PDA

View Full Version : Origami Warfare- Japanese plan attacks on US,CA, Mex. mainlands.



Copperhead310th
02-12-2004, 03:25 AM
from an artical i was reading on the net. lost the page so i cant provide a link.

Origami Warfare

The Doolittle raid of 1942 was not a wild success, militarily speaking, but it did produce a number of results. Perhaps the most curious of these was the Japanese bombardment of North America that began in November 1944.

Japan has long been known for beautiful handmade paper and art objects made of paper, a technique known as Origami. However, in 1944 a new use of paper was brought to the attention of the world, huge paper balloons filled with hydrogen were used to carry antipersonnel and incendiary bombs from Japan to the USA, Canada and Mexico.

The balloons were marvelous devices, they took two years to perfect and required the development of several new technologies, including mechanized production of previously handmade paper, pressure sensors, detonators, antifreeze batteries, and cold resistant rubber for the balloon fittings. Competition between the Japanese Army and Navy was intense, each desired to gain prestige by producing the first viable balloon bomb.

The Naval, or "B-type", balloon was of rubberized silk, with a constant internal volume and a stable flight altitude. This version was not used in bombing missions, it was expensive to produce and war time shortages made the rubber very hard to come by. It also had a much smaller payload than the paper balloons.

Balloon research was consolidated in the spring of 1944 and focussed on the Army's "A-type", or paper balloon. The balloons that were eventually launched were made of four layers of long fiber paper which were cemented together with a paste made from a vegetable called konnyaku-nori, which is similar to a potato. When cut into shaped panels, hand sewn together and lacquered, the completed balloons had a circumference of about 10 meters (32.8 feet) and weighed about 152 pounds. Each balloon was girdled with a scalloped band to which shroud lines were attached and from which the gondola depended.

The gondola carried an impressive array of meteorological and radio equipment, ballast and ballast release mechanisms and other equipment designed to control the altitude of the balloon on its long journey across the Pacific Ocean to America. It also carried the bomb payload.

The balloons are known to have carried three types of bombs, two varieties of incendiary and one high explosive antipersonnel device. The smaller incendiary weighed 5 kilograms (about 11.5 pounds while the larger was 12 kilograms (about 27 lbs.) , containing three magnesium fire-pots. The high explosive bomb was 15 kilos, (about 33 lbs.). The payload varied from balloon to balloon but the average seems to have been one large bomb (either incendiary or antipersonnel) and four of the smaller incendiaries.

Manufacture of the balloons was an intricate process and subject to very stringent security, as were the launches. However, the task of keeping the secret was made rather easier by the simple fact that the idea of a bombing raid by balloon was so absurd no one would have believed it anyway.

A great deal of weather research was carried out to determine the feasibility of balloon bombs and it was eventually determined that the winter jet streams would have the best chance of conveying the balloon to their destination. Local frontal systems and wind conditions determined the times when balloons could be launched. Considering that it took thirty men about an hour to fill and release one balloon and only about 50 good days could be counted upon during those crucial winter months it may easily be seen that this was no trivial undertaking. The careful calculation of where and when to launch, however, paid off. Only two balloons ever returned to their native soil.

The original battle plans called for 10,000 balloons to be sent aloft. For a number of reasons only about 9,000 were launched, beginning November 3, 1944 and ending in early April , 1945. The vast majority of these proved to be failures, only about 285 balloons actually reached North America. The geographical distribution was large, balloons were found as far north as the Aleutian Islands, as far inland as the Manitoba-Ontario border in Canada, and as far south as the Mexican border.

The balloon bombs were, of course, an offensive weapon. They were also designed to be a weapon of terror, a silent menace from the skies that would land, undetected, to kill Americans and set fire to the mighty forests of the west coast. Japanese propaganda broadcasts boasted of tens of thousands of deaths and huge conflagrations caused by their unique weapon but in point of fact no fires were reported, a few horses died after eating one of the acid battery packs, and six picnickers were killed in May 1945, largely by accident, when they pulled a downed balloon out of a tree.

The American military had been aware of the bombs as early as November 4, 1944, when the first balloon was pulled from the sea by a navy patrol craft. The military authorities were puzzled but not alarmed until about six weeks later when balloons were recovered far inland. A policy of silence was adopted, to avoid the panic the Japanese were hoping for. This deprived Japan of the weapon of terror and was the direct cause of the cessation of the balloon bomb program. It was a remarkable display of self control on the part of the American Press.

The sand in the ballast bags was examined to determine the origins of the balloons, as were all other components. These test proved to be very accurate and were much more successful in locating the launch sites on the southern edge of Honshu (near Tokyo) than were American efforts to develop a defense against the balloons. Because they were so slow they proved to be amazingly difficult to shoot down and were very difficult to locate by radar. A public education campaign ensured there were no more civilian casualties. The best defense, however, proved to be silence, the Japanese became discouraged and gave up on their unique and silent killers.

http://imageshack.us/files/copper%20sig%20with%20rank.jpg
310th FS & 380th BG website (http://www.members.tripod.com/tophatssquadron)

Copperhead310th
02-12-2004, 03:25 AM
from an artical i was reading on the net. lost the page so i cant provide a link.

Origami Warfare

The Doolittle raid of 1942 was not a wild success, militarily speaking, but it did produce a number of results. Perhaps the most curious of these was the Japanese bombardment of North America that began in November 1944.

Japan has long been known for beautiful handmade paper and art objects made of paper, a technique known as Origami. However, in 1944 a new use of paper was brought to the attention of the world, huge paper balloons filled with hydrogen were used to carry antipersonnel and incendiary bombs from Japan to the USA, Canada and Mexico.

The balloons were marvelous devices, they took two years to perfect and required the development of several new technologies, including mechanized production of previously handmade paper, pressure sensors, detonators, antifreeze batteries, and cold resistant rubber for the balloon fittings. Competition between the Japanese Army and Navy was intense, each desired to gain prestige by producing the first viable balloon bomb.

The Naval, or "B-type", balloon was of rubberized silk, with a constant internal volume and a stable flight altitude. This version was not used in bombing missions, it was expensive to produce and war time shortages made the rubber very hard to come by. It also had a much smaller payload than the paper balloons.

Balloon research was consolidated in the spring of 1944 and focussed on the Army's "A-type", or paper balloon. The balloons that were eventually launched were made of four layers of long fiber paper which were cemented together with a paste made from a vegetable called konnyaku-nori, which is similar to a potato. When cut into shaped panels, hand sewn together and lacquered, the completed balloons had a circumference of about 10 meters (32.8 feet) and weighed about 152 pounds. Each balloon was girdled with a scalloped band to which shroud lines were attached and from which the gondola depended.

The gondola carried an impressive array of meteorological and radio equipment, ballast and ballast release mechanisms and other equipment designed to control the altitude of the balloon on its long journey across the Pacific Ocean to America. It also carried the bomb payload.

The balloons are known to have carried three types of bombs, two varieties of incendiary and one high explosive antipersonnel device. The smaller incendiary weighed 5 kilograms (about 11.5 pounds while the larger was 12 kilograms (about 27 lbs.) , containing three magnesium fire-pots. The high explosive bomb was 15 kilos, (about 33 lbs.). The payload varied from balloon to balloon but the average seems to have been one large bomb (either incendiary or antipersonnel) and four of the smaller incendiaries.

Manufacture of the balloons was an intricate process and subject to very stringent security, as were the launches. However, the task of keeping the secret was made rather easier by the simple fact that the idea of a bombing raid by balloon was so absurd no one would have believed it anyway.

A great deal of weather research was carried out to determine the feasibility of balloon bombs and it was eventually determined that the winter jet streams would have the best chance of conveying the balloon to their destination. Local frontal systems and wind conditions determined the times when balloons could be launched. Considering that it took thirty men about an hour to fill and release one balloon and only about 50 good days could be counted upon during those crucial winter months it may easily be seen that this was no trivial undertaking. The careful calculation of where and when to launch, however, paid off. Only two balloons ever returned to their native soil.

The original battle plans called for 10,000 balloons to be sent aloft. For a number of reasons only about 9,000 were launched, beginning November 3, 1944 and ending in early April , 1945. The vast majority of these proved to be failures, only about 285 balloons actually reached North America. The geographical distribution was large, balloons were found as far north as the Aleutian Islands, as far inland as the Manitoba-Ontario border in Canada, and as far south as the Mexican border.

The balloon bombs were, of course, an offensive weapon. They were also designed to be a weapon of terror, a silent menace from the skies that would land, undetected, to kill Americans and set fire to the mighty forests of the west coast. Japanese propaganda broadcasts boasted of tens of thousands of deaths and huge conflagrations caused by their unique weapon but in point of fact no fires were reported, a few horses died after eating one of the acid battery packs, and six picnickers were killed in May 1945, largely by accident, when they pulled a downed balloon out of a tree.

The American military had been aware of the bombs as early as November 4, 1944, when the first balloon was pulled from the sea by a navy patrol craft. The military authorities were puzzled but not alarmed until about six weeks later when balloons were recovered far inland. A policy of silence was adopted, to avoid the panic the Japanese were hoping for. This deprived Japan of the weapon of terror and was the direct cause of the cessation of the balloon bomb program. It was a remarkable display of self control on the part of the American Press.

The sand in the ballast bags was examined to determine the origins of the balloons, as were all other components. These test proved to be very accurate and were much more successful in locating the launch sites on the southern edge of Honshu (near Tokyo) than were American efforts to develop a defense against the balloons. Because they were so slow they proved to be amazingly difficult to shoot down and were very difficult to locate by radar. A public education campaign ensured there were no more civilian casualties. The best defense, however, proved to be silence, the Japanese became discouraged and gave up on their unique and silent killers.

http://imageshack.us/files/copper%20sig%20with%20rank.jpg
310th FS & 380th BG website (http://www.members.tripod.com/tophatssquadron)