerly taken into service by the RAF, it was still being developed as a fighter when the war ended, the reason it never saw WWII combat.

The Vampire was an exceptionally versatile aircraft, and it set many aviation firsts and records, being the first RAF fighter with a top speed of over 500mph. Piloted by Captain Eric "Winkle" Brown, a Sea Vampire was the first jet to take off from and land on an aircraft carrier, and in 1948 John Cunningham set a new world altitude record of 59,446 ft (18,119 m). On July 14 1948, Vampire F3s of No. 54 Squadron RAF became the first jet aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. They went via Stornoway, Iceland and Labrador to Montreal on the first leg of a goodwill tour of Canada and the U.S. where they gave several formation aerobatic displays.

The first engine was a Halford H1 producing 2,100 lbf (9.3 kN) of thrust, designed by Frank B Halford and built by de Havilland and later renamed the Goblin. The engine was a centrifugal-flow type, a design soon superseded post-war by the slimmer axial-flow units, and initially gave the aircraft a disappointingly limited range, a common problem with all the early jets. Later marks were distinguished by greatly increased fuel capacities. As designs improved the engine was often upgraded. Later Mk.Is used the Goblin II, the Mk.3 onwards used the Goblin III and the final models used the Goblin III. Certain marks were test-beds for the Rolls-Royce Nene but did not enter production. It is said that, because of the low positioning of the engine, a Vampire could not stand on idle for longer than a certain time because it would melt the tarmac on which it stood.

The Mk.5 was navalised as the Sea Vampire, the first Royal Navy jet aircraft. The navy had been very impressed with the aircraft since December 3, 1945, when a Vampire carried out the flying trials on the carrier HMS Ocean. The RAF Mk.5 was altered to extend the aircraft's role from a fighter to a ground attack aircraft, the wings being clipped, strengthened and fitted with hard-points for bombs or rockets. The fighter-bomber Mk.5 (FB.5) became the most numerous combat variant with 473 aircraft produced.

The final Vampire was the Mk.11, a trainer. First flown in 1950, over 600 were produced in both air force and naval models. The trainer remained in service with the RAF until 1966.

Several Vampires are still airworthy, and many have been preserved, some examples are on display at the Mosquito Aircraft Museum, the Museum of Transport and Technology, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum and the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum. One specimen, a two seater, is presently hangared at Tatui, So Paulo, Brazil, after establishing the longest travel ever for a Vampire. wow that is a cool jet. and the fact that it was a brit bird and was not butt ugly is even more impressive.

06-16-2006, 10:38 AM
Wah, look at these wingtip vortices http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/11.gif

Slickun, AFAIK the Falcon took 6 to 7 seconds from firing command (pilot presses the pickle button) to the actual launch.
6 to 7 seconds is a no-go in a fast-paced dogfight.
Also the warhead was only weighing like 4 pounds - the missile needed a direct hit to explode unlike the Sidewinder and Sparrow which had/ have proximity fuses.

06-16-2006, 06:47 PM
McDonnell F2H Banshee


06-16-2006, 10:55 PM
Nakajima Kikka
Engine: 2x Ne-20 turbojets with 1,047 lb of thrust

Wing Span: 32' 11''
Length: 26' 8''
Height: 9' 8 1/4''
Weight: Empty 5,071 lb / Loaded 7,716 lb
Maximum Speed: 433 mph
Ceiling: 39,370'
Range: 586 miles
Crew: 1

The project began in September 1944, when Nakajima was entrusted with the development of a jet powered signal seat bomber. Designed by Kazuo Ohno and Kenichi Matsumura, the aircraft was to be able to deliver a 500 kg bomb at 700 km/h with a range of 900 km as well as having folding wings to enable it to be hidden in caves and tunnels. The engines used were Ne-20 turbojets which were hastily built, based on the BMW 003 turbojet. Two prototypes were built between June and August 1945. The first prototype was ready by the beginning of August 1945, it's first flight being on the 7/8/1945 (one day after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima). Four days later the aircraft had a serious accident This caused the test program to be stopped whilst the second prototype was being built. At the same time 18 other Kikka aircraft were in various stages of production, including the two seat trainer "Kikka-K".
http://tanks45.tripod.com/Jets45/Histories/Kikka/Kikka.jpg http://tanks45.tripod.com/Jets45/Histories/Kikka/kikka-2.jpg

http://www.j-aircraft.org/xplanes/hikoki_graphics/kikka2.jpg http://www.j-aircraft.org/xplanes/hikoki_graphics/kikka_0001.jpg http://www.j-aircraft.org/xplanes/hikoki_graphics/kikka_0003.jpg http://members.aol.com/snowii/graphics/kikka.jpg http://members.aol.com/ta183huckebein/hikoki/kikka_11.jpg http://members.aol.com/pelzig/graphics/kikka_001.jpg http://members.aol.com/pelzig/graphics/kikka_002.jpg

06-17-2006, 02:55 AM
Convair B-58A Hustler


The Convair B-58 Hustler was the first supersonic bomber to be put into operational service, entering service with the USAF in March of 1960. Although the B-58 was destined never to fire a shot or drop a bomb in anger, it provided a key component of the Strategic Air Command's deterrent capability during the 1960s. Despite its high performance and sophisticated equipment, the service of the B-58 was destined to be rather brief, the aircraft serving with the Strategic Air Command for only a decade before being consigned to storage. Part of the reason for this rather short service was the B-58's rather high accident rate, but the major factor was the intercontinental ballistic missile, which entered service at the same time as the B-58.

The origin of the B-58 can be traced back to the period just after the end of the Second World War, at the time of the creation of the independent United States Air Force. In May of 1947, Maj. Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, at that time Deputy Chief of Air Staff for Research and Development, wrote a letter to Lt. Gen. Nathan F. Twining, chief of the Air Materiel Command, to request that work begin on a new jet-powered medium bomber that would be ready for service by the late 1950s. The bomber should have a combat radius of 2500 miles, a cruising speed of at least 500 mph, and a gross weight of 170,000 pounds. It was proposed that the development of such an aircraft would follow the development of the B-52.

General LeMay's proposal led the Air Staff to solicit ideas from the leading US maker of bombing aircraft, the Boeing Airplane Company, as well as to several other manufacturers. At this stage, the project was rather ill-defined. In October of 1947, things had begun to firm up sufficiently that the War Department submitted a requirement for a new medium bomber to the aviation industry. The aircraft was to weigh less than 200,000 pounds, have a 2000 mile radius, and be able to carry a 10,000 pound bomb load. It was tentatively assigned the designation XB-55. Boeing submitted the winning proposal, and a Phase I contract was initiated with FY 1948 funds.

However, in the immediate postwar environment, funding for military projects was in short supply and it was decided that the initial design study for the XB-55 would be converted into a paper study to explore new aeronautical technologies. In particular, the Air Force began to explore the potential of delta wing configurations and began to consider the possibility of bomber designs capable of supersonic flight.

Some of this work had actually gotten started before the advent of the XB-55 project, and several companies had launched informal studies. Among the initial approaches to the design of a long-range supersonic bomber was the Generalized Bomber Study (better known as GEBO). GEBO began with the exploration of the feasibility of a delta-winged aircraft weighing about 150,000 pounds. This began in October 1946 under an Air Force contract given to Convair, since that company had the most experience with delta-winged aircraft. Pre-GEBO studies by Convair of the abortive XF-92 delta-winged interceptor had given that company valuable experience with delta wings.

The delta wing was basically the idea of Dr. Alexander M. Lippisch, a German aeronautical engineer, although NACA had independently explored many of the advantages of delta wings during the war. In postwar years, US government agencies and many US aircraft corporations studied captured German reports on delta-winged aircraft.

By June of 1948, Convair had looked at 10,000 different configurations which explored the effects of different wing areas, aspect ratios, thickness and sweep. In addition, several different types of propulsion systems were considered, both turbojet and turboprop.

At the suggestion of the AMC, the USAF asked Convair to continue its study on the development of future long-range supersonic bombers. This study was formalized in June of 1949 with the granting of a contract for further detailed study.

On January 27, 1949, the AMC was directed to cancel the XB-55, since the projected B-47 production rate had reached the point that another subsonic medium bomber would be unnecessary. However, the general requirement for a high-performance medium bomber remained intact.

One of the positive results of the cancellation of the XB-55 project was that it freed up some scarce funds for additional development. Brig. Gen. Donald Putt, Director of the Research and Development Office and Deputy Chief of Staff for Materiel, recommended that the AMC ask the aircraft industry for new and possibly unconventional proposals for intercontinental bombers. A second Generalized Bomber Study (known as GEBO II) was initiated. The design parameters were a radius of 1200 to 2500 miles with a 10,000 pound bomb load, a cruising speed of more than 450 knots, a combat altitude greater than 35,000 feet and a takeoff distance of less than 6000 feet.

The Hustler's performance was astounding. It was capable of flying as fast or faster than any fighter it might encounter, and generally at higher altitudes than a fighter could reach. The B-58 had a blazing rate of climb, often described as "like a rocket", particularly when the aircraft was lightly loaded. The B-58 was also surprisingly maneuverable for an aircraft of its size, and although delta wings are supposed to give a bumpy flight at low altitude, the Hustler was perfectly adept at low-level penetration flights.

In January of 1950, Convair, as part of its work on GEBO II, began to explore a parasite concept. They proposed a fairly small delta-winged aircraft which would be carried part-way to its target underneath a B-36. The aircraft was to carry a two-man crew and would have four turbojet engines. The aircraft would have a composite construction, with a droppable pod containing a bomb bay, a radar scanner, three expendable engines, and the fuel. Launch weight was 100,000 pounds, but landing weight was only 17,900 pounds. Maximum altitude was 48,500 feet. Maximum speed over the target was Mach 1.6, and service ceiling before bomb drop of 52,000 feet. No defensive armament was to be carried, since it was expected that the high performance of the aircraft would make it immune to interception.

The Air Force was highly interested in this parasite concept, but there was some opposition. Many felt that a parasite bomber would be much more expensive than a single aircraft designed to accomplish the same mission, and that the mothership/parasite combination would be quite vulnerable to attack while attached.

In April of 1950, the GEBO II specification was changed to provide for a radius of 3500 to 4500 miles, with speeds as great as Mach 1.5. This changed specification was based on Convair's parasite proposal. By the fall of 1950, Convair had settled on a 100,000-pound aircraft powered by five engines. Three engines would be expendable, with one of the engines being mounted in the centerline pod itself and one expendable engine being mounted in a pod underneath each wing. The centerline pod would also contain fuel and a single nuclear weapon. The main module had a delta wing with two turbojets in partially buried wing nacelles. Once airborne, the B-36 would carry the parasite 2000 miles toward the target, release it and return to base. The parasite would then use its five engines to accelerate to a Mach 1.3 cruising speed. Over the target, the speed would increase to Mach 1.5. The parasite would then release the pod containing the nuclear warhead and return home at Mach 1.3. Once safely out of the combat zone, the aircraft would drop its two wing-mounted expendable engines and complete the trip back home at Mach 0.9. The aircraft would have no defensive armament, but it would be equipped with a full suite of electronic countermeasures equipment.

In the meantime, the Boeing Airplane Company, now freed up by the cancellation of the XB-55 project, began to study the possibility of a high-performance medium bomber. Performance objectives included a combat radius of 3000 miles at an altitude of 50,000 feet. The aircraft would be capable of supersonic speed of Mach 1.3 within 200 miles of the target. After looking at several different configurations, the Air Force selected the Boeing Model 484-405B as having the highest potential. The 484-405B was a fairly conventional design, with a low aspect ratio, high-mounted wing with a sweepback of 47 degrees. A bomb bay similar in size to that of the B-47 would be provided. Gross weight was 200,000 pounds. The aircraft was to be powered by four Pratt & Whitney J57-P-5 afterburning turbojet engines. The engines were to be mounted side-by-side, two in the inboard section of each wing. Because the wing was thin in order to make it possible to achieve supersonic performance, the fuel had to be housed entirely within the fuselage. The fuselage housed a pressurized cabin for a crew of three. A remotely-controlled tail turret was to be fitted.

By the end of 1950, the Bombardment Branch of the Air Materiel Command's Aircraft and Guided Missiles Section began to prepare a detailed military specification for both the Boeing and Convair proposals. Based on the AMC proposal, which was in turn based on input from both the Boeing and Convair design studies, requests were made for funds for beginning projects. The supersonic bomber was now officially a part of the Air Force's future plans.

On January 26, 1951, following the completion of the detailed study, Convair proposed that it develop a long range supersonic reconnaissance bomber. The project was given the number MX-1626 by the AMC under contract AF33(038)-21250. The contract called for partial Phase I development (initially without a mock-up) of a bomber/reconnaissance aircraft based on the GEBO II studies. However, the Convair proposal now had only three engines rather than five, with two being permanently mounted in the wing nacelles and one expendable engine being mounted in the droppable pod.

In October 1963, another B-58 appropriately named GREASED LIGHTNING flew from Tokyo to London, and despite the fact that it had to slow down for five aerial refuelings, its average speed over the 14,850 kilometer (8,028 nautical mile) flight was 1,726 KPH (933 knots). Cruise speed for five hours of the journey was 2,276 KPH (1,230 knots) at an altitude of 16,160 meters (53,000 feet), and the aircraft would have had an even higher average speed if it had not lost an afterburner late in the mission.

In February, the competing Boeing project was given a development contract by the AMC under the designation MX-1712 and contract AF33(038)-21388. Boeing's contract called for Phase I development of two bomber/reconnaissance aircraft through wind tunnel testing, engineering and mock-up. Initial flight dates for both designs were tentatively set for late 1954.

The MX-1626 was a two-seat delta-winged aircraft consisting of two main components -- a lower droppable bomb-pod and an upper main return component. The return component was a complete aircraft with a tricycle undercarriage to be used only for landing. The aircraft was to be launched from a trapeze which extended downward from its mother craft, but there is a Convair drawing showing the installation of a jettisonable landing gear that permitted takeoffs when the pod was fitted. The return component featured a delta wing with an area of 1200 square feet and a total span of 47 feet. The fuselage was 82 feet long. At the rear of the fuselage was a triangular-shaped vertical tail. A pair of non-afterburning General Electric J53-GE-X25 turbojet engines were mounted in mid-wing pods. The long pointed pod was integrated into the bottom of the aircraft, and featured three large fins separated by 120 degrees. The free-falling bomb pod was to be roll-stabilized by the control surfaces in the two upper tails. A third J53 engine was to be mounted inside the pod and would be expended when the pod itself was dropped. A maximum speed over target of Mach 1.7 was anticipated, and a maximum total mission radius (carrier plus parasite) of 4000 nautical miles was anticipated.

Convair's parasite proposal turned out to be very short-lived. The parasite idea had arisen at a time when cost factors were particularly important, and it was thought that such an approach would provide a cost-effective answer to the problem of long-range strategic bombing. However, it soon became apparent that the two aircraft would require complex navigational equipment so that they could find each other on the return part of the mission. While joined, the two aircraft would be especially vulnerable to attack. In addition, the two-aircraft attack system would be much more expensive to build and maintain than a single bomber. Consequently, in December of 1951 the MX-1626 design was drastically revised. The parasite idea was abandoned in favor of a single aircraft that would be capable of being refueled in mid-air. The third expendable engine in the bomb pod was eliminated, and afterburners were added to the aircraft's remaining two engines. A landing gear capable of supporting both landings and takeoffs would have to be provided. Gross weight rose to about 126,000 pounds and the number of crew members rose to three (pilot, navigator-bombardier and defense systems operator).

On February 1, 1952, the USAF issued General Operational Requirement SAB-51, where SAB stood for Supersonic Aircraft Bomber. It called for a multi-mission strategic reconnaissance bomber capable of carrying 10,000 pounds of bombs. It had to be capable of operating in all weather conditions, and had to be able to achieve a combat radius of 5000 miles with a single outbound in-flight refueling. It had to be capable of supersonic performance at altitudes of 50,000 feet or more and of high subsonic performance at lower altitudes. It was considered important that the aircraft be fairly small, since this would reduce the radar reflectivity and make the aircraft harder to detect. The Air Force wanted production to begin within five years.

On February 26, 1952, the SAB-51 GOR was revised in a document which came to be known as Directive Number 34. It was conceded that it was unrealistic to expect the rapid development of a high-altitude, long-range supersonic bomber that could also be suitable for low-altitude high speed missions. Consequently, the low-altitude performance requirement was dropped. Following discussions with the Air Council and representatives of the ARDC, SAC, the Rand Corporation and the Scientific Advisory Board, the Air Force endorsed this recommendation, and the revised SAB became formalized on September 1, 1952 as SAB-52-1. However, the Air Force still wanted the aircraft by 1957.

At the end of February 1952, General J. W. Sessums, ARDC Deputy for Development recommended that it would be better to forego the traditional industry-wide competition that would ordinarily be held for the supersonic bomber project. Time and money would be saved if contractors could be selected on the basis of the proposals already submitted. Although the AMC felt that the Boeing and Convair proposals offered the best hope for a supersonic bomber, the AMC had requested informal proposals from other manufacturers, including Douglas, Lockheed, Martin and North American. However, only two of the last four companies actually submitted proposals, and these were not very interesting. Shortly thereafter, the Wright Air Development Center endorsed this strategy and called for a competition between Boeing and Convair, the only two companies to have submitted proposals that were of any significant interest. The Air Force was now committed to the advanced bomber project, and placed heavy emphasis on the MX-1626 and MX-1712 programs. It requested that two parallel Phase I projects be initiated, thus engaging Boeing and Convair in an official competition. It was anticipated that contracts would be issued to both competitors in the fall of 1952 for detailed designs and mock-ups, followed by the selection of a winning design in February or March of 1953. The emphasis would continue to be on minimum size and maximum altitude and speed performance.

The financing of the Phase I development of two parallel projects was extremely difficult to support, especially during a period of financial austerity. The Boeing MX-1712 program had benefited somewhat from the XB-55 cancellation, which freed up some Boeing developmental funding for the new project, but Convair's MX-1626 was experiencing a severe funding problem. In late February, the MX-1626 program was almost cancelled due to the lack of funds, and the project remained in some danger until May 15, when enough additional funds were obtained to keep the project going.

In June of 1952, Convair proposed that they move the engines to nacelles placed underneath the wing. The engines were to be either two J75-P-1s, two J67-W-1s, four J57-P-7s, four J73s or two J77s.

Directive 34 had also dictated that the project use the weapons system concept, in which the equipment, weapons, electronics and components of the aircraft would be developed as an integrated whole to ensure that each component would be compatible with the others. By mid-1952, both Boeing and Convair had made considerable progress in bringing their projects into compliance with the weapons system philosophy. In the process of making their designs conform with the requirements of Directive 34, Convair's MX-1626 was now known as MX-1964 and Boeing's MX-1712 was now called MX-1965. The USAF designations B-58 and B-59 were tentatively assigned to the two competing projects, even though no production orders were yet forthcoming.

In the summer of 1952, the Wright Air Development Center concluded that a less costly alternative would be to select just one of the two competitors even before the design and mock-up stage was reached. The small bomber concept was endorsed by the Air Force Council and by General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, who was Chief of Staff of the Air Force. However, General Curtis LeMay, head of the Strategic Air Command, generally favored larger bombers with longer ranges. SAC felt that high performance alone would not necessarily assure mission success, and that the small supersonic bomber's lack of range would prevent it from operating without mid-air refueling from most forward bases. Despite SAC's objections, the Wright Air Development Center recommended that the Boeing/Convair competition be stopped. Even though the Air Force thought that Convair's estimates of the MX-1964's supersonic drag and gross weight were overly optimistic, the Air Force felt that the Convair design was superior to the Boeing proposal, since they felt that the Boeing design would offer insufficient supersonic capabilities, and on November 18, 1952, General Vandenberg formally announced that Convair was the winner of the contest.

On December 2, 1952, it was announced that the designation of the new bomber would be B-58. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Development endorsed a production schedule based on the four-year procurement of 244 B/RB-58s. The first 30 would be used for testing, and they would be reworked on the production line as problems appeared and were solved. This plan was based on the "Cook-Cragie" philosophy, in which the prototype phase was skipped. This plan, named for General Laurence C. Cragie, Deputy Chief of Staff for Development, and Orval R. Cook, Deputy Chief of Staff for Materiel, was rather risky and was really applicable only when there is a fairly high degree of certainty that the aircraft is actually going to go into production. The F-102 interceptor had been designed according to this principle.

On February 12, 1953, the Air Force gave Convair a go-ahead to begin detailed Phase I work on the XB-58 and XRB-58. At this point, only the basic concept had been approved, not any detailed design. On March 20, the Air Force indicated its acceptance of a firm configuration with a 60-degree delta wing with the trailing edge swept forward by ten degrees. A small amount of leading edge camber was provided to reduce drag due to lift. The aircraft was to be powered by four General Electric J79 turbojet engines, with the two inboard units mounted on underwing pylons and the two outboard engines mounted on the wing upper surface.

Even though Convair had been selected over Boeing, many revisions of the MX-1964 design were to follow. At the same time, development problems with Convair's F-102 interceptor confirmed the Air Force's suspicion that the initial estimates of the aerodynamic drag of a delta-winged aircraft had been overly optimistic. NACA engineer Richard T. Whitcomb's ideas on the Area Rule had been verified in December of 1952, which suggested that the cure for excessive transonic drag was to equalize the cross-sectional area at all points along the fuselage, thus producing a narrow ("coke bottle") fuselage in the region of the wing. The crew was to be three -- a pilot, a navigator/bombardier and a defensive system operator. The defense was to be one 30-mm gun mounted in a remotely-controlled tail position.

The first development engineering inspection took place on August 17/18, 1953. At this stage, the B-58 mock-up was known as Configuration II. The requirements matched fairly closely with the specifications issued by Convair in August of 1952 as well as with the USAF demands issued in the September 1952 GOR. At this stage in the design, the fuselage of the B-58 still consisted of an upper component and a lower pod that were integral with each other rather than being separated by a pylon. The return component had a flat fuselage undersurface once the disposable pod component had been jettisoned. In addition, nose gear requirements were complicated by the fact that both the pod and the return component required a nose gear. In the development engineering inspection of August of 1953, it became obvious that this pod would have to be completely redesigned. In October of 1953, the Air Force authorized Convair to shorten the pod to a length of 30 feet and to separate it from the fuselage by a pylon. In addition, the search radar was taken out of the pod and put in the nose of the upper compartment. The droppable nose gear was eliminated, and external fuel tanks were added to compensate for the fuel lost due to the shorter pod, and the positions of the navigator/bombardier and defensive systems operator were reversed.

The revised B-58 was known as Configuration III. External fuel tanks were added to the wing tips in the interest of longer range. Configuration III also omitted the jump seat which had been requested in the original military characteristics. However, there were still problems being uncovered by the wind tunnel testing at the Wright Air Development Center and at NACA. In 1953, the contractor and the Air Force had decided to mount the four turbojet engines inside two split-cell strut-mounted underwing nacelles, reminiscent of the inner two-engine pod of the B-47 Stratojet. It was thought that this configuration would save weight, ease engine maintenance, and facilitate retrofit of J57 engines with new J79s. However, wind tunnel testing indicated that the split-cell nacelles induced extra drag on the pod-carrying B-58. These problems caused a postponement of the Configuration III mock-up from May to September 1954.

It was planned that the first 30 aircraft would be used for tests and evaluation. The first 18 of these would be powered by Pratt & Whitney J57 engines, while the remainder would be powered by four General Electric J79-GE-1 turbojets (known in the prototype form as the J73-X24A).

By August of 1954, what was to prove to be the final B-58 configuration was chosen. The engines were now mounted inside four individual underwing pylons, and all fuel was contained internally and in the podded lower component. The fuselage was aligned to the modified transonic area rule for supersonic speeds. The external wing tanks were eliminated, and the tail area was increased to 160 square feet.

In the meantime, the Strategic Air Command was still unhappy with the B-58. A mid-1954 staff study had actually excluded the B-58 from its projected 51-wing bomber force of 1958-1965. There were fears from even the B-58's most fervent supporters that even the latest configuration might not meet all the requirements of the military specification, but they still believed that the aircraft should be built even if the Air Force could not actually use it as originally intended. By this time, almost 200 million dollars had been spent. There was some thought to reorienting the program to a research and development effort, and even some thought to canceling the program altogether. In June of 1955, a decision was made to restrict the program to just 13 aircraft. However, on August 22, 1955, this decision was reversed again and the B-58 was once again authorized for production. A wing of B-58s would be ready for service by mid-1960. However, there was at this time no mention of which branch of the Air Force that this wing would actually belong to.

In December of 1955 a definitive contract was issued to Convair for 13 aircraft and 31 pods. A second Letter Contract, AF33(600)-32841, issued on May 25, 1956, provided additional money to maintain B-58 production at a minimum sustaining rate through October of 1956. In the fall of 1956, the Air Force would decide if it should buy more aircraft.


Fuselage Structure and Crew Stations

The fuselage of the B-58 was of semi-monocoque construction and featured the standard bulkhead, former and longeron construction. The area between bulkheads 1 and 5 carried the crew compartments. The volume aft of bulkhead 5 and all the way to bulkhead 19 was devoted exclusively to fuel except for the navigation system stable table area between bulkheads 8 and 9. The portion of the fuselage aft of bulkhead 19 contained the deceleration parachute, the tail armament and electronic equipment.

The crew consisted of a pilot, a navigator/bombardier and a defensive systems operator (DSO), all seated in tandem in three separate compartments. The pilot sat in front, the navigator/bombardier in the middle, and the DSO in the rear. A crawlway between the pilot's station and the second crew station on the right side of the fuselage could only be used for maintenance of electronic equipment, but a crawlway between the second and third crew stations could be used for passage during flight. The navigator/bombardier's panel was equipped with bomb and pod dropping instrumentation, bombing system indicators and monitors, plus the navigation equipment. The DSO's panel contained passive and active defense system monitors.

Structurally, the three crew compartments comprised a single pressurized cabin, but structural bulkheads and equipment created a compartmentalization effect. Each compartment had a separate canopy hinged at the rear for entry and exit. The compartmentalization prevented direct vision or physical contact between crewmembers during flight. The pilot had a windshield with six adjacent panels, plus one panel on each side of the canopy. This afforded excellent outside vision, and the pilot could see parts of the exterior of the aircraft as well as the engine nacelle inlets. The navigator/bombardier and the DSO only had small side windows.
Ejecting from the B-58 enclosed in one of the escape pods felt like being shot out of a cannon. (NASM Photo)

<span class="ev_code_YELLOW">When the supersonic B-58 "Hustler" entered service in 1961, it had individual ejection seats for its three crew members. However, ejection at speeds above 665 mph was extremely hazardous. To improve ejection survivability, the Stanley Aircraft Corp. developed a high-speed high-altitude capsule ejection system that would allow safe ejection at supersonic speed. The capsule was adopted for retrofit beginning in late 1962, making the B-58 the first USAF aircraft with a capsule ejection system. It was effective throughout the flight envelope up to 70,000 feet and twice the speed of sound. </span>

The crewmembers were seated on individual ejector seats which were catapulted out of the top of the aircraft by a rocket engine. Problems with the originally-fitted SAC-type ejector seats when they were called upon to be used for emergency exit in the supersonic regime led to the development of an encapsulated ejection system developed by Stanley Aviation of Denver, Colorado. The unit protected the pilot against supersonic wind blasts, supplied oxygen and pressurization during an ejection at high altitude, absorbed landing impact and had survival equipment installed. Each capsule was an independently operating unit which required no outside power source. The second and third crew stations were identical and were both ejected on vertical rails. The pilot's capsule was similar, but included a flight control stick and was ejected on slightly leftward-canted rails. A three-piece telescoping clamshell door was pivoted on each side of the seat. It was stowed above the crew member's head during normal flight. It was actuated by raising the ejection handle, causing the doors to rotate downward to form a pressure-tight capsule. The doors could be closed in about a quarter second after actuation. Emergency oxygen and pressure were automatically actuated by door closure. After the doors were closed, each crew member manually ejected his own capsule by squeezing the trigger on the ejection handle, which jettisoned the canopy and fired the rocket catapult initiator. During high speed ejection, capsule stability was provided by the stabilization frame and stabilization parachute. The recovery parachute was automatically deployed at a preset altitude. Landing impact was cushioned by crushable cylinders and stabilization fins. For water landings, flotation bags were provided. During an emergency, the aircraft could still be flown while the pilot was encapsulated, and a small window in the capsule clamshell door provided a view of the instrument panel, while the pilot's control stick permitted controlled flight.


XB-58 : Prototype. Two built.
YB-58A : Pre-production aircraft. 11 built.
B-58A : Three-seat medium-range strategic bomber aircraft.
TB-58A : Traning aircraft.
NB-58A : This designation was given to a YB-58A, which was used for testing the J93 engine. The engine was originally intended for the B-70 Valkyrie bomber.
B-58B : Unbuilt version.
B-58C : Unbuilt version.


General characteristics
Crew: 3 pilot; observer (navigator, radar operator, bombardier); defense system operator (DSO; electronic countermeasures operator and pilot assistant).
Length: 96 ft 9 in (29.5 m)
Wingspan: 56 ft 9 in (17.3 m)
Height: 29 ft 11 in (8.9 m)
Wing area: 1,542 ft² (143.3 m²)
Airfoil: NACA 0003.46-64.069 root, NACA 0004.08-63 tip
Empty weight: 55,560 lb (25,201 kg)
Loaded weight: 67,871 lb (30,786 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 176,890 lb (80,235 kg)
Powerplant: 4Ӕ General Electric J79-GE-5A turbojets, 15,600 lbf (69.3 kN) each
Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0068
Drag area: 10.49 ft² (0.97 m²)
Aspect ratio: 2.09
Maximum speed: Mach 2.1 (1,600 mph, 2,600 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,000 m)
Cruise speed: 610 mph (985 km/h)
Combat radius: 1,740 mi (3,220 km)
Ferry range: 4,720 mi (7,590 km)
Service ceiling: 63,400 ft (19,300 m)
Rate of climb: 2,700 ft/min (13.7 m/s)
Wing loading: 44.01 lb/ft² (214.9 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.919
Lift-to-drag ratio: 11.3 (without weapons/fuel pod)
Maximum weapons load of 19,450 lb (8,823 kg), including:
Guns: 1Ӕ 20 mm (0.787 in) T171 cannon
Bombs: 4Ӕ B-43 or B61 nuclear bombs

[COLOR:YELLOW]Some questions and answers about the B-58, answered by Lt. Col. Strank, pilot (aircraft commander) in the 305th at Bunker Hill AFB starting in 1962. COLOR]


Other Links:
http://www.csd.uwo.ca/~pettypi/elevon/baugher_us/b058i.html (http://www.csd.uwo.ca/%7Epettypi/elevon/baugher_us/b058i.html)


06-17-2006, 03:23 AM
encapsulated ejection system developed by Stanley Aviation of Denver, Colorado

Sorry for OT - little aviation history curiosity: the capsule system was designed by a Stanley employee Jerzy D...browski, designer of PZL 37 o" bomber (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PZL_P.37).

06-17-2006, 03:38 AM
Low_Flyer_MkVb... Very Nice in-flight photo of the F-4's.

fordfan25... There is a Distinct Cool Ride look about the Vampire.

Bremspropeller... That was a Pretty Mint photo. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

SkyChimp... Thank's for the Banshee photo's... McDonnell builded some Very Beautiful Bird's over the years.
I like the simple lines of the early Banshee's and Phantom Jet's... similar to the Great looks of the Grumman F9F-4 Panther.

A bit of a story about one of the Navy Panther Jet's...

Link: http://www.uss-bennington.org/stz-53_f9f-4_to_hanger.html

Snow_Wolf_... Thank's for the Great article about the Nakajima Kikka... Excellent photo's also.

06-17-2006, 04:02 AM
Kocur_... Thank's for the information.

And a little more information about Encapsulated Ejection System's.



Jerzy D...browski

Jerzy D...browski (1899-1967) was a Polish aeronautical engineer. He was the lead designer of the famed PZL.37 o" (Moose) medium bomber.

D...browski was born in Niebor²w, west of Warsaw to a railway clerk family. He studied architecture and then transferred to mechanical engineering at the Warsaw Technical University (Polytechnic). The department offered aviation specialty and had an aviation fan club. D...browski designed and built his first aircraft, biplane ultralight D-1 Cykacz (Ticker) in 1924 at the Central Aviation Works in Warsaw. In 1925 D...browski obtained a special permission to complete pilot training at the 1st Air Regiment.

Due to financial difficulties Jerzy left the Polytechnic in 1926 and started working at the Plage & Laskiewicz company contributing to the design of the Lublin R.VIII, R.IX. and DUS-III. In 1928 he was asked to join the PZL aviation works in Warsaw. There, with Dr. Franciszek Misztal he designed the all metal PZL.19 and the PZL.26 for the Challenge Trophy.

D...browski's greatest achievement was the design of a very advanced medium bomber PZL.37 o", eventhough he has never worked on an airplane of this type and size. His preliminary design won an internal PZL contest for a new bomber and in the fall of 1934 D...browski became chief engineer of the project. The all-metal aircraft with a large elliptical wing and aerodynamically profiled fuselage had superb flying qualities. The requirement to cary bombs in the wing resulted in the development of an elongated aerodynamic cross-section with excellent qualities, later identified as a laminar flow airfoil. PZL.37 could carry over 5000 lb of bombs (2500 kg) over a distance of 900 miles (1500 km) and 2200 lb (1000 kg) over 1400 miles (2200 km - to Moscow and back ?), however the Polish Air Force did not have a clear philosophy for the use of such plane. Over 100 were produced by the outbreak of World War II, but only 36 were mobilised before the September Campaign. Further 18 were in reseve and some 15 in training. The remainder of the aircraft was being finished slowly at the PZL factories in Warsaw and Mielec, with the main emphasis shifting to the production of fighters. During that time D...browski designed a very promissing fighter PZL.62 but the war prevented its development.

During the World War II D...browski was evacuated to Romania and then to England where he was a technical officer with the Polish Air Force. After the war ended he completed his degree, worked at Percival Aircraft and Folland Aviation. In 1955 he moved to USA working initially at the Cessna Aircraft Co., then Stanley Aviation and finally Boeing where he specialized in advanced studies. He died while working in Renton, Washington State on September 17 1968.

06-17-2006, 05:40 AM
Originally posted by Bremspropeller:
Wah, look at these wingtip vortices http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/11.gif

Slickun, AFAIK the Falcon took 6 to 7 seconds from firing command (pilot presses the pickle button) to the actual launch.
6 to 7 seconds is a no-go in a fast-paced dogfight.
Also the warhead was only weighing like 4 pounds - the missile needed a direct hit to explode unlike the Sidewinder and Sparrow which had/ have proximity fuses.

oh yes, the Osprey Volume about USAF F-4 Aces of Vietnam gives a very good report about the Falcon AIM-4. it was **** !!
problem: the first deliverd F-4D could only carry Falcons and Sparrows ! they had no wires to use Sidewinders, Col. Olds (CO 4.TFW) had his own , very special opinion about that http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

06-17-2006, 07:53 AM
Yeah, I've ordered all four "Phantoms over Vietnam" books by Osprey - can't wait to read them.

BrigGen Olds is a very remarkable man.
Just thinking of Operation Bolo.

06-17-2006, 01:13 PM
Grumman F9F-6 Cougar

Grumman F9F-6 (F-9F) Cougar
Last revised January 23, 2000


The XF9F-2/XF9F-3 Panther contract awarded in October of 1946 had included a clause calling for design data on a swept-wing version. However, Grumman was worried about the poor low-speed characteristics of swept-wing aircraft, and prevailed upon the Navy to postpone work on a swept-winged version of the Panther.

However, the development of a swept-wing Panther was made more urgent by the appearance of the MiG-15 in Korea in November of 1950. The MiG-15 was powered by derivatives of the same Rolls-Royce Nene as was the Panther, but was nearly 100 mph faster. The very next month, the Navy and Grumman both agreed that it was urgent to press forward with the development of a swept-wing version of the Panther. A contract for the modification of three F9F-5 airframes was signed on March 2, 1951. The project was assigned the company designation Design 93.

Grumman's Design 93 was a more-or-less straightforward swept-wing conversion of the Panther. It retained the fuselage, vertical tail, engine, and undercarriage of the F9F-5, but was fitted with wings swept at 35 degrees and with swept horizontal tail surfaces. In order to reduce the approach and stalling speeds to acceptable levels, the chord of the leading-edge slats and the trailing-edge flaps were both increased. Much larger split flaps were fitted underneath the fuselage center section. The fuselage was increased in length by 2 feet, and the the wingroot-mounted intakes were extended farther forward and the wing root fillets were enlarged. A broader chord lower rudder section was fitted, linked to the rudder pedals. The upper rudder section was unchanged, but was linked to a yaw damper. The wingtip tanks had to be eliminated, and the resulting reduction in fuel capacity was partially offset by increasing the size of the forward-fuselage fuel tank and by adding bladder-type fuel tanks in the wing leading edge. Nevertheless, the internal fuel capacity was only 919 US gallons, as compared with 1003 US gallons for the F9F-5.

Since the Design 93 was so different from the F9F-5, one might have expected that the Navy would assign a new manufacturer type sequence number to it. Since the next available number for Grumman was 11, the new design by all rights should have been designated F11F-1. However, for some reason, the Navy decided to assign it the next configuration sequence number in the original Panther manufacturer type sequence, and the swept-wing version of the Panther was designated F9F-6. However, a new name was given to the swept-wing F9F-6--Cougar, thus continuing the tradition of assigning feline names to Grumman-built fighter aircraft.

Two flying prototypes (126670 and 126672) and a static test airframe (126671) were obtained by converting three uncompleted F9F-5 airframes to F9F-6 configuration. Work on the swept-wing Cougar proceeded quite rapidly and the first F9F-6 (BuNo 126670) was ready for its first flight only six months after the signing of the contract. It took to the air for the first time on September 20, 1951, with test pilot Fred C. Rowley at the controls. The plane was powered by a Pratt & Whitney J48-P-6 turbojet rated at 6250 lb.st. takeoff dry and 7000 lb.s.t. takeoff with water injection. It had conventional horn-balanced ailerons for lateral control and conventional tab geared elevators for longitudinal control. Early test flights revealed that the F9F-6 had a tendency towards control reversal at high speeds, and had rather poor lateral and longitudinal control. The adoption of an all-flying horizontal tailplane cured the reversibility problem. The lateral control problem was cured by the addition of "flaperon/flaperette" spoilers fitted to the upper wing surfaces. In normal flight, both of these spoiler sections operated as a single unit, but the flaperette section could operate independently. Large wing fences were found necessary to inhibit spanwise airflow and to preserve lateral control effectiveness.

To everyone's surprise and amazement, the prototype F9F-6 actually had better carrier handling characteristics than the straight-winged F9F-5. The critical Mach number was increased from 0.79 to 0.86 at sea level and to 0.895 at 35,000 feet. The prototype (126670) was later re-engined with a YJ48-P-8 turbojet rated at 7250 lb.s.t. without the need for water injection.

The first 30 production F9F-6s were powered by the 7000 lb.s.t. J48-P-6A, but the remainder of the F9F-6 order was powered by the 7250 lb.s.t. J48-P-8 turbojet. The built-in armament consisted of four 20-mm cannon. In addition, the aircraft had two wing racks for 1000-pound bombs or 150-US gallon drop tanks.

The first unit to receive the F9F-6 was VF-32, which converted to the Cougar in November of 1952. However, the Cougar was too late to fly combat sorties in Korea. The last of 646 F9F-6 Cougars was delivered on July 2, 1954.

In 1953, the Blue Angels flight demonstration team transitioned from F9F-5 Panthers to F9F-6 Cougars. However, the team's Cougars were urgently needed by operational squadrons, and the Blue Angels were forced to re-equip briefly with F9F-5s. In 1954, the Blue Angels traded in their F9F-5s for F9F-8 Cougars.

In service, F9F-6s were often fitted with a UHF homing antenna in a fairing underneath the nose. A few even had an inflight refuelling probe installed in the nose.

Three probe-equipped F9F-6s flown by VF-21 made the first US transcontinental crossing in less than four hours on April 1, 1954, the fastest time being 3 hours 45 minutes 30 seconds for a distance of 2438 miles.

Sixty F9F-6 Cougar airframes were fitted by Grumman with a camera installation in the nose in place of the cannon, and were were delivered under the designation F9F-6P between June 1954 and March 1955. The nose was slightly longer (the length increasing from 41 feet 5 inches to 42 feet 1 7/8 inches). All armament was deleted.

Following the withdrawal of F9F-6s from active service, several F9F-6s were modified as F9F-6D drone directors or as F9F-6K drones. The F9F-6K2 designation identified F9F-6Ks which were equipped with modernized equipment, as a well as a number of F9F-6s which were fitted directly with this newer equipment. The designation F9F-6PD was assigned to two F9F-6Ps (BuNos 127475 and 128308) that were modified as target controller planes.

In 1962, the Defense Department introduced the new Tri-Service designation scheme under which the separate USAF/Navy designations were replaced by a new unified designation system. This required that all existing Navy aircraft be redesignated. The F9F-6 was redesignated F-9F, with the F9F-6D, F9F-6K, and F9F-6K2 being redesignated DF-9F, QF-9F, and QF-9G respectively. The F9F-6P reconnaissance aircraft was redesignated RF-9F.

Serial numbers of Grumman F9F-6 Cougar:
126257/126264 Grumman F9F-6 Cougar
126670/122672 Grumman XF9F-6 Cougar
127216/127470 Grumman F9F-6 Cougar
127473/127492 Grumman F9F-6P Cougar
128055/128294 Grumman F9F-6 Cougar
128295/128310 Grumman F9F-6P Cougar
130870/130999 Grumman F9F-6 Cougar
131000/131062 Grumman F9F-6 Cougar
131252/131255 Grumman F9F-6P Cougar
134446/134465 Grumman F9F-6P Cougar

Specification of Grumman F9F-6 Cougar:
Engine: One Pratt & Whitney J48-P-8 turbojet rated at 6250 lb.s.t. dry and 7250 lb.s.t. with water injection. Performance: Maximum speed 654 mph at sea level, 591 mph at 35,000 feet. Cruising speed 541 mph. Stalling speed 128 mph. Initial climb rate 6750 feet per minute. An altitude of 20,000 feet could be attained in 4 minutes. Service ceiling 44,600 feet. 932 miles normal range. Internal fuel was 919 US gallons. With two 150-gallon drop tanks, total fuel load was 1219 US gallons. Dimensions: wingspan 34 feet 6 inches, length 41 feet 5 inches, height 12 feet 4 inches, wing area 300 square feet. Weights: 11,255 pounds empty, 18,450 pounds loaded, 21,000 pounds maximum takeoff. Armament: The armament consisted of four 20-mm cannon in the nose plus two underwing racks for 1000-pound bombs or 150-US gallon drop tanks.

06-17-2006, 04:23 PM
Originally posted by Bremspropeller:
Yeah, I've ordered all four "Phantoms over Vietnam" books by Osprey - can't wait to read them.

BrigGen Olds is a very remarkable man.
Just thinking of Operation Bolo.

du wirst sie m¶gen http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif
sie geh¶ren zu den besseren Osprey büchern !
im moment lese ich Iransche F-14 Asse, auch interresant.

übrigens , zum Thema Vietnam, die beiden F-8 Crusader bücher sind super - falls dich der Vogel interresiert http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif

06-17-2006, 04:24 PM
Not speaking English on an English language thread is considered quite rude.

06-17-2006, 04:28 PM
De flip de flap de boin floigen.

06-17-2006, 04:37 PM

you will like them they belong to the better Osprey büchern!
in moment I read to Iransche F-14 aces, also interresant.

by the way, on the subject Vietnam, both F-8 Crusader bücher are great - if you the bird interresiert

I believe Bremspropeller will enjoy the book's.

06-17-2006, 04:38 PM
4 lemons circle.

06-17-2006, 04:45 PM
SkyChimp... I was just Knee High to a Grasshopper... You might say! LoL

But I can remeber going to an Airshow at Worcester [Mass.]Airport in the late 50's or so, with my father and older brother and the Blue Angel's were there doing a show.
They were flying the Grumman F9F-6 Cougar's at the time.

Time sure does Fly's Bye... http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

06-17-2006, 05:47 PM
Thanks franky http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_cool.gif

Welche F-8 Bücher hast du denn ? Gibt ja auch mehrere über die Crusader. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif

Woofie, did I miss the F-86 description ? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/blink.gif
Call me blind, I can't find it anymore. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/typing.gif
What about the F-86D/K/L ? http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif

06-17-2006, 09:05 PM
The one and only beauty queen (first flight 1955) http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/inlove.gif http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/inlove.gif


Pictures taken from:

06-18-2006, 03:06 AM
Originally posted by Bremspropeller:
Thanks franky http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_cool.gif

Welche F-8 Bücher hast du denn ? Gibt ja auch mehrere über die Crusader. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-surprised.gif

Woofie, did I miss the F-86 description ? http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/blink.gif
Call me blind, I can't find it anymore. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/typing.gif
What about the F-86D/K/L ? http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif

i have both Crusader books, the Fighter and the Recon one. they are both very interesting. Sure, if you want one, than the Fighter volume , a book about men with balls http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif geek, guns http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_biggrin.gif

06-18-2006, 07:02 AM
North American FJ-1 Fury


In late 1944 and early 1945, the US Navy ordered four carrier-based jet fighters, the Vought XF6U-1 Pirate, the McDonnell XFD-1 Phantom, the McDonnell XF2D-1 Banshee, and the North American XFJ-1 Fury. It was hoped that these four fighters would be available in time for Operation Olympic/Coronet, the invasion of Japan planned for May of 1946.

The North American entry, known as NA-134 on company rolls, called for a fairly conventional low-mounted, straight-winged monoplane of rather tubby cross section. The General Electric J35 axial-flow turbojet was fed by a nose intake and exhausted through a pipe in the tail. A bubble canopy was fitted, and the wing was fitted with retractable, slatted air brakes in the upper and lower surfaces.

The USAF ordered a land-based version of the Fury under the designation XP-86, but North American was eventually to adapt the aircraft to a swept-wing configuration to produce the famed Sabre of Korean War fame. However, being constrained by the need to retain good low-speed handling capabilities for landings aboard carriers, the Navy decided to stick with the straight-winged format and went ahead with three prototypes of the XFJ-1 Fury (Bu No 39053/39055).

In May of 1945, the Navy had ordered 100 production FJ-1s, which was later cut back to 30. Serials were BuNo 120342/120371. These were known as NA-141 on company rolls.

The first XFJ-1 (Bu No 39053) took off on its maiden flight on September 11, 1946, with Wallace Lien as the pilot.

The thirty FJ-1s were delivered from October 1947 to April 1948. The slatted wing-mounted air brakes of the three prototypes were replaced by more conventional fuselage-mounted "barn door" air brakes. The Fury has a small wheel mounted on the nosewheel strut which permitted the aircraft to "kneel" nose-down to facilitate parking aboard carriers.


The first (and only) squadron to receive the FJ-1 Fury was VF-5A based at NAS North Island near San Diego, California. The squadron began an exhaustive familiarization program, including landings aboard a simulated aircraft carrier deck. The first landing of a Fury on an actual carrier took place on March 16, 1948, when Commander Pete Aurand, CO of VF-5A, landed aboard the USS *Boxer*. He was immediately followed by his executive officer, Lt. Cdr. Robert Elder. Both officers then took off under their own power, landed again, then took off a second time with the aid of a catapult. Since jets accelerate relatively slowly at low speeds, a longer deck run was necessary and it was decided to adopt catapulting as the standard carrier jet launching procedure.

The pilots of VF-5A were fairly happy about the performance of the FJ-1. The used their FJ-1s to win the Bendix Trophy in 1948, beating USAF F-80 Shooting Stars in a cross-country race. However, VF-5A pilots did note that the performance of the FJ-1 was fairly poor when flying at its maximum gross weight and that the plane was uncomfortable to fly because of a lack of pressurization and temperature control. There were also problems with the wingtip tanks. It turned out that the tanks were not compatible with the thin wing, and North American was forced to redesign them. However, the problem was never entirely cured.

VF-5A was renamed VF-51 in August 1948. It operated the FJ-1 until July of 1949, when the squadron traded in its Furies for Grumman F9F-2 Panthers. Their FJ-1s were then transferred to the US Navy Reserve, whey they served as transition trainers for pilots moving onto the McDonnell F2H Banshee or to the Grumman F9F Panther.


Engine: One Allison J35-A-2, 4000 lb.st. Weights: 8843 pounds empty, 15,115 pounds takeoff (clean).
Performance: Maximum speed 547 mph at 9000 feet.
Initial climb rate 3300 feet per minute.
Service ceiling 32,000 feet.
Dimensions: wingspan 28 feet 2 inches, length 34 feet 5 inches, height 14 feet 10 inches, wing area 221 square feet.
Fuel capacity included an internal load of 465 gallons and a pair of 165-gallon drop tanks at the wingtips, giving the FJ-1 a maximum range of 1500 miles.
Armament consisted of six 0.50-inch machine guns with 1500 rounds total. The wing was too thin to accommodate any underwing ordinance loads.



06-19-2006, 09:42 AM
North American FJ-2 Fury


Navy officials were slow in adopting swept-wing designs for carrier-based fighter aircraft, since carrier operations required lower stalling speeds and better low speed handling characteristics than did land-based operations. For these reasons, the Navy remained with straight-winged fighter aircraft designs long after the USAF had opted for swept-wing designs for their front-line fighter aircraft.

However, the straight winged Grumman F9F Panther and McDonnell F2H Banshee were seventy mph slower than the swept-wing MiG-15, and it soon became apparent that the Navy was going to have to bite the bullet and go with a swept-wing carrier-based fighter if it hoped to be competitive with land-based fighters.

On January 30, 1951, North American initiated the NA-181 project. This called for a navalized version of the swept-wing F-86 Sabre. The Navy showed immediate interest, and NAA issued a formal production proposal on February 6. On February 10, the Navy issued a letter contract for 300 production NA-181 aircraft, with the order being later reduced to 200. The BuAer numbers were 131927/132126. They were to be built in North American's newly-opened Columbus factory, which had also been scheduled to build F-86F Sabres for the Air Force.

The NA-181 was basically a navalized F-86E Sabre and bore very little relation to the earlier straight-winged FJ-1 Fury. One might then have expected the Navy to have designated the new swept-wing aircraft F2J-1, and perhaps even to have given it the name *Sea Sabre*, following the British tradition. However, the Navy decided instead to assign the designation FJ-2 to the new fighter and to name it *Fury*, implying that it followed logically from the earlier FJ-1. The reasons may have been more political than technical, the Navy hoping that the Congress would look more kindly on an aircraft which was a "logical extension" of an existing type than to one which was completely new and probably much more likely to cost the taxpayer a ton of money.

Commander Pete Aurand (who was the commanding officer of VF-51, the only squadron to operate the straight-winged FJ-1 Fury) was appointed as the Navy's project director for the FJ-2. He had long been an advocate of the Navy acquiring swept-wing fighters.

On March 8, the Navy ordered three XFJ-2 prototypes. These were all to be built in NAA's Los Angeles factory, since the Columbus plant was not quite yet ready for operations. These were built under the company designation of NA-179, and their Navy BuAer serials were 133754/133756. This was an example of yet another anomalous case in which prototypes were preceded by production aircraft in the numbering sequence.

The first two prototype XFJ-2s (133754 and 133755) were basically navalized F-86E-10 aircraft, equipped with such features as a V-frame arrester hook, catapult points, and a lengthened nosewheel to raise the angle of attack during takeoff and landing. However, they did not have folding wings, and they were both unarmed. They were known as NA-179 by the company.

The third prototype (133756) was armed with four Colt Mk 12 20-mm cannon with 150 RPG. Unlike the USAF, which preferred machine gun armament for its fighters, the Navy had always favored cannon armament for its aircraft. The third XFJ-2 had the usual F-86E nosewheel, and did not have any naval equipment that would enable it to land aboard a carrier. This machine was known as NA-181 on company rolls and as XFJ-2B by the Navy (the B stood for "special armament").

The powerplant for all three prototypes was the J47-GE-13 turbojet, and they all featured the "all-flying tail" of the F-86E-10-NA. All three of them were painted Navy blue, the standard naval paint scheme of the day

Despite its later serial number, the XFJ-2B (133756) was actually the first of the three prototypes to fly, taking off on its maiden flight on December 27, 1951 with test pilot Robert Hoover at the controls. It went out to Inyokern, California for armament tests The first XFJ-2 followed on February 14, 1952, again flown by Bob Hoover.


The three prototypes were accepted by the Navy in June, July, and December of 1952, and in December both XFJ-2s were subjected to carrier qualification tests aboard the USS *Coral Sea*. The carrier qualification tests did not go very well. The new landing gear and arresting hook bumper were too weak for carrier landings under realistic conditions, and the aircraft handled poorly during carrier approaches and landings.

Although disappointed with the XFJ-2's carrier qualification tests, the Navy was in a hurry to get a swept-winged fighter in service, and decided to begin production of the FJ-2 even before all the bugs were ironed out. The production FJ-2 Fury was to be powered by the General Electric J47-GE-2 engine rated at 6000 lb.s.t.. Since this engine was the Navy version of the J47-GE-27, this brought the FJ-2 up to F-86F standards. The slatted wing of the early F-86F Sabre was used, the "6-3" wing of the later F-86F being deemed to have too great a low-speed handling penalty for safe carrier-based operations. Full naval equipment, including catapult attachment points and arrester gear, was fitted. Wheel track was increased eight inches over the USAF Sabre, and the landing gear was beefed up and made more robust. The FJ-2 had folding wings and was armed with 4 20-mm cannon with 600 rounds. The dihedral of the horizontal tail of the first three prototypes was replaced by a flat horizontal tail. A modified cockpit canopy was introduced. The gunsight was the Mark 16 Model 2, and the AN/APG-30 ranging radar was fitted. The slatted wing of the early F-86F Sabre was used.

Because of North American's commitments to the F-86F program, production of the FJ-2 got under way rather slowly at Columbus. The first FJ-2 (BuNo 131927) was delivered in November of 1952. By the time of the end of the Korean War, only seven FJ-2 aircraft had been delivered. In addition, the end of the Korean War had resulted in the original contract for 300 FJ-2s being cut back to 200. The last of the 200 FJ-2s on the contract was accepted in September 1954.

Initial stability and control tests were carried out with FJ-2 BuNo 131932, which was fitted with a nose boom containing pressure spires and a yaw vane to measure the sideslip angle. This aircraft was redesignated YFJ-2. The YFJ-2 was frequently grounded with various problems during the 1953-54 trials. The YFJ-2 was found to be a stable and efficient gun platform, but only in the hands of an experienced pilot. Ground handling and takeoff characteristics were judged as being satisfactory, but several aspects of longitudinal stability and flight handling were deemed to be problematic. In addition, there was a rather annoying rudder "buzz" during transonic flight.

To compound the problem, a serious competitor to the FJ-2 had appeared in the form of the Grumman F9F-6 Cougar, which had flown for the first time on September 10, 1951. Although slower in level flight than the FJ-2 Fury, the Cougar was considered better at operations from carrier flight decks. Consequently, most of the 200 FJ-2s built went to land-based Marine Corps units, with the F9F-6s going to carrier-based units. Very few FJ-2s ever went to sea.

Marine Corps squadron VMF-122 based at Cherry Point, North Carolina received their first FJ-2s in January 1954. They spent most of their time in land-based operations, but they did go to sea aboard the *Coral Sea* in 1955. Although most carrier-based naval aircraft at that time were painted blue, these USMC Furies were natural metal. On the Pacific Coast, VMF-235 was the first to receive FJ-2s, which replaced that unit's aging F4U-4 Corsairs. VMF-235 used their Furies in steam catapult tests aboard the USS *Hancock*, with some 254 launchings of various types of aircraft being made with the ship's new C-11 steam catapults. VMF-235 also flew four FJ-2s retrofitted with stronger tail hook bumpers and modified nose gear struts in an unsuccessful attempt to solve the FJ-2's carrier problems.

FJ-2s served with the VMF-122, -232, and 312 of the Atlantic Fleet Marines, and with VMF-235, -224, and -451. of the Pacific Fleet Marines.

An attempt was made to incorporate the extended "6-3" wing leading edge without slats of the late F-86F on the FJ-2 Fury. The improved high-speed maneuverability that this "6-3" wing offered was an attractive feature, but the increased landing speed and poorer low-speed handing characteristics offered by this wing were definite problems for a carrier-based aircraft. In an attempt to incorporate the "6-3" wing without detracting too much from the low-speed characteristics, the third FJ-2 (BuNo 131929) was modified in August of 1953 with a slatless "6-3" wing having a full-chord wing fence at each butt plane 100. Extended wingtips were also fitted. However, this adaptation caused the aircraft to exhibit an abrupt roll-and-yaw prior to a sudden stall without any warning, which was a most undesirable feature for a carrier-based fighter. In 1954, a thick cambered fence was used with conjunction with another fence near the wingtip. This cured the stall warning problem during the power approach, but stall warning was still unsatisfactory during the final landing approach and a severe yaw occurred during the glide. In October 1954, 131929 was fitted with wing fences covering the leading edge only, at butt planes 100 and 176. This arrangement was more successful, and resulted in adequate stall warnings in most configurations. However, this adaptation was too late to be fitted to production FJ-2s, but was used in the next production version, the FJ-3.




06-20-2006, 09:44 PM
Lockheed F-94A


During the 1947 Soviet Aviation Day display at Tushino Airport, a surprise appearance was put in by three four-engined long-range strategic bombers. They were early examples of the Tupolev Tu 4, which was a bolt-for-bolt copy of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, several examples of which had been interned in the Soviet Union after having been forced to land there during bombing raids against Japan. Since the USSR was expected soon to have nuclear weapons, the appearance of the Soviet "Superfortresski" was a shock to US military planners, since it meant that the US mainland might soon be vulnerable to nuclear attack from the air.

The immediate postwar years had left the USAF without any truly modern all-weather fighters to face this new threat. Early attempts to develop jet-powered all-weather fighters ran into a series of snags and delays. The Curtiss XP-87 Blackhawk had been ordered in December of 1945, but it ran into developmental difficulties and the project was eventually totally abandoned in October of 1948. The Northrop P-89 Scorpion was deemed to have greater promise, but it too ran into teething troubles and did not show promise of entering service until 1952 at the earliest. Due to the lack of any suitable jet-powered replacement, the wartime Northrop P-61 Black Widow night fighter was forced to soldier on for a few more years. In order to help fill in the gap until the Scorpion could be available, night fighter adaptations of the piston-engined North American F-82 Twin Mustang were developed and hastily deployed.

The failure of the Curtiss Blackhawk and the delays in the Northrop Scorpion program forced the USAF to consider alternatives. To solve its immediate need for a jet-powered night fighter, in March of 1948 the USAF approached Lockheed with the prospect of fitting its TF-80C two-seat trainer with armament and a Hughes E-1 fire control system. The E-1 system incorporated an AN/APG-33 radar installation coupled with a Sperry A-1C computing gunsight. This system was developed from the AN/APG-3 radar used in the Convair B-36's tail armament. The USAF was in a hurry, and wanted the first production aircraft to be available before the end of 1949.

On October 8, 1948, a General Operational Requirement (GOR) was issued calling for the development of an all-weather interceptor.

Lockheed assigned the company designation of Model 780 to the project. Clarence R. "Kelly" Johnson entrusted the development of the new fighter to a team headed by Russ Daniell. Fortunately, the TF-80C airframe had sufficient volume to house the fire-control system in a modified nose and enough room in the aft cockpit to house the radar operator's position and his associated equipment. Consequently, it appeared at first glance that the adaptation of trainer to night fighter would be relatively straightforward, and the concept was endorsed by the Secretary of Defense on October 14, 1948 which called for the development of the two-seat radar-equipped TF-80C. A Letter of Contract was awarded to Lockheed in January of 1949. The designation F-94 was assigned to the project.

However, early design work soon indicated that the standard Allison J33 of the TF-80C would have insufficient power to accommodate the additional weight of the fire control equipment and armament, resulting in a fighter with a relatively low maximum speed and poor climbing performance. In search of more power, the decision was made to switch to an afterburning version of the Allison J33-A-33, rated at 4400 lb.s.t. dry and 6000 lb.s.t with afterburning. The afterburning engine required a longer and deeper rear fuselage, which pulled the center of gravity to the rear. However, the shift in center of gravity was offset by the weight of the E-1 fire control system installed in a longer forward fuselage and the APG-33 radar set mounted in an upswept nose. An armament of six 0.50-in M-3 machine guns had originally been planned, but space restrictions in the forward fuselage forced the limitation of the armament to only four guns. The guns were mounted in the lower nose section, with their muzzles located just aft of the radome. The air intakes were redesigned and enlarged, the tail surfaces were increased in area, and the internal fuel capacity was reduced to 318 US gallons. However, two 165-gallon under-wing tip tanks could be carried, bring total fuel capacity to 648 US gallons.

F-94C Starfire being armed with 2.75 in FFARs Photo USAF


Two TF-80Cs (48-356 and 48-373) were modified as prototypes for the F-94 all weather fighter. They were designated ETF-80C, which was later changed to ET-33A when the TF-80C became T-33A. They were unofficially known as YF-94. They initially lacked the radar, the weapons, and most of the operational equipment that was to be fitted to production aircraft. They had the distinctive upturned nose that was to characterize the future F-94A/B, and they featured a frameless T-33-type canopy. Teardrop fuel tanks were mounted underneath the wingtips. The maiden flight took place from the Van Nuys airport on April 16, 1949, with Tony LeVier and Glenn Fulkerson at the controls.

Initial flight tests proved that the handling characteristics were generally satisfactory, but lots of problems cropped up with the afterburner. At that time, afterburners were a relatively new innovation, and there were lots of bugs that had to be ironed out. The engine of the YF-94 suffered from frequent flameouts, often with very difficult relights. These problems were eventually solved by Allison and Lockheed engineers working together to develop a new flame-holder system for the afterburner. The solution to the afterburner problems resulted in the F-94 being cleared for full production and service.


The first production version was the F-94A. One hundred and nine examples had been ordered in January of 1949. Despite reduction of the Air Force budget that occurred as a result of the FY 1949 budgetary crisis, the F-94 procurement quickly rose to 288. The Soviet detonation of an atomic bomb in August 1949 resulted in yet another increase in F-94 procurement to 368 aircraft.

The F-94A was generally similar to the YF-94s, but carried full operational equipment. The seventeen F-94A-1-LOs were practically hand-built models constructed from T-33 airframes taken over from the production line, but the remainder were started on the production line as F-94As. The nose of the F-94A housed four 0/5-inch machine guns with 300 rounds each. The belted ammunition was carried in boxes mounted just head of the cockpit firewall and just behind the avionics boxes. The machine gun armament could be supplemented by a pair of 1000-pound bombs for night bombing missions. A 165 US-gallon teardrop-shaped droptank could be carried underneath each wingtip.

The first F-94A was accepted by the USAF in December of 1949. A total of 109 were built before production switched to the more reliable F-94B model. The F-94A was the first production fighter to be equipped with an afterburner as standard equipment, and it was the first jet-powered all-weather interceptor to serve with the USAF. The F-94A began replacing the North American F-82 Twin Mustangs of the 317th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at McChord AFB in Washington and the 319th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Moses Lake AFB in Washington in May of 1950.

However, the F-94As proved to be rather troublesome in service, being fraught with engine and electronics problems. The afterburning Allison J-33 engine suffered from frequent turbine blade failures and the fuel system was quite unreliable. The aircraft was unstable and hard to maneuver at high altitude. The pilot and radar operator found that the cockpit was too narrow for them to be able to get in and out of the aircraft quickly during alerts and scrambles. The clearance for the ejection seats was too small, resulting in several tragic accidents during emergency ejections. The fire control radar was quite quirky and unreliable, and the crew members could never be sure that if their system was working at the beginning of a flight that it would still be functional at the end. With the Hughes E-1 fire control system, attacks and firing passes were actually made from the old "pursuit curve" type of attack which resembled a "tail chase" more than a 90-degree, lead collision type of firing pass. The radar gunsight was used to fire at the target aircraft once it was in range. Unfortunately, this exposed the attacking aircraft to the target aircraft's defensive firepower for a rather long period of time.

During service, the early one-piece canopy of the F-94A was replaced by a canopy with a bow frame in the center between the two crew members. This feature was eventually adopted for all subsequent F-94 models as well as on the T-33 trainer. The original under-wing tip tanks were replaced in service by Fletcher centerline tip tanks with a capacity of 230 US gallons each. Some F-94As were fitted with a pod mounted on the leading edge of each wing which carried a pair of 0.50-inch machine guns, bringing the total forward-firing armament to eight machine guns.


Less than a dozen Starfires survive. The original YF-94A (s/n 48-356) is on display at the Air Force Flight Test Center Museum at Edwards Air Force Base in California. A well-preserved F-94C (s/n 50-980) has been on display for many years at the National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio. A less fortunate Starfire is deteriorating in a cemetery near Erie, Pennsylvania. "P-47" has been crudely painted on its nose.

The two-place F-94 was this nation's first operational jet all-weather interceptor. It was developed from the single-seat F-80 Shooting Star which had been the Army Air Forces' first operational jet aircraft procured in significant quantities. Although the F-94 had a redesigned fuselage, it used the F-80 tail, wing, and landing gear. The Starfire was also the first U.S. production jet to have an afterburner, which provided brief periods of additional engine thrust. It was equipped with radar in the nose to permit the observer in the rear seat to locate an enemy aircraft at night or in poor weather. The pilot then flew the Starfire into proper position for an attack based upon the observer's radar indications. The F-94s were primarily deployed for the defense of the United States in the early 1950s, serving with Air Defense Command squadrons. Many Air National Guard units were later equipped with F-94s.
Lockheed produced 853 F-94s for the Air Force, beginning in December 1949. Of these, 110 were F-94As and 355 were F-94Bs.


YF-94 : Two T-33As were converted into YF-94 prototypes. Two built.
F-94A : Two-seat all-weather interceptor fighter version.
YF-94B : Prototype of the second production version.
YF-94C : Prototypes. Two built.
YF-97A : This was the original designation of the YF-94C.
F-97A : This was the original designation of the F-94C.
F-94D : Proposed fighter-bomber version for the US Air Force.

General characteristics F-94C Starfire

Crew: Two
Length: 44 ft 6 in (13.6 m)
Wingspan: 42 ft 5 in (12.9 m)
Height: 14 ft 11 in (4.5 m)
Wing area: 232.8 ft² (21.63 m²)
Empty weight: 12,708 lb (5,764 kg)
Loaded weight: 18,300 lb (8,300 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 24,184 lb (10,970 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Pratt & Whitney J48-P-5 turbojet, 8,750 lbf (38.9 kN)
Maximum speed: 640 mph (1,030 km/h)
Range: 805 mi combat, 1,275 mi ferry (1,300 km / 2,050 km)
Service ceiling: 51,400 ft (15,670 m)
Rate of climb: 7,980 ft/min (40.5 m/s)
Wing loading: 78.6 lb/ft² (384 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.48
24 or 48x 2.75 in (70 mm) fin-folding aerial rockets
AN/APG-40 radar

http://www.wvi.com/~sr71webmaster/kelly1.htm (http://www.wvi.com/%7Esr71webmaster/kelly1.htm)
http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/f94.html (http://home.att.net/%7Ejbaugher1/f94.html)

06-22-2006, 04:35 AM
North American FJ-3 Fury


The design of a new Fury version, the NA-194, began in March of 1952. The engine was to be the Wright J65-W-2, a license-built version of the British-designed Armstrong-Siddeley Sapphire turbojet engine. The thrust of the J65 was 7800 pounds, as against the 6000 pounds offered by the J47-GE-2 of the FJ-2. The higher thrust provided by the J65 offered the Navy the possibility of markedly enhanced performance, and a contract for 289 examples of the NA-194 was given to the Columbus plant on April 18, 1952. The designation FJ-3 was assigned by the Navy. Serials were BuNos 135774 through 136162.

In order to serve as a testbed for the FJ-3, the fifth FJ-2 (BuNo 131931) was fitted with a J65-W-2 engine. The NAA designation NA-196 was assigned to this project, and the modified FJ-2 flew for the first time on July 3, 1953.

The modified FJ-2 (131931) had retained the original nose intake of the stock FJ-2, but it was discovered during flight tests that the increased power offered by the J65 required that the nose air intake be made somewhat larger. Consequently, the production FJ-3 had a larger nose intake than that of the FJ-2. However, the slatted wings and the hydraulic power-operated horizontal tail and ailerons of the FJ-2 were retained. Four 20-mm cannon were provided, with 648 rounds of ammunition. Cockpit armor included a 52-pound back plate and an 88-pound plate in front of the instrument panel.

The first production FJ-3 (BuNo 135774) rolled out of the Columbus factory and flew for the first time on December 11, 1953. William Ingram was the pilot. The engine was the 7650 lb.st. J65-W-4.

By July of 1954, twenty-four FJ-3s had been delivered, and the aircraft began its Fleet Introduction Program at the Naval Air Testing Center (NATC) at Patuxent, Maryland. The flavor of the test flying environment at Patuxent during the mid-1950s was described very well by Tom Wolfe in his book *The Right Stuff*. Most of the early Navy jets had lots of quirks and were often quite dangerous to fly, and there were numerous accidents. I lived just across the Chesapeake Bay from Patuxent at that time, and scarcely a month would go by without at least one crash of a jet fighter being tested there. However, by the standards of the day, the FJ-3 went through its test program with relatively few problems being uncovered, although 135785 did manage to explode in midair and crash because of the ingestion of a foreign object, and the pilot of 135786 got himself lost, ran out of fuel, and had to ditch in the Patuxent River.

Navy Squadron VF-173 based at Jacksonville, Florida was first to receive the FJ-3, becoming active with the fighter in September of 1954. The FJ-3 made its first carrier landings aboard the USS *Bennington* (CVA-20) on May 8, 1955. On January 4, 1956, an FJ-3 flown by Cdr. Ralph L. Werner of VF-21 became the first aircraft to land aboard the USS *Forrestal*, the first of the new class of post-war giant carriers.

During the mid 1950s, the US Navy developed a mirror system to replace (at least partially) the paddle-waving LSO in guiding a pilot's approach to a carrier landing. The first mirror landing was made by Cdr. Robert D. Dose on August 22,1955, when he landed his FJ-3 aboard the USS *Bennington*.

On July 1, 1955, the Navy abandoned the deep blue color scheme that had been used throughout the Korean War, and adopted a color scheme in which the upper surfaces were dull grey and the undersurfaces were white.

The early FJ-3s had wing slats. On later FJ-3s, the wing slats were abandoned in favor of extended wing leading edges with a leading edge fence on each wing. The wing area went from 287.9 to 302.3 square feet. Space in these wing leading edges was used to accommodate 124 gallons of additional fuel, and many earlier FJ-3s were retrofitted with this extended wing leading edge.

Beginning with 136118, four additional store stations were added underneath the wings. The inboard stations could carry 500-pound bombs or rocket packs, whereas the intermediate stations could carry 1000-pound bombs or launching rails for AAM-N-7 (AIM-9) Sidewinder missiles. In 1956, Furies equipped to carry Sidewinders had their designation changed to FJ-3M. The first Sidewinder equipped Furies entered service in 1956, and approximately 80 FJ-3s were modified to FJ-3M standards.

The last aircraft on the original FJ-3 contract was finished in February 1956. A total of 389 were built, covering serials 135774 to 136162. A second order for FJ-3s had been given to North American on March 15, 1954 under the company designation of NA-215. This called for 214 aircraft, but was later but back to 69, but 80 more were added on November 2, bringing the final total to 149. The serials for this batch were BuNos 139210/139178 and 141364/141443. The first of these aircraft was delivered in December of 1955, and the last (an FJ-3M) rolled out of the factory in August of 1956.

The FJ-3 Fury was retrofitted in service with a long probe under the port wing for midair refuelling. Furies were usually refueled from North American AJ-2 Savage tankers. However, they could also "buddy refuel" from other tactical jets such as the Douglas A4D-2 Skyhawk. The midair-refuelling option extended the combat radius from 645 to 1237 miles.

A few FJ-3s were modified in 1957-60 to serve as drone directors. Those modified to handle the direction of surplus Vought Regulus missiles were redesignated FJ-3D, whereas those modified to handle controlled F9F-6K drones and KDA targets were redesignated FJ-3D2.

The FJ-3 had engine problems which did not fully manifest themselves until the type was well into service. The J65 had some severe lubrication problems which could cause the engine to seize up and lose all power during a catapult launch, forcing the aircraft to drop into the ocean. Don't you just hate it when this happens? :-) :-). The FJ-3 was also prone to engine flameouts, but probably not much more so than many other jet fighters of its day. The J65 also suffered from occasional catastrophic turbine blade failures, which would cause the engine to shed its turbine blades and send them flying out the sides of the fuselage. New types of blades were fitted during service to help correct this problem.

The FJ-3 served with the following squadrons:

Atlantic Fleet:
FJ-3: VF-3, VF-33, VMF-122, VMF-313
FJ-3M: VA-172, VF-12, VF-62, VF-73, VF-84, VF-173, VMF-334

Pacific Fleet:
FJ-3: VF-24, VF-91, VF-154, VF-191, VF-211
FJ-3M: VF-21, VF-51, VF-121, VF-142, VF-143, VF-211, VMF-235.

Despite their engine problems, the FJ-3s were fairly popular with their pilots. Commander J. J. Boydston of VF-154 spoke well of the aircraft. Captain James Powell of VF-142, who had also flown F9F-6s, felt that the FJ-3 got off the ground a lot faster than did the Cougar. He felt that his FJ-3 could outfight any aircraft in service during those times, with the sole exception of the F-86H.

I don't think that the FJ-3 ever fired its weapons in anger, although it did fly support during the American intervention in Lebanon during 1958.

On October 1, 1962, the FJ-3 was redesignated F-1C in the new Tri-Service designation scheme. The Fury was given the honor of the first slot in the new system, although by this time most FJ-3s had been retired from service. The FJ-3D was assigned the designation MF-3C, and the drone directors FJ-3D and FJ-3D2 were redesignated DF-1C and DF-1D respectively. It seems that the FJ-1 and FJ-2 were not redesignated, since by this time they were no longer in service, even with reserve units. However, it is an odd fact that the designations F-1A and F-1B were never assigned. Perhaps these designations were reserved for the FJ-1 and the FJ-2, although I am only guessing.

Specification of the FJ-3

Engine: One Wright J65-W-4B turbojet, 7650 lb.st.
Dimensions: wingspan 37 feet 1 inch, wing area 302.3 square feet, length 37 feet 7 inches, height 13 feet 8 inches.
Weights: 12,205 pounds empty, 15,669-17,926 pounds combat weight, 21,024 pounds gross.
Performance: Distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle was 2750 feet. Initial climb rate: 8450 feet /minute (7100 ft/min with two Sidewinders).
Climb to 30,000 feet in 5.2 minutes Ferry range: 1784 miles.
Combat range (clean), 990 miles.
Combat radius 370 miles (clean), 645 miles with 2 200-gallon drop tanks.
Maximum speed: 681 mph at sea level, 623 mph at 35,000 feet (clean) 670 mph at sea level, 612 mph at 35,000 feet (two Sidewinders).
Armament consisted of four 20-mm cannon in nose plus two AA-N-7 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles (on the FJ-3M version).




06-22-2006, 05:02 AM
Douglas XA4D-1 Skyhawk



The A4D/A-4 Skyhawk is one of the more successful military aircraft of the postwar era. It entered service with the US Navy in late 1956 and served with distinction for many years. It bore much of the early action in carrier-based strikes against North Vietnam during the 1960s. Although the Skyhawk is no longer serving in its primary attack role with the US Navy/US Marine Corps, a few Skyhawks are still serving in 2001 in auxiliary roles such as target towing and adversary training. However, the Skyhawk is still going strong with several foreign military services. It may well be that the Skyhawk exceeds the DC-3/C-47/Dakota in worldwide military service.

The Skyhawk was in continuous production for over 27 years, mainly for the US Navy and US Marine Corps. Two-seat versions accounted for 555 of these. Four foreign nations purchased new Skyhawks from the Douglas production line, whereas four other nations purchased refurbished aircraft from US surplus stocks.

Long after the Skyhawk had been replaced by later types as the Navy's primary carrier-based attack aircraft, two-seat versions of the Skyhawk played a primary role in the training of the Navy's new pilots. The two-seat training Skyhawk remained in service until 1999.

An additional role undertaken by the Skyhawk was that of aggressor aircraft. During the Vietnam War, it was found that the air-to-air kill ratio against North Vietnamese fighter aircraft was too low. In an attempt to improve this, the Navy Fighter Weapons School (better known as "Top Gun") which was designed to train pilots to win air-to-air battles against Soviet-block aircraft. The Skyhawk, when stripped of its avionics and weapons systems, proved to be an extremely agile aircraft, one which could simulate the performance characteristics of the MiG-17.

The Skyhawk is perhaps best remembered today as being the plane used by the Blue Angels Navy flight demonstration team from 1974 to 1987, thrilling millions of air show attendees all throughout the world.

Alarmed at the trend towards ever-increasing weight in contemporary fighters such as the USAF F-86 Sabre and the Navy F9F Panther, Douglas Chief Engineer Douglas Heinemann charted a team of engineers to work on a private venture to see if this trend could be reversed. They came up with a rather daring proposal for a jet fighter weighing only 7000 pounds. The team submitted the results of this preliminary design study to the Bureau of Aeronautics in early January of 1952.

The Navy showed some interest, but since they were already involved in the consideration of several other fighter designs, they suggested that the Douglas team should apply the same sort of philosophy to the design of a carrier-based attack aircraft. This plane would be intended for the nuclear strike role, with a top speed of 500 mph, a combat radius of 345 miles, a 2000-lb weapons load, and a maximum gross weight of less than 30,000 pounds.

Heinemann's team responded a couple of weeks later with a proposal that exceeded these requirements by a substantial margin. The normal loaded weight of the aircraft would be only 12,000 pounds, less than half the limit specified by the Navy, and the top speed was 100 mph greater and the combat radius 115 miles greater. Douglas was authorized to proceed with further design studies. During the evaluation, the range requirements were increased, raising the gross weight to 14,000 pounds


The design team came up with a low-winged jet-powered aircraft with a modified delta planform. The wing had a quarter chord sweep of 33 degrees. The span was only 27 feet 6 inches, which eliminated any need for wing folding and saving a lot of weight and complexity. The wing had three one-piece spars with spanwise stiffened skin. The delta shaped wing formed a single box with integral fuel tankage, and the upper and lower skins were single pieces. The spars and stringers were continuous from tip to tip. The wing leading edge was equipped with automatic leading edge slats and split flaps were provided on the trailing edge. Most of the wing between the spars contained an integral fuel tank with 560 gallon capacity.

The aircraft had a normal tail, with a rudder and a set of elevators. The dorsal fin had a delta shape, and had a rudder set at its rear. The horizontal tailplane was set at at the lower part of the vertical tail, just above the tailpipe. The horizontal stabilizer was electrically adjustable in incidence, and could be adjusted for trim throughout the entire flight range. A large speed brake was provided on each side of the rear fuselage.

The engine was to be a licence-built version of the British Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire turbojet, rated at 8000 lb.s.t. It would be built by Wright under the designation J65. The engine was mounted in the fuselage center with air intakes mounted high on both sides of the fuselage aft of the cockpit. The engine had a single exhaust in the tail.

The internal fuel capacity was 770 US gallons, carried in integral wing tanks and in a self-sealing cell aft of the cockpit and between the engine air ducts. All of the offensive weapons were to be carried externally on three stations--one underneath the fuselage centerline and one underneath each wing. The internal armament was to be a pair of 20-mm cannon, one in each wing root. Design gross weight with a single Mk 12 nuclear weapon was 14,250 pounds, and the combat radius with this weapon with internal fuel only was 400 miles.


The tall main undercarriage members were attached to the inner wing trailing edge, and retracted forward and rotated through 90 degrees to fit into wells in the leading edge of the wing. The wing was sufficiently thin so that long fairings had to be fitted underneath the wing to cover the landing gear legs when retracted. The nose landing gear retracted forward into a well in the nose. The forward-retracting landing gear had the avantage in that emergency extension systems were not required, since the airstream flow will lock the gear down after free fall. The landing gear appears at first sight to be rather long and stalky, but it facilitiates adequate ground clearance during rotation on takeoff

The cockpit canopy was of the "clamshell" variety, opening via a hinge located immediately to the rear. An upward- firing ejector seat was to be provided for the pilot.

A preliminary mockup inspection took place in February of 1952 Douglas was given a contract for one aircraft On June 12, 1952. The designation was XA4D-1, and the BuNo was 137812. The project was financed by diverting funds from the cancelled A2D Skyshark program. Final mockup inspection took place in October of 1952. By this time, the Navy had ordered 9 production aircraft, which was soon increased to 19.


The XA4D-1 was assembled at the Douglas El Segundo plant and was rolled out of the factory in February of 1954, the aircraft being given the popular name Skyhawk. In press releases, the plane was often referred to as "Heinmann's Hot Rod". The windscreen of the cockpit was frameless, and the nose was provided with a long instrumentation probe. The pilot was provided with a NAMC Type II ejection seat. Only the centerline weapons pylon was fitted, and there was no carrier arrester hook. No armament was fitted.

The XA4D-1 was trucked out to Edwards AFB, 100 miles away. The first flight was delayed by the late delivery of its 7200 lb.s.t Wright J65-W-2 turbojet. First flight took place at Edwards AFB on June 22, 1954, test pilot Robert Rahn being at the controls.

Late in the career of the XA4D-1, it was fitted with most of the features of the production A4D-1, including a tailhook, a jetpipe fairing, vortex generators, and all three weapons pylons.


http://home.att.net/~jbaugher4/newa4.html (http://home.att.net/%7Ejbaugher4/newa4.html)

Ed Heinemann photographs courtesy of Harry S. Gann
Edward Henry Heinemann
Designer of the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk,
(Heinemann's Hot-Rod) the Ferrari of airplanes.
Ed Heinemann was responsible for the design and development of a remarkably successful series of combat aircraft, from the Dauntless dive bomber to the A4 Skyhawk jet. During a career that extended over six decades, he designed more than 20 fighter, bomber, and rocket aircraft. He died on 26 November 1991 at the age of 83.

His story is told in the excellent volume, ''Ed Heinemann: Combat Aircraft Designer", co-authored by Rosario "Zip" Rausa, published by Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1980.

Airplanes were a part of Ed Heinemann's life since he was given a toy biplane on his eighth birthday. Years later as a teenager he would roam the grounds of the Ascot Park Speedway in Saginaw, Michigan, watching the planes flying about and waiting for the occasional visit of the Goodyear blimp. As she descended, he would run onto the field, grab the guy wires, and help haul her down.

Like the great World War II pilot, Jimmy Doolittle, Ed Heinemann attended Manual Arts High in Los Angeles, but unlike Doolittle, that's where his formal education ended. His extraordinary mechanical aptitude was recognized and nurtured in those classroom days in a way that really paid off later. He became a man whose life spanned the golden age of flight and whose foresight, determination, and genius provided the United States Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force with some of the most reliable fighting machines ever to take to the sky.


06-22-2006, 07:02 PM


06-23-2006, 01:57 AM
ah, the mighty Thud http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_smile.gif

06-23-2006, 10:17 AM

Remarks by Jack McKillop: Lockheed XF-104-LO Starfighter, USAF s/n 53-7786, Lockheed Model 083, msn 083-1001. This is the first of two XF-104-LOs. This aircraft made its first flight on 28 February 1954 at Edwards AFB, California, U.S.A.

From Baugher web site: Crashed Jul 11, 1957 due to uncontrollable tail flutter. Pilot Bill Park ejected safely.

In late 1951, the Lockheed company's chief aircraft designer, Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson, went to South Korea to talk with US fighter pilots engaged in the air war there to ask them what they were looking for in a next-generation fighter. The answer was that they wanted a simple, lightweight fighter that provided high speed, altitude, and maneuverability. In December 1951, Johnson proposed that he begin development of such a machine, even though the USAF had no outstanding requirement for it at the time.

By the end of October 1952, a range of different designs had been considered and screened down to a concept designated the "Model L-246", envisioning an aircraft with a dartlike fuselage, short trapezoidal wings, a tee tail, and a new-generation, powerful turbojet engine, the General Electric (GE) J-79. Lockheed management liked the concept, and that November Johnson went to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio to pitch the L-246 to the Air Force.

At the time, the USAF was engaged in wide range of advanced aircraft development programs and the idea that the service might have wanted to take on another seems a bit implausible in hindsight, but the Cold War was on in earnest, and in fact the hot war in Korea was still in progress as well. There was much less bureaucracy involved in developing combat aircraft in those days, partly because they were so much simpler and less expensive to design and build than they are now.

In any case, the Model L-246 was so attractive that the USAF got on board quickly, though the service still had to issue a request for proposals to industry and conduct a competition. Northrop, North American, and Republic submitted proposals that made it into the final round of the competition, but Lockheed had the head start and won the award in January 1953. The contract that followed specified construction of a mockup, already being put together at Lockheed, plus a static test aircraft and two flight prototypes. Lockheed designated the aircraft the "Model 83"; the Air Force designated the program "Weapon System (WS) 303A" and gave the prototypes the designation of "XF-104".


Chief Lockheed test pilot Tony Levier was assigned to fly the aircraft. He found the design exotic and impressive, but it was so new in concept that he had concerns about how well it might fly. The first XF-104 was rolled out from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California, on 23 February 1954, and was quietly trucked to Edwards AFB the next evening.

The XF-104 was a sleek dart of an aircraft, no doubt breathtakingly advanced in appearance compared to contemporary jet fighters in service. It was made mostly of aviation aluminum alloys, with titanium near the engine exhaust, had a needle nose, a bubble-style canopy that hinged open to the left, trapezoidal thin sharp-edged wings with a noticeable dihedral, a tee tail, and tricycle landing gear. All three gear assemblies had single wheels, with the steerable nose wheel retracting backward and the main gear rotating and tucking forward into the fuselage. The XF-104 featured a downward-firing ejection seat, chosen because an upward-firing ejection seat stood a chance of tossing the pilot into the tail assembly. Minimum ejection altitude was given as 152 meters (500 feet). To no surprise in hindsight, the downward-firing ejection seat would not turn out to be a good idea.

Since the GE J79 wasn't available at the time, the first XF-104 was temporarily fitted with a Buick-built Wright J65-B-3 nonafterburning turbojet, which would be upgraded to an afterburning J65-W-7 version in July 1954. The J65 was an "Americanized" version of the British Armstrong-Siddeley Sapphire axial-flow turbojet. The J65-W-7 provided 34.7 kN (3,540 kgp / 7,800 lbf) dry thrust and 45.8 kN (4,670 kgp / 10,300 lbf) afterburning thrust. This was only about 70% of the power expected from the GE J79. The J65 was fed through half-circle fixed intakes on either side of the fuselage forward of the wing roots. The intakes were set off from the fuselage slightly to ensure that they didn't ingest turbulent and stagnant "boundary layer" air that hugged the fuselage.

Germany Air Force, Lockheed F-104G

Levier began taxi tests on 27 February and took the machine on a short hop up from the runway and down again on 28 February. The first full flight was on 5 March, but it was short-lived, since the landing gear wouldn't retract. Lockheed technicians made fixes on the spot, but the second flight went no better: the landing gear still wouldn't retract. In between engineering work and bad weather, the next flights didn't take place until near the end of March. However, by that time the XF-104 was flying right, though test flights through the spring and into the summer of 1954 continued to turn up the more or less expected bugs and glitches.

Even with the non-afterburning J65-B-3 engine, the XF-104A could break Mach 1 in level flight, with the transition so smooth that the pilot hardly knew it had happened. Mach 1 was no longer the obstacle that it had been thought to be in the previous decade. Once the afterburning J65-W-7 was installed, the XF-104 could do Mach 1.5 with no particular difficulty, and on 15 March 1955 it broke Mach 1.79. Everyone involved with the project must have reflected on the enormous jump in aircraft performance over the space of a mere decade.


The second XF-104 was already in the air by this time, having performed its first flight on 6 October 1954. It was fitted from the outset with the afterburning J65-W-7. It was primarily intended for armament tests. Although the original idea was that the aircraft would be fitted with twin 30 millimeter cannon, a decision was made to go with the new high-speed GE TE-171-E3 (later M61) "Vulcan" six-barrelled Gatling-type 20 millimeter cannon. It was also fitted with the AN/ASG-14T-1 fire control system (FCS).

The cannon tests ran into snags: on 17 December 1954, Levier tried to fire a burst at high altitude and was rewarded with an explosion. The engine began running rough and Levier shut it down, gliding 80 kilometers (50 miles) to put the machine down safely. As it turned out, a 20 millimeter cartridge had exploded while being fired, blowing off the back of the cannon and sending it through the section of the aircraft behind it. In a sense, the XF-104 had shot itself down.

The aircraft was repaired and returned to flight test. However, on 14 April 1955 Lockheed test pilot Herman R. "Fish" Salmon was performing cannon tests, setting up vibrations so severe that they blew off the ejection seat door in the bottom of the cockpit. The cockpit depressurized and Salmon's pressure suit puffed up so much that he couldn't see what was going on. Had he understood the problem he could have gone to low altitude, equalizing the pressure and allowing him to get things under control, but he had no real idea of what had gone wrong and decided to eject, coming to earth safely. Of course, the second prototype plowed into the ground and was destroyed. An F-94C Starfire interceptor was modified to complete the armament tests.

The first XF-104 would also be lost in a crash later. On 11 July 1957, Lockheed test pilot William M. "Bill" Park, who would later fly the HAVE BLUE demonstrator that led to the F-117 Stealth Fighter, was flying the XF-104 as a chase plane when flutter tore the tail off. Park ejected safely and the aircraft fell to earth.

Italian Airforce Lockheed F-104S-ASA Starfighter

YF-104A / F-104A

The loss of the prototypes didn't slow the program down. The USAF had awarded Lockheed a contract for 17 "YF-104" preproduction evaluation machines on 30 March 1955. By the end of the year, GE was shipping YJ79-GE-3 evaluation engines to Lockheed, and the first YF-104A performed its initial flight on 17 February 1956. Herman Salmon was at the controls, obviously not very fazed by his ejection from the number-two XF-104 just two days earlier. The YF-104 broke Mach 2 on 28 February.

The YF-104A was 1.68 meters (5 feet 6 inches) longer than the XF-104 to allow it to accommodate the J79 engine, with the stretch allowing it to carry more fuel as well. It also introduced a new inlet scheme, featuring a fixed half-cone in each inlet. The half-cones were called "shock cones" or more informally "flight falsies" -- a "falsie" being Yank slang for a padded brassiere -- and the scheme was a big secret at the outset. The nosewheel assembly was also changed to retract forward, to provide better clearance for the downward-firing ejection seat. Other minor changes involved a taller tailfin and a dorsal spine.

The YF-104s were intended to evaluate the J79 engine, the GE M61 Vulcan cannon, the AIM-9 (originally GAR-8) Sidewinder air-to-air missile (AAM), and wingtip fuel tanks with a capacity of 644 liters (170 gallons) each, as well as prove just how well the Starfighter could fly. The YJ79-GE-3 evaluation engines provided 65.9 kN (6,715 kgp / 14,800 lbf) afterburning thrust.

Rocket launch version which could also carry an A-bomb.

The USAF seemed to be more or less sold on the F-104, awarding Lockheed a contract on 2 March 1956 for an initial batch of production aircraft. The contract actually specified four different Starfighter variants:

The "F-104A" single-seat daylight interceptor for the USAF Air Defense Command (ADC).
The "F-104B" two-seat trainer derivative of the F-104A.
The "F-104C" single-seat fighter-bomber for the USAF Tactical Air Command (TAC).
The "F-104D" two-seat trainer variant of the F-104C.

The next month, the Starfighter was finally unveiled to the public, the program having been kept as secret as possible to that time. Initial photographs featured a YF-104 with the intakes covered by neat fairings to conceal the intake cones.

Late in 1956, Lockheed got a contract for a dedicated reconnaissance version of the Starfighter, designated the "RF-104A" and at least informally known as the "Stargazer". However, this contract was cancelled within a few months, the Air Force deciding to focus on the McDonnell RF-101 Voodoo instead.

* The F-104A entered formal USAF service in late February 1958. Its form followed that of the YF-104A, being a dartlike machine with trapezoidal wings, a high tee tail, and tricycle landing gear, though the airframe had been reinforced to handle higher gee stresses. It was powered by a J79-GE-3B turbojet engine, which had similar performance to the earlier -3 and -3A engines used on the YF-104As, but was more reliable. The early J79 variants were badly prone to engine failures; it appears that early F-104A production used the -3A variant, but it was quickly replaced when the -3B became available. The engine could be accessed by pulling off the rear fuselage after undoing four bolts. The Starfighter had been designed to be easy to maintain, and it was regarded as very maintainable by the standards of the time. There was a ram-air turbine (RAT) in a pop-out door on the lower right side of the fuselage, just behind the nose gear, to provide electrical and hydraulic power in case of systems failure.


The wing had twin spars, a leading-edge sweep of 26 degrees, a trailing-edge sweep of 18.1 degrees, a chord (root thickness / length) of 3.36%, and a dihedral of ten degrees to provide stability around the roll axis. The edges were sharp enough to require that they be covered with felt strips during maintenance to keep from gashing the ground crews. Each wing had a full-span leading-edge flap, and a large trailing-edge flap inboard of the aileron. Engine bleed air was fed through a slot on the top of the wing just forward of each trailing-edge flap, with this "blown flaps" or "boundary layer control (BLC)" scheme further improving low-speed handling. The Starfighter was said to have been the first production aircraft to feature BLC. Despite the small wings and the sleek fuselage, the landing speed was comparable to that of existing fighters, though still on the "hot" side, and a ribbon-style brake parachute was fitted, popping out from under the tail of the aircraft.

The high tee tail had conventional rudder with hydraulic power boost, but an all-moving tailplane. The tee configuration was selected to provide a longer "lever arm", improving the effect of the ailerons. It did tend to undermine roll stability, with this effect counteracted by the wing anhedral. That wasn't quite enough, and so the last YF-104A evaluated a ventral fin that was fitted to the F-104A. Some sources claim early production F-104As did not have the ventral fin, but these machines appear to be YF-104As that were brought up to operational spec.

A runway arresting hook was fitted offset to the right and behind the ventral fin, but many pictures of F-104As do not show the arresting hook, and it appears to have been a late addition in production. The introduction and retrofit of features implies that the configuration of the F-104A was something of a moving target; in fact, the precise configuration of early Starfighter variants is a confusing subject, with many small contradictions between sources.

The sole armament of the F-104A was the heat-seeking AIM-9B Sidewinder, with one carried on each wingtip. Wingtip tanks could be carried as well, but of course missile armament could not be carried if the wingtip tanks were fitted. Sources indicate that it could also carry the MB-1 Genie AAM, an unguided weapon with a small nuclear warhead, launched from a trapeze under the fuselage. Apparently this was never more than a trial fit, and if there are any images of a Starfighter with a Genie, they are hard to find.

Japan Airforce, Lockheed F-104J Starfighter

Although the F-104A was to carry the GE Vulcan cannon, firing out a blister on the left side of the fuselage below the cockpit and belt-fed from an ammunition drum with a capacity of 725 rounds, GE was having major problems getting the Vulcan to work. As a result, it was dropped from the F-104A. GE would finally introduce the serviceable M61A1 Vulcan variant in 1959, and F-104As would be gradually refitted with the cannon.

The F-104A could be fitted with a single stores pylon under each wing for use with external tanks, with each underwing tank having a capacity of 739 liters (195 US gallons) each. These underwing pylons were not fitted for carriage of Sidewinder AAMs, and were apparently never used for carrying anything but external tanks. Some sources insist that the F-104A didn't have the underwing pylons, but this is contradicted by manufacturer's drawings.

Avionics included the AN/ASG-14T-1 FCS, a TACAN beacon-navigation system, and radio. There was also an infrared sight, manifested by a little window at the bottom of the windscreen, but sources are very vague about its details. It is an indication of how much more complicated aircraft are today when statistics for an F-104A in contemporary dollars give the price of the entire aircraft as a little over $1.7 million USD, with avionics amounting to only a bit over $3,400 USD of that. These days, that would hardly buy a high-end home high-definition TV system -- much less a state-of-the art fighter radar, navigation and communications system, and countermeasures suite.


153 F-104As were built, not counting the 17 YF-104As, with the last batch accepted by the USAF in December 1958. Some of the YF-104As were brought up to production spec and put into service.

While the Starfighter was being brought into operational service, it was also breaking performance records. On 7 May 1958, USAF Major Howard C. Johnson took the world altitude record, flying a YF-104A to meters (91,249 feet) over Edwards AFB. On 16 May, a YF-104A flown by USAF Captain Walter Irwin set a world speed record, traversing a 15 x 25 kilometer (9.3 x 15.5) mile circuit at Edwards at an average speed of 2,260.75 KPH (1,404.19 MPH). In December 1958, an F-104A flying out of the naval air station at Point Mugu, California, set a series of climb records.

Belgium Air Force, Lockheed F-104G. Starfighter

Greece Air Force, Lockheed F-104G Starfighter

A total of 2,578 F-104s were produced by Lockheed and under license by various foreign manufacturers. Principal variants included:

XF-104 - Two prototype aircraft equipped with Wright J65 engines (the J79 was not yet ready); no operational equipment.
YF-104A - 17 pre-production aircraft used for engine, equipment, and flight testing.
F-104A - 153 initial production versions. In USAF service from 1958 through 1960, then transferred to ANG until 1963 when they were recalled by the USAF Air Defense Command for the 319th and 331st Fighter Interceptor Squadrons. Some were released for export to Jordan, Pakistan, and Taiwan, each of whom used it in combat. In 1967 the 319th F-104As and Bs were re-engined with the J79-GE-19 engines with 17,900 pounds (79.6 kN) of thrust in afterburner. Note: service ceiling with this engine was in excess of 73,000 feet (22,250 m). In 1969 all the F-104A/Bs in ADC service were retired.
NF-104A - Three demilitarized versions with 6,000 lbf (27 kN) Rocketdyne LR121/AR-2-NA-1 rocket engines, used for astronaut training at altitudes up to 120,800 ft (36,830 m). (A December 10, 1963 accident involving Chuck Yeager was depicted in the movie The Right Stuff, although the aircraft in the film was not an actual NF-104A.)
QF-104A - 22 F-104As converted as radio-controlled drones and test aircraft.
F-104B - 26 dual-control trainer versions of F-104A. No cannon and reduced internal fuel, but otherwise combat-capable. A few were supplied to Pakistan and Taiwan.
F-104C - 71 Fighter bomber versions for USAF Tactical Air Command, with improved fire-control radar (AN/ASG-14T-2), centerline and two wing pylons (for a total of five), and ability to carry one Mk 28 or Mk 43 nuclear weapon on centerline pylon. One squadron (476th Tactical Fighter Squadron) served briefly in Vietnam from 1965 to 1967, escorting F-105 Thunderchief missions. No air-to-air kills were scored, although the Starfighters were successful in deterring MiG interceptors. Vietnam-serving F-104s were upgraded in service with APR-25/26 radar warning receiver equipment. Nine were lost in combat.
F-104D - 21 dual-control trainer versions of F-104C.
F-104DJ - 20 dual-control trainer version of F-104J for Japanese Self-Defense Air Force, built by Lockheed rather than Mitsubishi.
F-104F - 30 dual-control trainer based on F-104D, but using the upgraded engine of the F-104G. No radar, and not combat-capable. 30 produced as interim trainers for the Luftwaffe.
F-104G - 1,122 aircraft in major production version as multi-role fighter bomber aircraft. Built by 4 groups of European companies, Canadair and Lockheed. Strengthened fuselage and wings, increased internal fuel capacity, enlarged vertical fin, heavier landing gear, revised flaps for improved combat maneuvering. New Autonetics NASARR F15A-41B radar with air-to-air and air-to-ground modes, Litton LN-3 inertial navigation (the first on a production fighter), infrared sight.
RF-104G - 189 tactical reconnaissance models based on F-104G, usually with three KS-67A cameras mounted in the forward fuselage in place of cannon.
TF-104G - 220 combat-capable trainer version of F-104G; no cannon or centerline pylon, reduced internal fuel. One civil version, civil registration number L104L, was used by Jackie Cochran to set three women€s world speed records in 1964.
F-104J - 178 Japanese version, built under license by Mitsubishi for the air-superiority fighter role, armed with cannon and four Sidewinders; no strike capability.
F-104N - Three F-104Gs delivered to NASA in 1963 for use as high-speed chase aircraft. One, piloted by Joe Walker, collided with the XB-70 on 8 June 1966. (To see its crash site, click here.)
F-104S - 246 Italian versions produced mainly by FIAT, upgraded for interception role with NASARR R-21G/H radar with moving-target indicator and continuous-wave illuminator for SARH missiles (initially AIM-7 Sparrow), two additional wing hardpoints, more powerful J79-GE-19 engine with 11,870 lbf (53 kN) and 17,900 lbf (80 kN) thrust, two additional ventral fins for increased stability. The cannon was sacrificed to make room for the illuminator and was never restored in subsequent variants.
F-104S-ASA (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma - "Weapon Systems Update") - 147 upgraded Italian version with Fiat R21G/M1 radar with frequency hopping, look-down/shoot-down capability, new IFF and weapons delivery computer, provision for AIM-9L all-aspect Sidewinder, Selenia Aspide missiles.
F-104S-ASA/M (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma/Modificato - "Weapon Systems Update/Modified") - 49 single seat and 15 two-seat (former TF-104G) upgraded from 1998 to ASA/M standard with GPS, new TACAN and Litton LN-30A2 INS, refurbished airframe, improved cockpit displays. All strike-related equipment was removed. The last Starfighters in combat service, they were eventually withdrawn in December 2004 and temporarily replaced by the F-16, while awaiting the Eurofighter Typhoon to become fully operational.
CF-104 - 200 Canadian-built versions, built under license by Canadair and optimized for nuclear strike, with NASARR R-24A radar with air-to-air modes and cannon deleted (the cannon was restored after 1972), additional internal fuel cell, and Canadian J79-OEL-7 engines with 10,000 lbf (44 kN) /15,800 lbf (70 kN) thrust. Some later transferred to Denmark, Norway, and Turkey.
CF-104D - 38 dual-control trainer versions of CF-104D, built by Lockheed, but with Canadian J79-OEL-7 engines. Some later transferred to Denmark, Norway, and Turkey.

Italian Air Force, Lockheed F-104G Starfighter

Italy Air Force, Lockheed F-104S Starfighter

General characteristics
Crew: 1
Length: 54 ft 8 in (16.66 m)
Wingspan: 21 ft 9 in (6.36 m)
Height: 13 ft 6 in (4.09 m)
Wing area: 196.1 ft² (18.22 m²)
Airfoil: Biconvex 3.36% root and tip
Empty weight: 14,000 lb (6,350 kg)
Loaded weight: 20,640 lb (9,365 kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 29,027 lb (13,170 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ General Electric J79-GE-11A afterburning turbojet
Dry thrust: 10,000 lbf (48 kN)
Thrust with afterburner: 15,600 lbf (69 kN)
Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0172
Drag area: 3.37 ft² (0.31 m²)
Aspect ratio: 2.45
Maximum speed: 1,328 mph (2,125 km/h)

Combat: 420 mi (670 km)
Ferry: 1,630 mi (2,600 km)
Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,240 m)
Rate of climb: 48,000 ft/min (244 m/s)
Wing loading: 105 lb/ft² (514 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.76
Lift-to-drag ratio: 9.2
1x 20 mm M61 Vulcan with 725 rounds
4x AIM-9 Sidewinder
Up to 4,000 lb (1,815 kg) of bombs, rockets, or other stores on seven hardpoints

Germany Air Force, Lockheed F-104G Starfighter


The Starfighter was commonly called the "missile with a man in it." In service, American pilots called it the "Zipper" or "Zip-104" (because of its prodigious speed).
The Japan Air Self-Defense Force called it Eiko ("glory"), but other export pilots were less charitable, dubbing it "Flying Coffin" or worse.
The German public called it Witwenmacher ("widowmaker"), fliegender Sarg ("flying coffin") or Erdnagel ("ground nail", the official military term for a tent peg). The Pakistani AF name was Badmash ("hooligan"), while among Italian pilots its spiky design earned it the nickname Spillone ("hatpin"), along with bara volante ("flying coffin", again). Canadian pilots sometimes referred to it as the flying lawn dart.
The engine made a unique howling sound at certain throttle settings which led some to call the Starfighter Howling Howland. At certain low speeds with high engine RPM the aircraft produced a pronounced oscillating whine as the wings rocked from side to side.
In Canada this was referred to as the "Whistling Wing Walk".



06-23-2006, 12:18 PM
Gloster Javelin.


Good site here for this handsome aircraft.

http://www.btinternet.com/~javelin/ (http://www.btinternet.com/%7Ejavelin/)